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The Cold War Topic B Learning Guide 5 1 The Cold War Topic B Learning Guide 5 1

Q 1. By the end of WWII which counties were considered the Big Three? Q 1. By the end of WWII which counties were considered the Big Three? Truman – USA Stalin - USSR Clement – Britain 2

COLD WAR ERA 1950’s – “age of the Bomb shelter” (Eisenhower Era) • 1960’s COLD WAR ERA 1950’s – “age of the Bomb shelter” (Eisenhower Era) • 1960’s – Kissinger gave us détente 3

1970’s—”Doomsday clock” moves closer to 12 midnight. 2002 7 MINUTES TO MIDNIGHT 1947 A 1970’s—”Doomsday clock” moves closer to 12 midnight. 2002 7 MINUTES TO MIDNIGHT 1947 A symbol of nuclear danger created by the bulletin of Atomic Scientists 4

Doomsday Clock Graph 5 Doomsday Clock Graph 5

1980’s an initial “freeze” because of Soviet invasion of Afghanistan (1979) 6 1980’s an initial “freeze” because of Soviet invasion of Afghanistan (1979) 6

1985 Since Gorbachev has come to power there has been a “thaw” and a 1985 Since Gorbachev has come to power there has been a “thaw” and a new era of détente. 7

THE COLD WAR • “COLD WAR” – tense mood in international relations following the THE COLD WAR • “COLD WAR” – tense mood in international relations following the close of WWII • USA vs. USSR –”Super Powers” • Capitalist vs. Communism • Each side attacked the other, using propaganda, military alliances, politics and economics as their weapons 8

HOW THE COLD WAR DEVELOPED • The two superpowers – – – suspicious and HOW THE COLD WAR DEVELOPED • The two superpowers – – – suspicious and afraid of each other mainly because of political, economical, and social differences Ideological struggle Western Bloc vs. Eastern Bloc 1. Russian Revolution in 1917 1. When Germany was defeated in 1945 USSR of each others aims. American opposition USA & 9

3. • • • 4. 1944 – 1947 Soviet Union gained and kept control 3. • • • 4. 1944 – 1947 Soviet Union gained and kept control of several countries in Eastern Europe Bulgaria Romania East Germany Poland Czechoslovakia Soviet Fear of the “atomic bomb” used by the Americans in 1945 on Nagasaki & Hiroshima 10

W E • Berlin Eastern Bloc Western Bloc Iron Curtain 11 W E • Berlin Eastern Bloc Western Bloc Iron Curtain 11

ed en Sw No rw ay suspicious and afraid of each other mainly because ed en Sw No rw ay suspicious and afraid of each other mainly because of political, economical, and social Murmansk differences Stockholm Es ton ia Bornholm Lith La t uan via ia Frankfurt Vienna Trieste 12

THE ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR • FLOW CHART: FILL IN 13 THE ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR • FLOW CHART: FILL IN 13

METHODS OF COLD WAR (How the Cold War was Fought) METHOD POSSIBLE RESULT ALLIANCES METHODS OF COLD WAR (How the Cold War was Fought) METHOD POSSIBLE RESULT ALLIANCES • Divides the world into two armed camps • Increases the likelihood of total war • NATO – WARSAW PACT 1955 - 1991 ARMS RACE • Increases the likelihood of armed confrontation • Increase in arms spending occurs • Money which could be used for economic development or social programs would be spent on arm developments. (nuclear) SPACE RACE/ DEFENCE SYSTEMS • Arms race may move into space • Tensions could increase as technology expands PROPAGANDA • Human Rights vs. Corrupt Government (USSR) (USA) INFORMATION WAR • Spies, microphones, films 14

Q 2. Describe the percentage agreement. Which European nations were affected by these agreements? Q 2. Describe the percentage agreement. Which European nations were affected by these agreements? Percentage agreement – the division of the Balkans and Europe by the allies and Stalin USSR to control 50% of Yugoslavia & Hungary (soviet satellite) 90% of Romania (soviet satellite) 75% of Bulgaria (soviet satellite) Britain + USA to control 90% of Greece 50% of Yugoslavia & Hungary 15

Q 3. Majority control came to mean Total control • USSR--- liberated one Eastern Q 3. Majority control came to mean Total control • USSR--- liberated one Eastern European country after another. • “Sphere of Influence: --- who had control over an area • The liberation of countries went against the American Policy of “self-determination” 16

