- Количество слайдов: 46
The Cold War Expands Angela Brown Chapter 16 Section 3
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The Korean War • 1945 Allies divide Korea into Soviet. Occupied northern zone and an American – Occupied Southern Zone. • Occupying forces withdrew from both zones in 1948 -1949. http: //teachpol. tcnj. edu/amer_pol_hist/fi/0000019 f. jpg
Korean War • June 1950, the Korean War broke out when North Korean troops streamed across the 38 th parallel, the latitude dividing the two nations, aiming to reunite Korea by Force. • The USSR was boycotting the Security Council protesting the exclusion of Communist China, the UN was able to act to defend South Korea.
Today http: //www. landofthemorningstorm. com/Pictures/38 th. jpg
Douglas Mac. Arthur • Hero of two World Wars – strong anticommunist Truman’s choice to lead UN forces in Korea • Graduated from U. S. military academy at West Point in 1903 http: //www. history. navy. mil/photos /images/h 62000/h 62439. jpg
Mac. Arthur • Cited 7 times for bravery in WWI and by 1918 at age 38 he attained rank of general. • 1930 Army Chief of Staff • WWII – Commander of American forces in Asia • Virtual dictator of Japan during postwar – responsible for establishing Western Democracy – creating new democratic constitution
Mac. Arthur • Less successful in implementing democracy in South Korea – supported South Korean President Syngman Rhee • Hero to troops and American Public • Disliked as overly ambitious by political leaders
Mac. Arthur • Mac. Arthur had little respect for both Roosevelt and Truman. • He viewed them as soft on communism. • He had contempt for anyone with authority over him; it undermined his otherwise brilliant career.
The Korean War • Excellent military strategist, Mac. Arthur, developed a bold plan to drive the invaders from South Korea. • South Korea overtaken in just a few weeks – except small part near port city of Pusan. • Guessed that swift advance had left supply lines stretched thin. • Sept 1950 attacked enemy supply lines from behind and sent forces to defend Pusan.
http: //www. mapzones. com/citymap/south_korea/pusan. jpg
Korean War • His strategy worked. The North Koreans fled back across 38 th Parallel. • UN troops pursued them Northward and began boasting of reuniting Korea under South Korean government. • Chinese joined North Koreans and pushed UN forces back into South Korea; a stalemate developed.
• Mac. Arthur favored opening a second front by bringing Chinese opposition from Taiwan under Jiang Jieshi to fight communist Chinese. • Truman opposed; he feared widespread war in Asia.
Mac. Arthur Fired • Mac. Arthur sent letter to House minority leader Joseph Marlin in March 1951 attacking the President’s policy. • Martin made letter public; on April 11 Truman fired Mac. Arthur for insubordination. • The struggle dragged on for two more years.
Truce? • 1953 truce signed; left Korea divided by the 38 th parallel as before. • Americans wondered why 55, 000 soldiers had been killed and 103, 000 wounded for limited results. • Was the U. S. serious about stopping communism?
The Cold War in the 1950 s • 1953 Eisenhower succeeded Truman. • New phase of Cold War policy • Sec of State John Foster Dulles called for a policy to roll back communism. • Eisenhower recognized risk of confronting Soviets did not intervene in revolts in Eastern Germany, Poland Hungary in 1956. • Policy of containment continued.
Dwight D. Eisenhower http: //www. americaslibrary. gov/assets/aa/eisenhower/aa_eisenhower_subj_e. jpg
Southeast Asia • July 1953 fulfilled campaign promise to end Korean War – aided by death of Stalin in March. • Conflict developed in Vietnam – French colony • 1945 Ho Chi Minh, head of Vietnamese Communist Party declared independence.
Ho Chi Minh http: //www. facade. com/celebrity/photo/Ho_Chi_Minh. jpg
Domino theory • France sent troops to reassert authority = war • Eisenhower believed in Domino theory • If one country fell to communists its neighbors would soon follow. • By 1954 U. S. providing military aid to support France in Vietnam.
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Vietnam • May 1954, major defeat = France withdrew forces • International conference divided Vietnam like Korea. • U. S. provided aid to South Vietnam but resisted greater involvement.
