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The Complexity of the E-waste Problem What is e-waste – and why is it The Complexity of the E-waste Problem What is e-waste – and why is it an issue? SBC e-Waste Africa Project Secretariat of the Basel Convention

e-Waste @ Empa ■ Since 20 years Empa assists e-waste management systems in Switzerland e-Waste @ Empa ■ Since 20 years Empa assists e-waste management systems in Switzerland abroad (e-Waste Team 8 / 800) ■ Auditing and R&D for the Swiss system operators SENS, SWICO ■ Representing Switzerland in the forum of the European e-waste takeback systems (European WEEE Forum) ■ Leading the task force “Recycling” of the UN initiative “Solving the Ewaste Problem (St. EP)” ■ Leading cooperation projects with partners in Africa, Asia and Latin America ■ Related research © Empa/Switzerland, 20 July 2009 2

International cooperation in e-waste management Guiyu Dakar Bangalore Bogotá © Empa/Switzerland, 20 July 2009 International cooperation in e-waste management Guiyu Dakar Bangalore Bogotá © Empa/Switzerland, 20 July 2009 3 Cape Town

Sustainable Recycling Industries (new programme funded by Swiss SECO)) Capacity Building Policies & Standards Sustainable Recycling Industries (new programme funded by Swiss SECO)) Capacity Building Policies & Standards for Responsible Recycling (global) India South Africa Hazardous substances in (WEEE) plastics Recycling of cooling and freezing appliances Ghana & Egypt Sustainable management of e-waste Life Cycle Inventories (Brazil, Egypt, India, South Africa) © Empa/Switzerland, 20 July 2009 4

What is e-waste? ■ E-waste = WEEE = Waste Electric and Electronic Equipment ■ What is e-waste? ■ E-waste = WEEE = Waste Electric and Electronic Equipment ■ According to the EU WEEE Directive, e-waste can be: © Empa/Switzerland, 20 July 2009 5

Key message 1 E-waste is the fastest groing waste stream © Empa/Switzerland, 20 July Key message 1 E-waste is the fastest groing waste stream © Empa/Switzerland, 20 July 2009 6

E-waste is the fastest groing waste stream 2012 total: ~45 mln tonnes Source: Huisman E-waste is the fastest groing waste stream 2012 total: ~45 mln tonnes Source: Huisman 2012 © Empa/Switzerland, 20 July 2009 7

Developing countries are becoming large e-waste producers as well ■ Estimated future computer waste Developing countries are becoming large e-waste producers as well ■ Estimated future computer waste generation for Tanzania Source: Magashi and Schluep 2011 © Empa/Switzerland, 20 July 2009 8

Example e-waste generation in Nigeria / Ghana Breakdown of imports new Breakdown of WEEE Example e-waste generation in Nigeria / Ghana Breakdown of imports new Breakdown of WEEE arising Domestic e-waste Approx 650, 000 tonnes E-waste from used EEE of unclear quality Approx 350, 000 tonnes directly imported ewaste Approx 250, 000 tonnes (~5% of WEEE in EU 15) used - good quality used - bad quality broken / repairable broken / not repairable © Empa/Switzerland, 20 July 2009 9 Source: SBC 2012

Key message 2 E-waste can contain hazardous substances and its improper treatment leads to Key message 2 E-waste can contain hazardous substances and its improper treatment leads to adverse effects for human health and the environment © Empa/Switzerland, 20 July 2009 10

