Скачать презентацию The Cold War American West Hot to Скачать презентацию The Cold War American West Hot to

927b8f031ac21fb655123e08a949839e.ppt

  • Количество слайдов: 40

The Cold War American West The Cold War American West

Hot to Cold War Continuities between WW II & Cold War u Economy & Hot to Cold War Continuities between WW II & Cold War u Economy & national consciousness in perpetual state of war u Federal-corporate marriage to continue Western development u Cold War arms race at the bedrock of growth in the West u Ecological, social, racial, gendered impact on the West u Consumption & Cold War “prosperity” contrasted with anxiety & fear u

Cold War(s) u u u u 1945 -1960: Early arms race, Kenan’s containment 1960 Cold War(s) u u u u 1945 -1960: Early arms race, Kenan’s containment 1960 -1989: Southeast Asia, “decolonization” & fight over Mid- Eastern Oil “American Century” End of Ideology Consumption as right, democracy Mutual Assured Destruction Domino Theory

Landscapes of the Cold War u u u “Barren” lands perfect for military bases, Landscapes of the Cold War u u u “Barren” lands perfect for military bases, bombing ranges, test sites, silos, underground control centers Second round of dams: Missouri River, Snake, etc 112 dams, 500, 000 sq. mi. , power for bases and military projects in Dakotas, irrigation, flood control

Militarized Landscape u u u u Four Corners Region: Largest strip mine on the Militarized Landscape u u u u Four Corners Region: Largest strip mine on the planet visible from space Coal, oil, uranium Peabody Coal and Black Mesa Navajo Coal Plant, Page, AZ Produce nearly 100 Megawatts of electricity Draining aquifer for slurry lines Electricity to Phoenix, Los Angeles, Las Vegas and military installations @ region Cancer, silicosis, black lung in Native communities

Strip Mine in Arizona Strip Mine in Arizona

Oil u u u Literally fueled the Cold War, expansion, suburbanization, car culture, highways Oil u u u Literally fueled the Cold War, expansion, suburbanization, car culture, highways TX, WY, OK & CA: over 1 trillion barrels between 1945 -90 TX in 1973 pumped 1. 8 bill barrels Alaska Pipeline 1975 -7: $8 bill, 800 miles across AL to Port of Valdez; 15 billion barrels in 25 years Oil industry crushed alternative fuel industries: the Southwest should be covered in solar panels and windmills (my opinion)

Alaska Pipeline Alaska Pipeline

Eisenhower Interstate Highway and Defense Act 1956: $27 billion initially u Connect East and Eisenhower Interstate Highway and Defense Act 1956: $27 billion initially u Connect East and West u Easy evacuation in case of nuclear attack u Transport of military people and goods u Possible landing strips for planes u

Military-Industry Pre-WW II Bases: 54 u WW II Bases: 93 u Cold War Bases: Military-Industry Pre-WW II Bases: 54 u WW II Bases: 93 u Cold War Bases: 91 u Politicians wanted bases for jobs, patriotism, & to support booming consumer nation u Industry received land, resources, utilities, protection, and guaranteed profits u

Defense in the West 1947, Department of Defense Act established the Pentagon u According Defense in the West 1947, Department of Defense Act established the Pentagon u According to 1995 DOD report, $4. 5 trillion spent on nukes, 1945 -90 u 900 nuclear blasts above, below, in sky across the West u 65% explosions in Nevada u Missile silos in cornfields: Titan, Minuteman, Peacemaker u

Cheyenne Mountain CO, 1962 u u u North American Defense Command Center: global surveillance Cheyenne Mountain CO, 1962 u u u North American Defense Command Center: global surveillance and Cold War strategy 800 people for 60 days 2 Megawatt sufficient generators

Defense Cities u u L. A. Times; 35% of all residents have defense related Defense Cities u u L. A. Times; 35% of all residents have defense related jobs in 1960 1964: Orange County had 60% of aerospacedefense jobs Denver became the “alternate D. C. ” & in 1980 had the 2 nd highest # of feds Martin Marietta HQ

Orange County & Colorado Springs Mc. Donnell Douglas u Hughes Aircraft u Ford Aerospace Orange County & Colorado Springs Mc. Donnell Douglas u Hughes Aircraft u Ford Aerospace u General Dynamics u Honeywell u TRW Electronics u Raytheon u Hughes Aircraft u Hewlett Packard u

Atomic Testing u The Nevada Test Site is a Rhode Island-sized testing ground northwest Atomic Testing u The Nevada Test Site is a Rhode Island-sized testing ground northwest of Las Vegas where the U. S. conducted the majority of its nuclear weapons tests during the Cold War. From its founding in 1951 until the final Divider test in 1992, over 900 atomic explosions were detonated in this barren desert. In the 1950 s, atomic tests were conducted above ground and resulted in devastating health effects to the "Downwinders" northeast of the site in Nevada and Utah. Since then, tests were conducted only underground, resulting in a pockmarked "lunar" landscape. The NTS is bounded on three side by the Nellis Air Force Range and adjoins "Area 51" a secret military base at its northeast corner.

