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The Cold War The Cold War

What is the Cold War? • Period of no war between major powers 1945 What is the Cold War? • Period of no war between major powers 1945 -1989 • Intense hostility between the two super powers: US and USSR

Post-WWII Order Spheres of influence Solve the “German Problem” – Occupation zones – Nuremberg Post-WWII Order Spheres of influence Solve the “German Problem” – Occupation zones – Nuremberg trials – Assistance – European integration The United Nations – UN Security Council

The Beginning: Cold War Escalation Stalin consolidates power over Poland Czechoslovakia US gains influence The Beginning: Cold War Escalation Stalin consolidates power over Poland Czechoslovakia US gains influence over Turkey and Greece Marshall Plan (1947) Unification of Western Germany begins Berlin Blockade (1948 -1949) NATO (1949) Nuclear arms race

Berlin vv Berlin vv

War of Ideologies Communism and Soviet Policy – “X” “The Sources of Soviet Conduct” War of Ideologies Communism and Soviet Policy – “X” “The Sources of Soviet Conduct” Containment: “…Soviet pressure against the free institutions of the Western world is something that can be contained by the adroit and vigilant application of counter-force at a series of constantly shifting geographical and political points. ” (Kennan 1947). Truman Doctrine (1947) – Protect freedom against Soviet communism Policies to implement containment – Economic assistance – Support of anti-communist groups – Limited war

Iron Curtain Iron Curtain

Soviet Sphere of Influence Military assistance and economic subsidies – The Warsaw Pact – Soviet Sphere of Influence Military assistance and economic subsidies – The Warsaw Pact – Council of Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) Ideology Support communist governments Power and control – Hungary 1956 – Czechoslovakia 1968

US Sphere of Influence Assistance – Marshall Plan – Western Hemisphere – Middle East US Sphere of Influence Assistance – Marshall Plan – Western Hemisphere – Middle East and Africa Ideology – containment, liberty Use of force – Bay of Pigs, Cuba (1961) – Korean War, Vietnam war – Chile, Guatemala, etc.

War Averted: The Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) Shots of Soviet missile sites in Cuba War Averted: The Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) Shots of Soviet missile sites in Cuba taken by US reconnaissance plains Khrushchev and Kennedy face-off in the UN US’s options – “Surgical strikes” – Blockade of Cuba – Appeasement Kennedy Administration chooses blockade Soviets back off Hotline White House-Kremlin

Nuclear Weapons 1945: Hiroshima and Nagasaki 1949: Soviet AB explosion Today: 1 missile=100 Hiroshima Nuclear Weapons 1945: Hiroshima and Nagasaki 1949: Soviet AB explosion Today: 1 missile=100 Hiroshima bombs Nuclear deterrence

Nuclear Cooperation Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (1969 -1972); SALT II (1972 -1979) Antiballistic Missile Nuclear Cooperation Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (1969 -1972); SALT II (1972 -1979) Antiballistic Missile Treaty (ABM), 1972 – Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD) – US walked out in 2002: Strategic Defense Initiative

Why No WWIII? Nuclear deterrence – Anticipate catastrophic consequences – Stigma against using nuclear Why No WWIII? Nuclear deterrence – Anticipate catastrophic consequences – Stigma against using nuclear weapons – No second strike capability (ABM treaty 1972) Prevent escalation of conflict at every point Strong anti-war sentiment in both USSR and US Bipolar structure plus reconnaissance revolution – relatively simple to manage

The Fall of the Berlin Wall The Fall of the Berlin Wall

The End of the Cold War Failure of structural theories? Perestroika and the Velvet The End of the Cold War Failure of structural theories? Perestroika and the Velvet Revolutions – – – Gorbachev in power Domestic reforms – perestroika and glasnost Semi free elections in Poland Velvet revolutions across Easter Europe Berlin wall opened: 1989