Hazardous substances in EEE Substance Occurence in EEE Possible adverse effects PBDEs, PBBs Flame Hazardous substances in EEE Substance Occurence in EEE Possible adverse effects PBDEs, PBBs Flame retardants in plastics Hormonal effects, under thermal treatment possible formation of dioxines and furanes Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) Condensers, transformers Cancer, effects on the immune system, reproductive system, nervous system, endocrine system and other health effects Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) Cooling units, insulation foam deleterious effect on the ozone layer -> increased incidence of skin cancer / genetic damage Americium (Am) Smoke detectors radioactive element Antimony Flame retardants in plastics carcinogenic potential Arsenic gallium arsenide inlight emitting diodes skin diseases, decrease nerve conduction velocity, lung cancer Barium Getters in CRT brain swelling, muscle weakness, damage to the heart, liver and spleen Cadmium Ni. Cd-batteries, fluorescent layer (CRT screens), printer inks and toners symptoms of poisoning (weakness, fever, headache, chills, sweating and muscular pain), lung cancer and kidney damage Chromium VI Data tapes, floppy-disks irritating to eyes, skin and mucous membranes, DNA damage Lead CRT screens, batteries, printed wiring boards vomiting, diarrhea, convulsions, coma or even death, appetite loss, abdominal pain, constipation, fatigue, sleeplessness, irritability and headache Mercury Fluorescent lamps, some alkaline brain and liver damage batteries, switches 11 © Empa/Switzerland, 20 July 2009

Improper treatment of e-waste (e. g. India / China) Improper treatment of e-waste (e. g. India / China)

Issues related to improper treatment of e-waste Ref: Sepúlveda, A, Schluep M, et al. Issues related to improper treatment of e-waste Ref: Sepúlveda, A, Schluep M, et al. 2010. A review of the environmental fate and effects of hazardous substances released from electrical and electronic equipments during recycling: Examples from China and India. Environmental Impact Assessment Review. 30(1): 28– 41. © Empa/Switzerland, 29 March 2011 13

Example dioxine emissions from cable burning ■ Dioxine emission from cable burning is one Example dioxine emissions from cable burning ■ Dioxine emission from cable burning is one of the main issues in many developing countries ■ Observation Accra/Ghana ■ ■ ~200 kg cable are burnt per hour 10 -20% from e-waste (rest mainly from cars) ■ Extrapolated to West Africa 3 -7 % of total European Dioxine emissions to air © Empa/Switzerland, 29 March 2011 14

Key message 3 E-waste contains valuable resources which offers opportunities for urban mining and Key message 3 E-waste contains valuable resources which offers opportunities for urban mining and job creation © Empa/Switzerland, 20 July 2009 15

At least 57 elements are used in EEE Nicht gleich Wert (Source: Behrendt et At least 57 elements are used in EEE Nicht gleich Wert (Source: Behrendt et al. 2007) © Empa/Switzerland, 20 July 2009 16

Opportunities in e-waste © Empa/Switzerland, 20 July 2009 17 Opportunities in e-waste © Empa/Switzerland, 20 July 2009 17

Primary vs. secondary ore deposits Primary Ore [g/t] Secondary Ore [g/t] Device PWB 9 Primary vs. secondary ore deposits Primary Ore [g/t] Secondary Ore [g/t] Device PWB 9 280 1’ 400 Palladium 5 73 370 Platinum 3 3 14 Gallium 100 23 118 Lithium 7’ 000 -20’ 000 © Empa/Switzerland, 20 July 2009 18 10’ 000 -20’ 000 (Battery) Source: Empa, Graedel Gold

Conclusion ■ Key message 1: E-waste is the fastest groing waste stream ■ Key Conclusion ■ Key message 1: E-waste is the fastest groing waste stream ■ Key message 2: E-waste can contain hazardous substances and its improper treatment leads to adverse effects for human health and the environment ■ Key message 3: E-waste contains valuable resources which offers opportunities for urban mining and job creation © Empa/Switzerland, 20 July 2009 19

Thank you! Dr. Mathias Schluep Empa Lerchenfeldstrasse 5 9014 St. Gallen SWITZERLAND mathias. schluep@empa. Thank you! Dr. Mathias Schluep Empa Lerchenfeldstrasse 5 9014 St. Gallen SWITZERLAND mathias. [email protected] ch Technology & Society Lab: www. empa. ch/tsl Swiss e-Waste Programme: www. ewasteguide. info © Empa/Switzerland, 20 July 2009 20