Q 4. Name three issues that defied resolutions at Potsdam in 1945. Compare the Q 4. Name three issues that defied resolutions at Potsdam in 1945. Compare the positions of the USA and the former USSR on these issues. 1. Peace treaties, boundaries • Who would control Poland & its boundaries • USA want London Poles re-instated • Stalin wants the Lubtin Poles (pro-soviet) to stay in power 2. Types of governments in eastern Europe • Couldn’t agree on control of Germany and Poland 3. Final conditions of German disarmament & control over industries • Division of Germany/Berlin remained the same as in Yalta (4 zones France, USA, Britain, USSR) Beginning of a bi-polar system 17

Q 9. The Balance of Power Types: 1. Simple -----balance between equals Triple Alliance Q 9. The Balance of Power Types: 1. Simple -----balance between equals Triple Alliance vs. the Triple Entente 2. Bipolar------ between the Super powers USA v. s the USSR ---- Cold War(opposing opinion) 3. Regional ------NATO / WARSAW Pact Western Bloc vs. the Eastern Bloc 18

Q 9 Motivation: 1. SECURITY • NORAD: continental Defense system (Canada & the USA Q 9 Motivation: 1. SECURITY • NORAD: continental Defense system (Canada & the USA 2. STABILITY • Yalta conference 1945 3. SURVIAL • NAZI-SOVIET PACT 1939 19

Q 9 • • • TECHNIQUES Containment----Vietnam Alliances Appeasement Brinkmanship-------Cuban Missile Crises Isolationism Spheres Q 9 • • • TECHNIQUES Containment----Vietnam Alliances Appeasement Brinkmanship-------Cuban Missile Crises Isolationism Spheres of influence 20

Q 5. What was the Polish question? • West unwilling to confront Stalin • Q 5. What was the Polish question? • West unwilling to confront Stalin • Who would govern Poland? • Where would Poland’s boundaries be? • Leaders Stalin, Churchill, Roosevelt • Western Border Oder-Neisse Line – forced the relocation of 6 -9 mil. Germans from German occupied regions i. e. East Prussia 21

Q 6. What does the phrase Iron Curtain refer to and how did Churchill Q 6. What does the phrase Iron Curtain refer to and how did Churchill portray the former Soviet Union in his Iron Curtain speech? • The division between East and West Europe • Encroaching • Speech was in response to the refusal of the Soviets to remove occupation forces from Europe 22

Q 7. Retrieval Chart Truman Doctrine. • H. O. • • Help Greece against Q 7. Retrieval Chart Truman Doctrine. • H. O. • • Help Greece against the communist (money & arms) Helped the democratic government of Greece • A means of protecting spheres of influence • Created a conflict between achieving containment and respecting national sovereignty 23

Marshal Plan Map 24 Marshal Plan Map 24

Q 8. Retrieval Chart: The Marshal Plan and the Soviet Response to the Marshall Q 8. Retrieval Chart: The Marshal Plan and the Soviet Response to the Marshall Plan. American foreign policy had to address two issues at the end of WWII: how to contain the spread of communism and how to restore those countries destroyed by war. The philosophy of “containment” was defined in an influential article written by George F. Kennan for the journal Foreign Affairs. He argued that communism must not be allowed to expand into other territories. The plan only supported efficient industries and was designed to create independence between nations The marshal plan, first describe by General George Marshall in a Harvard commencement speech, called for the USA to make available the foods and the technology necessary to restore war ravaged economies. Its goal was the creation of a unified Europe. It was thought that political union somewhat like the Untied States might follow economic integration. 25

The Marshal Plan • Also know as the European Recovery Program • A concern The Marshal Plan • Also know as the European Recovery Program • A concern over the economic collapse of Europe (Great Britain & France) which would leave the USA to hold Western Europe single-handed against the USSR. • 1948 to mid. 1952 – $13 billion distributed in the for of direct aid, loan guarantees, grants & necessities from medicine to mules. of dollars for economic recovery ---- in return these countries would buy American goods (Tied Aid) 26

Soviet Reaction to Marshall Plan • Creation of its own economic program for eastern Soviet Reaction to Marshall Plan • Creation of its own economic program for eastern bloc countries – Cominform (Communist Information Bureau) – or Comecon (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance) • Stalin established Communist governments in Eastern Europe ---wants tighter control • Created in response to the divergences among the eastern European governments on whether to attend the Paris conference on Marshal Aid in July 1947 • Distribution of propaganda to demonstrate the unity and encourage international communist solidarity of its members 27

Cont. Soviet Reaction to Marshall Plan • Intended purpose to coordinate actions between Communist Cont. Soviet Reaction to Marshall Plan • Intended purpose to coordinate actions between Communist Parties under USSR direction • In 1948 the Cominform expelled the Yugoslav Communist party because of the defiance by Marshal Tito of Soviet supremacy. • A means of protecting spheres of influence • Dissolved 1956 28