The Middle East • British controlled Palestine – region on Med. Coast and biblical home of Jewish people • 1930 s many Jews sought safety in Palestine – called for a Jewish state • 1947 British turned over to UN – created two states one Jewish and one Arab
Palestine http: //www. shuruq. com/Palestine_files/palestine. jpg
Israel - Iran • May 1948 Jews in Palestine proclaimed new nation of Israel. • Arab nations opposed – backed by Soviets • U. S. worked to prevent oil-rich Arab nations from falling to Soviets. • 1952 nationalist leader gained control in Iran • U. S. (CIA) organized overthrow – returned power to pro-American Shah of Iran
Israel http: //ec. europa. eu/comm/external_relations/israel/images/acp_israel_w 600. gif
Suez Crisis • Suez Crisis in 1956 – Egypt’s ruler, Nasser, sought Soviet support • U. S. /GB stopped aid. • Nasser seized the Suez Canal a vital waterway through Egypt allowing Middle East oil to reach Europe. • 1956 British and French attack Egypt. • Eisenhower persuaded NATO allies to withdraw from Egypt.
Suez Canal http: //www. yachtaragorn. com/maps/large/Djiboutito. Suez. Canal. jpg
Eisenhower Doctrine • 1957 announced Eisenhower Doctrine • The U. S. would use force to safeguard independent countries in Middle East requesting aid against aggression. • Used Doctrine in 1958 to put down revolt against Lebanese government.
Latin America • 1947 Rio Pact – a regional defense alliance with 18 other nations in the Western Hemisphere. • 1948 formed organization of American States (OAS) to increase cooperation among nations of Hemisphere.
Latin America • 1954 CIA helped overthrow government of Guatemala. • Leaders were sympathetic to radical causes. • Restored property of United Fruit company seized by Guatemalan government from American corporation.
Guatemala http: //www. lonelyplanet. com/mapimages/central_america/guatemala. gif
Cuba • 1958 Fidel Castro overthrew corrupt Cuban dictator Batista. (ties to U. S. organized crime) • Eisenhower would not support Castro; CIA reported infiltration of movement by communist. • Castro seized U. S. property in Cuba; Eisenhower cut diplomatic ties and halted exports to Island. • Castro turned to Soviets for economic and military aid.
Leadership Change http: //www. law. harvard. edu/students/orgs/forum/castro. jpg http: //alocubano. com/batista 8. gif
Republic of Cuba http: //www. m-w. com/maps/images/maps/cuba_map. gif
The Arms Race • Arms Race – struggle to gain weapons superiority The Growth of Nuclear Arsenals • 1953 one year after U. S test of thermonuclear device, Soviets tested hydrogen device. • 1953 Eisenhower announced atoms for Peace Plan at UN.
First Hydrogen Test • World’s nations work together under UN supervision to find peaceful uses for nuclear technology; Soviets refused to participate. • Eisenhower stepped up American weapons development program. • First hydrogen test in March 1954; 750 times more powerful than bomb dropped on Nagaski.
Results • Japanese fisherman 90 miles away radiation burns-Island 200 miles away evacuated • Test revealed nuclear war threatened entire world with radioactive contamination. http: //www. gensuikin. org/panel/13. jpg
Brinkmanship • 1956 Secretary of State Dulles stated U. S. prepared to risk war to protect national interest. • Brinkmanship – ability to get to verge without getting into war
Cold War in the Skies • U. S. Airforce to carry hydrogen bombs to targets; Soviets could not match strength. • Developed ICBM’s – long-range rockets known as intercontinental ballistic missiles as primary delivery system • U. S worked to develop ICBM’s lagged behind Soviet’s in missile development due to dependence on conventional air power.
ICBM launch http: //upload. wikimedia. org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d 5/Atlas-icbm-erector-scaled. jpg/300 px. Atlas-icbm-erector-scaled. jpg
Sputnik • Technological gap startling in 1957; Soviets used one of rockets to launch Sputnik – first artificial satellite to orbit Earth. • Americans mortified – rocket could carry hydrogen bomb to U. S. • U. S. satellite rushed to launch before ready; crashed.
Sputnik http: //www. aerospaceweb. org/question/spacecraft/russia/r 7 -sputnik. jpg
U-2 incident • U-2 incident – Soviets shot down U. S. spy plane over Soviet Union with guided missile. • It flew 15 miles high; we assumed it was immune to attack. http: //www. lswilson. ca/u 2 -3. jpg
Gary Powers http: //www. nndb. com/people/105/000057931/powers-crop. jpg http: //www. nasm. si. edu/exhibitions/lae/images/LE 284 L 9. gif
Sentence • Francis Gary Powers: Imprisoned Powers spent almost 21 months in prison in the Soviet Union. • During that time, he openly kept a diary of his daily activities. • In November 1960 he began secretly writing a journal, which opens with a detailed recounting of the downing of his U-2. • When released, Powers hid the diary and journal in a rug he had embroidered while in prison and carried them out of the Soviet Union. http: //www. nasm. si. edu/exhibitions/lae/script/ss_flyers. htm