Global Atomic Testing, 1945 -1998 Global Atomic Testing, 1945 -1998

Nuclear Waste West is smallest user of nuclear power u NV, NM, CO, UT, Nuclear Waste West is smallest user of nuclear power u NV, NM, CO, UT, MT, ID, WY do not have any nuclear power plants u VT: 78% u Yucca Mtn, 90 miles from Las Vegas is targeted as national repository u 157 million cubic meters, NRC u

Yucca Mountain Disposal Routes Yucca Mountain Disposal Routes

Cold War Culture u u u u Climate of fear, intimidation, and indoctrination Harnessing Cold War Culture u u u u Climate of fear, intimidation, and indoctrination Harnessing the rhetoric of atomic life Science as new religion Faith in government Anti-communism Crippled dissent and free speech Loyalty above all else

Propaganda Propaganda

Mc. Carthyism Joseph P. Mc. Carthy u Life built on anticommunism u “I have Mc. Carthyism Joseph P. Mc. Carthy u Life built on anticommunism u “I have the names of 200 individuals…” u Army-Mc. Carthy Hearings u Senate reprimand u Died of drinking u

Political Culture u Containment – Communism as disease – Contain and circle it Domino Political Culture u Containment – Communism as disease – Contain and circle it Domino Theory u Massive Retaliation u Mutual Assured Destruction u Brinksmanship u Open-ended eternal war against an enemy that will never rest, hates our freedoms, is godless, evil, and may be among us (sound familiar? ) u

Hollywood Ten House Un-American Activities Committee u Reagan and the Screen Actors Guild u Hollywood Ten House Un-American Activities Committee u Reagan and the Screen Actors Guild u 1948 Investigations into Hollywood and communist sympathies u Ten directors, producers, stars who “Pled the Fifth” u Black listing u

Hollywood Ten From left, —front row: Herbert Biberman, attorneys Martin Popper and Robert W. Hollywood Ten From left, —front row: Herbert Biberman, attorneys Martin Popper and Robert W. Kenny, Albert Maltz, Lester Cole, — second row: Dalton Trumbo, John Howard Lawson, Alvah Bessie, Samuel Ornitz—back row: Ring Lardner Jr. , Edward Dmytryk, Adrian Scott. The ten men were convicted of contempt. Appeals were denied, all served prison terms of up to one year.

Universities Investigations into faculty accused of communist membership u “Fellow Travelers” u Fired or Universities Investigations into faculty accused of communist membership u “Fellow Travelers” u Fired or pushed out due to intimidation and hostile atmosphere u Free Speech and authoritarianism u University of California u University of Oregon u University of Washington u

The Bright Side American Consensus u Consumerism u Defeat of ideology u Pax Americana The Bright Side American Consensus u Consumerism u Defeat of ideology u Pax Americana u Happy Days and the Age of Prosperity u Calm fears u Divert attention u

Television Television

Bonanza Gunsmoke Bonanza Gunsmoke

Movies Movies

Disneyland California, 1955 u Make believe, constructed fantasy u De-politicized u Escapism and consumerism Disneyland California, 1955 u Make believe, constructed fantasy u De-politicized u Escapism and consumerism u Disneyland Studios, TV, Hollywood u White America, middle class tourism u Highway traffic, Orange County u $17. 5 million construction u Water from Colorado River u

Frontier, Magic, Future, Cartoons Frontier, Magic, Future, Cartoons

Cold War Movies I Married a Communist u Manchurian Candidate u The Day the Cold War Movies I Married a Communist u Manchurian Candidate u The Day the Earth Stood Still ’ 51 u North By Northwest u James Bond u Atomic animals u

Cold War Culture Cold War Culture

And more… Teen age delinquency u Homosexuality u Mental Hygiene u Freud u Child And more… Teen age delinquency u Homosexuality u Mental Hygiene u Freud u Child Rearing u Fall-out shelters u Rock n Roll u The Beat Generation u

Conclusions Post-War demilitarization & return to “normalcy” u Rise of “Consumer Nation” and equating Conclusions Post-War demilitarization & return to “normalcy” u Rise of “Consumer Nation” and equating consumption with democracy and freedom u Suburbanization and mass culture: restaurants, cars, radio, TV u Atomic Anxieties & Cold War Contradictions u

Continued Open-ended war and endless vigilance u Domesticating atomic technology, or “How I learned Continued Open-ended war and endless vigilance u Domesticating atomic technology, or “How I learned to stop worrying and love the bomb” (Dr. Strangelove) u Rhetoric of Communist infiltration u Free speech & dissent called subversion and unpatriotic u