Q 10. Movements of independence within the Communist Block Questions 1 -4 LG pg Q 10. Movements of independence within the Communist Block Questions 1 -4 LG pg 23, 24, 25 29

Q 11. Retrieval Chart: The Berlin Blockade June 1948 – May 1949 Both want Q 11. Retrieval Chart: The Berlin Blockade June 1948 – May 1949 Both want to demonstrate their super powers) Causes • Truman Document • Conflict of interest on what was to happen to Germany. – Soviets did not was a separate West German Government. Events • USA Congress vote in favor of Marshal Aid • USSR view this as an attempt at undermining Soviet influence in Eastern Europe • Steps were made to unit the three western zones into a separate West German Federal Republic (part of the Plan for the economic recovery of non-communist Western Europe. • USSR view it as an attempt at creating a new stronger Germany 30

Cont. Q 11. Retrieval Chart: The Berlin Blockade • June 1948 --Implementation of a Cont. Q 11. Retrieval Chart: The Berlin Blockade • June 1948 --Implementation of a new currency (the Deutschmark) in West Germany to replace the old Reichsmark – USSR see it as an attempt to destroy East German Economy • USSR introduce their own currency or the eastern bloc • 1948 Soviets staged a blockade of West Berlin by cutting off all railway and road access to the 3 Western sectors of Berlin. • The Soviets hoped to secure economic control of all Berlin and Force the Western powers to drop the creation of a separate West German state 31

Cont. Q 11. Retrieval Chart: The Berlin Blockade • The west did not use Cont. Q 11. Retrieval Chart: The Berlin Blockade • The west did not use military force in breaking the blockade as to do so may provoke WWIII. • Instead the West banked on the Berlin Air Lift as a solution to deliver thousands of tons of supplies which were flown daily to Berlin • The USA was not going to be intimidated Brinkmanship • As the blockade continued into 1949, the governments of the USA & Western Europe formed NATO Collective Security 32

Cont. Q 11. • The soviets were anxious to avoid war and finally lifted Cont. Q 11. • The soviets were anxious to avoid war and finally lifted the blockade in May 1949 detente • September 1949: West German Federal Republic 33

Berlin Airlift Cartoon • Many military operations involved sitting around for long periods of Berlin Airlift Cartoon • Many military operations involved sitting around for long periods of time while important preparations were made. The Berlin Airlift was no exception. This was not a relaxing time. Aircrews had to sit around waiting tensely for their flight to begin. • Several American cartoonists commented on this problem. One anonymous cartoonist produced the famous Fassberg diary. This was a joke diary of the Berlin Blockade, and ended with the fliers still transporting goods into Berlin in the year 3200! • This cartoon was by Sergeant Jake Schuffert. He drew cartoons most days in the Task Force Times. This was the newspaper produced by the US government especially for the Berlin Airlift and blockade. 34

Berlin Wall Cartoon This cartoon was drawn by the artist John Jensen for the Berlin Wall Cartoon This cartoon was drawn by the artist John Jensen for the Sunday Telegraph newspaper, August 26 th 1962. Most British newspapers were hostile to Communism and all were critical of the building of the Wall. The Telegraph was particularly hostile to Communism. The context of this cartoon is important. The date was roughly the 1 st anniversary of the wall being put up. More importantly, the most high profile victim of the wall was an 18 year old East German boy called Peter Fechter. He was shot trying to cross by East German border guards. He bled to death while East German guards looked on and West German guards were forbidden to go and help him. The figure sitting on the body is Khrushchev. The figure with the quill pen is East German Communist leader Walter Ulbricht. 35

Q 12. NATO Warsaw Pact Compare the origins, memberships and goals of NATO and Q 12. NATO Warsaw Pact Compare the origins, memberships and goals of NATO and the Warsaw Pact. Map these alliances NATO 1949 • Evolved as a result of the Berlin Blockade (demonstrated USSR was a direct threat to Western Europe) • Designed to provide security & counter any potential act of aggression in particular USSR aggression • Stop Soviet expansion with collective resistance (collective defense) Stipulated an attack on one was and attack against all 36

Q 12. NATO • Goal was to present a psychological barrier • Secure a Q 12. NATO • Goal was to present a psychological barrier • Secure a military balance with the USSR in Europe • Strengthen USA position in Europe USA --- rearm Europe --- assume the leadership role Never before had the American joined an alliance in peacetime • UN did not give guarantees of peace • Belgium, Luxemburg, Great Britain, France, Netherlands, Denmark, Iceland, Italy, Norway, Canada, USA, Greece, Spain, Turkey 37

