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The American Constitution: The American Constitution and the Party System
Objectives 11. 1 Students analyze the significant events in the founding of the nation and its attempts to realize the philosophy of government described in the Declaration of Independence. 11. 1. 2. Analyze the ideological origins of the American Revolution, the Founding Fathers' philosophy of divinely bestowed unalienable natural rights, the debates on the drafting and ratification of the Constitution, and the addition of the Bill of Rights. 11. 1. 3. Understand the history of the Constitution after 1787 with emphasis on federal versus state authority and growing democratization.
The Great Debate Constitution continued debate within the states over states’ rights, individual rights, and functional organization Broke United States into TWO political parties: Federalists and Anti-Federalists
Chronology 1774: First Continental Congress 1775: Battle of Lexington, Battle of Concord, Second Continental Congress 1776: Declaration of Independence written and sent 1777: Third Continental Congress, Articles of Confederation drafted 1781: Articles of Confederation signed 1783: Treaty of Paris signed, ending war 1787: Committee to revise Articles of Confederation -->Constitutional Convention 1788: Constitution ratified
On paper: Draw a T-Chart to describe what you see. Whose perspective is this from?
The Birth of Political Parties: The Players Federalists Anti-Federalists Alexander Hamilton Beliefs in Government Rule by rich and well educated New government should favor merchants, manufacturers, and lawyers Strong central government with a strong president Favored industry Wanted strong alliance with Britain Centralized banking and create debt spending Cynical Loose interpretation of the Constitution The North Thomas Jefferson Beliefs in Government Rule by everybody New government should favor farmers, artisans, and poor classes Weak central government, power given to the states to reflect individual interests Favored agriculture and farming Wanted strong alliance with France Low taxes, small tariffs Idealistic Strict interpretation of the Constitution The South
Match the quote with the Party: Federalist or Anti-Fed? 1. “Your people, sir, are beasts…Take mankind in general, they are vicious. ” 2. “The sheep are happier of themselves, than under the care of wolves. ” 3. “Rich should be in charge, because they can’t be bribed. ” 4. “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity. ” 5. “All societies need a governing class. ” 6. “All men are created equal. ”
Who are you? Consider the times and these beliefs: What political party would you support? The Federalists or the Anti-Federalists? Explain your answer.
Political Vocabulary Ratify: To agree to, To sign Amend: To add to Veto: To refuse to sign Bill: Proposed law Suffrage: Right to vote Bicameral: Two house congress Impeachment: Removal from office Cabinet: Advisors to the President
The American Constitution divided into two parts Articles--rights government Amendments-- rights of individual (27 Amendments) of
Government and Man Articles I-III Separates power into three branches of government Art. I-Leg. ; Art. IIExec. ; Art. III-Judic. Articles IV-VII Power of Law Power of Constitution Amendments I-X Bill of Rights Amendment XI-XII Organization of Government Amendment XIII-XV Civil Rights Amendments Slave Amendments XVI-XIX Progressive Amendments XX-XXI New Deal Amendments XXII-XXVII Great Society Amendments
The Bill of Rights The 4 th , 5 th, 6 th, 7 th, and 8 th amendments prohibit government officials from taking away a person’s life, liberty or property without following fair and reasonable procedures. “Due Process of Law. ” These rights can be traced to the Magna Carta (1215) and the English Bill of Rights(1689)
Article I: The Legislature A. K. A. Congress, The Legislative Branch, The Lawmakers The U. S. Capitol Building, Washington, D. C. Bicameral Upper House=Senate (2 per state, 100 total) 6 year term Led by Speaker of the House Lower House=House of Representatives (proportional to population, 435 total--CA has 54) 2 year term Led by Speaker of the House President of Congress=Vice President of the United States of America Why did they allow the Senate 6 year term and the House of Representative 2 year term?
Legislative Powers Make laws Collect taxes Borrow and coin money Establish immigration policy Declare war and raise armies Approves treaties Control interstate activities (trade, marriage, etc) ****To do ANYTHING NECESSARY AND PROPER (The Elastic Clause) Congress works at the Capitol Building in Washington D. C.
Why is the power to “do anything necessary and proper” called the Elastic Clause? What are the benefits and problems of this power?
How YOU can be a Congressperson! Age 25 (H. of R. ); 30 (Senate) Live 7 years (H. of R. ); 9 years (Senate) in your state Have a lot of money for campaign Be independently wealthy Have people contribute money/support campaign What would make you run for a political office?
Article II: The Executive A. K. A. The President, The Commander-in. Chief, The Pres. Term: 4 years, 2 term limit President Vice President Cabinet (Sec. of State, etc. )
Executive Power Commander-in. Chief of American military Execute law, sign/veto law Make treaties Appoint judges
How YOU can be the Pres. Be at least 35 years old Be a natural born citizen Live in the U. S. for at least 14 years Have even more money for campaign than Congress-person
What other qualifications should their be to be a president? List as many attributes/abilities as possible (min. 10). What would it take for you to take the job of being president?
Article III: The Judicial A. K. A. The Bench, The Courts, The Judiciary Term: Life Organization: Constitution Supreme Court Federal Courts State Courts
Judicial Power Interprets law Reviews “constitutionality” of laws Reviews lower court cases Preserves balance against political parties
Interpretation “Loose Interpretation” “Strict Interpretation” A. K. A. “Loose Construction of Constitution” Interpretation of Constitution must be flexible People change, society changes, technology changes->Constitution must adapt What the Constitution doesn’t say EXPLICITY, the branches of government can do “Federalists” “Liberals” A. K. A. “Strict Construction of Constitution” Constitution should remain the constant The Constitution must be the measure of social, ethical, and moral change Government can ONLY do what the Constitution EXPLICITLY says “Anti-Federalists” “Conservatives”
Separation of Power
Checks and Balances
The Political Spectrum