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The Civil Society and Governance Discussion Notes by CK Lal The Civil Society and Governance Discussion Notes by CK Lal

Time and Space ‘Or’ / ‘And’ debate Ø What did you do today? Ø Time and Space ‘Or’ / ‘And’ debate Ø What did you do today? Ø Everything happens in space and time Personal Space • Person • Family • Community

Political space • Arena of contestation • Site of conflict • Site of negotiation Political space • Arena of contestation • Site of conflict • Site of negotiation and agreement • Cooperation for existence Woman is by nature a political animal— Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC) res publica, public sphere or state as constituted by its citizens’ virtuous activity

Political space The three-legged stool: • State (government/politics) State IC • Civil Society (society) Political space The three-legged stool: • State (government/politics) State IC • Civil Society (society) Individual • Market (economy) Market Civil Society

The State and Citizenry: Governance The State promises: 1. Physical and Human security 2. The State and Citizenry: Governance The State promises: 1. Physical and Human security 2. Basic Minimum Services 3. Human Dignity and Respect The State expects: 1. Monopoly over violence 2. Observance of laws 3. Payment of taxes

The Market and Consumers: Economy The Market promises: 1. Value for money 2. Deliver The Market and Consumers: Economy The Market promises: 1. Value for money 2. Deliver products that conform to generally accepted standards 3. Satisfaction of needs, wants or desires The Market expects: 1. Cost plus profit or premium pricing 2. Unhindered movement of goods and services 3. Sanctity and inviolability of property

Civil Society and the public: Civility • No mandatory relationship as between the state Civil Society and the public: Civility • No mandatory relationship as between the state and the citizenry: • Not negotiated as in the market and the consumer. • Relationship between the civil society and the public is voluntary. • The definition of the ‘Civil Society’ is hence elastic and covers a wide range.

Civil society • Community Organisations • Voluntary Groups • Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) • Professional Civil society • Community Organisations • Voluntary Groups • Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) • Professional Organisations • Chambers of Commerce • Trade unions • Environmental groups • Women's groups • Student organisations • Consumer groups And interest groups that form on an ad hoc basis for a particular cause “Civil Society is the public sphere, outside of government, market and the family, where citizens and a wide array of non-governmental and not-for-profit organizations associate, express their interests and values and seek to advance the common good. ” [http: //www. wfuna. org/site/c. rv. IYIc. N 1 Jw. E/b. 5327 205/k. 8896/Overview_on_civil_society. htm] accessed April 7, 2010

The World Bank’s Definition The World Bank uses the term civil society to refer The World Bank’s Definition The World Bank uses the term civil society to refer to the wide array of non-governmental and not-for-profit organizations that have a presence in public life, expressing the interests and values of their members or others, based on ethical, cultural, political, scientific, religious or philanthropic considerations. Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) therefore refer to a wide of array of organizations: community groups, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), labor unions, indigenous groups, charitable organizations, faith-based organizations, professional associations, and foundations. [http: //go. worldbank. org/4 CE 7 W 046 K 0] accessed January 7, 2015

Marxist Definition Civil society encompasses both the wide range of organisations outside of the Marxist Definition Civil society encompasses both the wide range of organisations outside of the state and the family. These include cultural and religious bodies, voluntary organisations of all kinds and organisations arising out of economic entities, such as professional or industry organisations. [http: //www. marxists. org/glossary/terms/s/o. htm] accessed January 7, 2015

Functions of Civil Society Includes, but is not limited to: • Awareness • Advocacy: Functions of Civil Society Includes, but is not limited to: • Awareness • Advocacy: Noncriminal (!) • Mobilisation • Facilitation • Service Delivery • Monitoring • Record

Importance of Civil Society Agents of moderation • Non-economic and nonstate entity • Monitoring Importance of Civil Society Agents of moderation • Non-economic and nonstate entity • Monitoring Aid Effectiveness • Assisting Conflict Resolution • Promoting Democratic practices • Mobilising the marginalised • Exposing corruption • Creating environment for regional integration

Strengths of Civil Society Self-driven change agents • High acceptability • International network • Strengths of Civil Society Self-driven change agents • High acceptability • International network • Professional operation • Self-motivated • Not bound by rules • Irreverent

Weaknesses Good in protesting, but often lack alternative solutions Mass Protest in Tahrir Square, Weaknesses Good in protesting, but often lack alternative solutions Mass Protest in Tahrir Square, Egypt • Careerism of promoters • Dependency on donors • Expensive service delivery • Takes up fashionable causes • Limited access

Civil Society can’t be wished away • Care to be taken in administration-civil society Civil Society can’t be wished away • Care to be taken in administration-civil society interface for ‘good governance’. • Brief-case NGOs • Family enterprises • WGOs in the guise of NGOs (Tariq Ali) • Profligate civic groups • Accountability • Rule of law is paramount

The Governance Principle • Governance refers to the Rules, Processes and Behavior that affect The Governance Principle • Governance refers to the Rules, Processes and Behavior that affect the way in which powers are exercised at the level of the State • Subsidiarity (the Union does not take action, except in the areas that fall within its exclusive competence, unless it is more effective than action taken at national, regional or local level) and Proportionality (any action by the Union should not go beyond what is necessary to achieve the constitutionally mandated objectives) principles. • Five “principles of good governance”: Openness, Participation, Accountability, Effectiveness and Coherence. (OPAEC)

Governance and Civil Society Principles of good governance 1. Participation, 2. Fairness, 3. Decency, Governance and Civil Society Principles of good governance 1. Participation, 2. Fairness, 3. Decency, 4. Accountability, 5. Transparency, and 6. Efficiency 7. Effectiveness Indicators of Participation 1. Freedom of Expression 2. Freedom of Assembly and Association 3. Freedom from Discrimination 4. Input into Policy-making 5. Respect for Rules

“The Promises and the Limits of Civil Society” 1. 2. 3. The Civil Society “The Promises and the Limits of Civil Society” 1. 2. 3. The Civil Society is a space where challenges to state power are expressed through political practices. Civil society has historically been associated with norms of democracy, accessibility, participation, publicity, and accountability. The institutions of civil society are associational, representative, and deliberative forums, social movements, and a free press. 4. Civil society agents are neither in the business of making policy, nor in the business of implementing these policies. 5. Civil society agents are in the business of creating, fostering, nurturing, and reproducing informed public opinion that can be brought to bear upon the making and implementation of policy through civic activism.

Good Governance and Civil Society Influences everything, decides nothing Good Governance and Civil Society Influences everything, decides nothing

Web Resources Civil Society: • http: //www. civilsociety. co. uk/ • http: //www. bbc. Web Resources Civil Society: • http: //www. civilsociety. co. uk/ • http: //www. bbc. co. uk/worldservice/people/highlights/010705_civil. sht ml • http: //www. asd. org. np/download/lecture/transcript_of_neera_chandh oke. pdf Governance: http: //www. unescap. org/pdd/prs/Project. Activities/Ongoing/gg/governan ce. asp Civil Society and Governance: http: //www. odi. org/sites/odi. org. uk/files/odi-assets/publications-opinionfiles/4098. pdf