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The Book of all Books Dr. Azila (Tzili) Talit Reisenberger Head of Hebrew University The Book of all Books Dr. Azila (Tzili) Talit Reisenberger Head of Hebrew University of Cape Town

Order of lectures 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The Canon What’s in the Name Order of lectures 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The Canon What’s in the Name The Book as ‘Record/Reflection of life’ History vs. story The Word (Language, bias, code… etc)

The Name of The Book • • Bible – Bibliotheca (bibliothèque) – library Hebrew The Name of The Book • • Bible – Bibliotheca (bibliothèque) – library Hebrew Bible (in French? German? ) Old Testament (passé? ) Ta. Na. K (Torah/ Nevi’im/Ketuvim) The Bible

Size of ‘The Ta. Na. K/Bible’ 304, 901 Hebrew words 23, 145 verses Size of ‘The Ta. Na. K/Bible’ 304, 901 Hebrew words 23, 145 verses

Division into books and chapters • The ‘Canon’ includes 39 books (orthodox Jews count Division into books and chapters • The ‘Canon’ includes 39 books (orthodox Jews count it as 24, as they count some books together) • Some books never made it to the ‘Canon’ (redactor’s choice or Apocrypha) • Division into chapters by a monk in the 16 th century.

Time frame • From creation of the world? Primordial Or: the Forefathers and Foremothers Time frame • From creation of the world? Primordial Or: the Forefathers and Foremothers • From about 2000 BCE • To about 333 BCE

What is primordial History Genesis chapters 1 -11 raison d’être of this section What is primordial History Genesis chapters 1 -11 raison d’être of this section

Time-line Abraham, Isaac, Jacob I 2000 BCE Egypt Moses (Exodus) I 400 Years 1500 Time-line Abraham, Isaac, Jacob I 2000 BCE Egypt Moses (Exodus) I 400 Years 1500 BCE

Time-line Joshua (Conquest) Judges (Saul) David I +1400 BCE 400 Years I 1000 BCE Time-line Joshua (Conquest) Judges (Saul) David I +1400 BCE 400 Years I 1000 BCE

Time-line Solomon (Temple) I 965 BCE Split into North and South Kingdom +40 Years Time-line Solomon (Temple) I 965 BCE Split into North and South Kingdom +40 Years I 928 BCE

Time-line Northern Kingdom Samaria 10 tribes Variety of dynasties Assyria I 721 BCE Southern Time-line Northern Kingdom Samaria 10 tribes Variety of dynasties Assyria I 721 BCE Southern Kingdom Jerusalem Judah (+Simon, Levi) House of David Babylon I 586 BCE

Interesting fact: How many Tribes of Israel? Answer: 13 10 - Northern Kingdom; 3 Interesting fact: How many Tribes of Israel? Answer: 13 10 - Northern Kingdom; 3 – Judaea But Jacob had 12 sons? For Joseph (1) we have 2 tribes: Ephraim and Menashe Why: idiom “ 12 Tribes of Israel”? as Simeon was swallowed into Judah

Time-line Fate of the Hebrews Northern Kingdom disappeared (Samaritans? ) Judaea was exiled to Time-line Fate of the Hebrews Northern Kingdom disappeared (Samaritans? ) Judaea was exiled to Babylon; then falls into Persian hands; In 538 BCE Cyrus permits them to return to the Holy Land build 2 nd Temple.

End of the Bible So, time frame of the biblical history: I 2000 BCE End of the Bible So, time frame of the biblical history: I 2000 BCE I_ 333 BCE

Where do we find all this information? TNK T orah N evi’im K etuvim Where do we find all this information? TNK T orah N evi’im K etuvim

The Torah is the first section, is the holiest section The Torah is the first section, is the holiest section

Torah Abraham, Isaac, Jacob Slavery in Egypt Moses’ laws and history from Exodus to Torah Abraham, Isaac, Jacob Slavery in Egypt Moses’ laws and history from Exodus to death Genesis beginning of Exodus 5 books of Moses Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy 2000 BCE 1500 BCE

Nevi’im (means: Prophets) 2 sections in the ‘Prophets’: 1. First section (Early Prophets) which Nevi’im (means: Prophets) 2 sections in the ‘Prophets’: 1. First section (Early Prophets) which is history 2. Second section (Later Prophets) which is ‘prophecy’

Early Prophets The History Early Prophets The History

Into the Holy Land out to Exile • The conquest • The rulers • Into the Holy Land out to Exile • The conquest • The rulers • Beginning of Kingship Saul and David • Solomon and the split of kingdoms • Exiles Joshua Judges Samuel 1 -2 Kings 1 -2 end of Kings 2

Later Prophets • Isaiah • Jeremiah • Ezekiel • 12 Minor: Hosea, Joel, Amos, Later Prophets • Isaiah • Jeremiah • Ezekiel • 12 Minor: Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zachariah, Malachi

Ketuvin Wisdom and historiography: • Psalms • Proverbs • Job • 5 “megilot” (scrolls): Ketuvin Wisdom and historiography: • Psalms • Proverbs • Job • 5 “megilot” (scrolls): Song of Songs, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther • Daniel • Ezra and Nehemiah • Chronicles 1 -2

Why should I bore you with the geography of the Bible? • The way Why should I bore you with the geography of the Bible? • The way to detect if a Bible is “Jewish” or not? • In other words: is it – The Bible • Or is it – The Old Testament • Why should we try to detect? (Bias) • The 5 little scrolls: hold the key for quick answers

5 (Megilot) scrolls • • • Song of Songs Ruth Lamentations Ecclesiastes Esther Jewish 5 (Megilot) scrolls • • • Song of Songs Ruth Lamentations Ecclesiastes Esther Jewish Order rather than logical order

so now, when we know what is the Bible, In the course we will so now, when we know what is the Bible, In the course we will get “closer”… We start tomorrow with the power of words and names: from names of books, people places… etc

Thank you. I would like to thank Jutta Schoof for editing these notes Thank you. I would like to thank Jutta Schoof for editing these notes