Q 12. con. t. Warsaw Pact 1955 • Evolved as a result of NATO Q 12. con. t. Warsaw Pact 1955 • Evolved as a result of NATO • Come to the aid of other members if attacked by western countries East Germany, Romania, Albania, Poland, Hungary, USSR, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria 38

Q 13. Other Military Alliances ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES (OAS) • Established to achieve Q 13. Other Military Alliances ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES (OAS) • Established to achieve “peace and justice, security, consolidate representative democracy promote American Solidarity. ” • American dominated designed to resist communism 39

Cont. Q 13. Other Military Alliances SOUTH EAST ASIA TREATY ORGANIZATION (SEATO) • 1954 Cont. Q 13. Other Military Alliances SOUTH EAST ASIA TREATY ORGANIZATION (SEATO) • 1954 • Pact---USA, Australia, New Zealand, Philippines, Thailand, Pakistan, Britain, & France • Defense – Provide for mutual action in the event of an attack or internal subversion – Oppose further communist gains in South East Asia. A key in the American policy of containment – dissolved 1977 40

Dulles secretary of State / Eisenhower • Dulles role was to stop what he Dulles secretary of State / Eisenhower • Dulles role was to stop what he believed was a Communist plot to take over the world • Helped in the formation of (SEATO) • Wanted to “liberate” people from Communist regimes l Dulles began a policy of “brinkmanship” – ready to go to war at anytime with the USSR l One of the pioneers of MAD (mutually assured destruction) l Threatened a “massive retaliation” using H-bombs to contain Soviet aggression l Dulles's promises of support were mostly overstated---exposed when USSR crushed the Hungarian uprising 41

Cont. Q 13. Other Military Alliances NORTH AMERICAN AIR DEFENCE COMMAND • 1957 ---- Cont. Q 13. Other Military Alliances NORTH AMERICAN AIR DEFENCE COMMAND • 1957 ---- Canada & USA • Established nuclear tracking, warning and control stations across the Northern Arctic. • Surface – to – air missiles with nuclear warheads introduce • 1981 NORAD changes its name to North American Aerospace Defense Command (NAADC) 42

REASONS FOR BEING IN NATO & NORAD Positive 1. We are able to sit REASONS FOR BEING IN NATO & NORAD Positive 1. We are able to sit with the worlds powers, thus increasing Canadian influence in World affairs and with trading partners 2. We are often consulted on European affairs. 3. We are often seen as a middle power that can help to diffuse some volatile situations. 4. We are under he protective umbrella of the worlds super power. 43

NEGATIVE 1. Our military contributions are limited and becoming less with the closing of NEGATIVE 1. Our military contributions are limited and becoming less with the closing of Canadian NATO bases in Germany and the recent announcement of continued downsizing of the Canadian armed forces. 2. These organizations are a restriction on our sovereignty especially by the USA. 3. With the highest per capita debt in the world our money could be better spent paying off the debt or diverting military funds to disadvantaged Canadian. 44

Q 14. Define the following: Denazification: • Removal of sympathizers of the Nazi party Q 14. Define the following: Denazification: • Removal of sympathizers of the Nazi party from power Détente: • relations of international tensions in an attempt by nations to work together to achieve a peaceful coexistence Mc. Carthyism: • implied that communism must be stopped • Suggestions that USA government officials were communists 45

Q 15. Key concepts exercises Questions a-j LG pg 26&27 a. The western and Q 15. Key concepts exercises Questions a-j LG pg 26&27 a. The western and eastern nations form into a defensive alliances of NATO and the Warsaw Pact respectively. Balance of power / expansionism b. The Americans propose a plan of economic aid, called the Marshall Plan to war-torn European nations. Containment c. The nations of Bulgaria, Romania, Poland, Hungary, Albania, and Czechoslovakia come under the political control of the Soviet Union. Sphere of influences 46

Q 15. Cont. d. The western Allies conduct a massive airlift of supplies into Q 15. Cont. d. The western Allies conduct a massive airlift of supplies into West Berlin to counter the Soviet blockade of land routes. Containment e. Marshall Tito of Yugoslavia refuses to allow Soviet political and economic control Sovereignty f. A civil war is Greece threatens the existence of the nation’s democratic government. g. The Soviets successfully detonate an atomic bomb in 1949. Balance of power 47

Q 15. Cont. h. In October, 156, the Communist party is briefly toppled from Q 15. Cont. h. In October, 156, the Communist party is briefly toppled from power by pro-reform revolutionaries in Hungary. Sovereignty i. The western allies establish an independent government in West Germany and make plans to rearm Germany Balance of power, containment, sphere of influence j. President Truman states that the policy of the United States is to “support free peoples” who are resisting communist takeover. containment 48