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The 70’s and 80’s Presentation Tulper’s Summer Class US History 2
The 70’s An Age of Limits
The Nixon Administration Richard M. Nixon- entered office in 1969 and focused on a more conservative America New Federalism- Nixon’s idea to reduce the size and power of the federal government Revenue Sharing- distribution of federal money to state and local governments with few or no restrictions on how to spend it By 1972 - the Revenue-sharing bill, known as the State and Local Fiscal Assistance Act became law
Nixon expands the Government Increased Social Security Enlarged the Food Stamp Program Occupational Safety and Health Administration- protecting workers on the job Environmental Protection Agency-protect human health and the environment
Nixon Administration Family Assistance Plan (FAP)- a welfare-reform proposal approved by the House in 1970 but defeated by the Senate that would have guaranteed an income to welfare recipients who agreed to undergo job training and to accept work. It would have gone to families of 4 and they would have earned up to 4, 000 dollars a year in supplemental income or unemployed who would then undergo job training (excluding mothers of preschool children)
The Country Under Nixon Stagflation-high inflation and high unemployment due to deficit spending, international trade, and flood of new workers (women and baby boomers). Nixon attacked Stagflation in 3 ways; froze wages, new agency to limit future wage increases, increased government spending to fight unemployment OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries)- oil producing countries of the Middle East where American received their oil including Israel, Egypt, and Syria, When a war broke out among the Middle Eastern countries US aided Israel and the Arab countries cut off oil supplies. Increase in Oil prices worsened inflation. Energy Crisis- government urged homeowners to lower their thermostats, and reduced highway speeds
Nixon and the Cold War Realpolitik- “political realism” meaning foreign policy should be based solely on consideration of power, not ideals or moral principles. Henry Kissinger, Nixon’s advisor for national security, felt Realpolitik was a good philosophy and the US needed to confront powerful nations with negotiations and sometimes military engagement. Détente- policy aimed at easing cold war tensions by Nixon visited China to ease tensions and opened the door of economic and diplomatic relations. Nixon also traveled to Moscow (1 st US president to visit). Nixon and Brezhnev signed the SALT (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks) I Treaty- a five year agreement that limited the number of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) and submarine-launched missiles to 1972 levels. These foreign policy triumphs with China and the Soviet Union helped reelect Nixon as president in 1972.
Watergate: Nixon’s Downfall The Watergate Scandal- Nixon’s administration and attempt to cover up a burglary of the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate office and apartment complex in Washington DC. NIXON wins the 1972 election but the scandal will lead to his downfall as president Nixon’s chief advisors K. R. Haldeman- White House Chief of Staff John Erilchman- Chief Domestic adviser John Mitchell- Attorney General John W Dean III- Presidential Council
Story and Coverup On June 17 th 2: 30 AM, a guard at Watergate caught five men breaking into the campaign headquarters of the DNC. The burglars planned to photograph documents outlining Democratic Party Strategy and to place wiretaps or bugs in the office telephone. The groups leader James Mc. Cord, former CIA agent was the security coordinator for a group known as the Committee to Reelect the President. John Mitchell was also an accomplice who resigned as Nixon’s attorney general and ran Nixon’s reelection campaign. The cover up quickly began and workers shredded all incriminating documents in Haldeman’s office. The White house and Nixon asked the CIA to urge the FBI to stop its investigations into the burglary on the grounds of National Security in addition the CPR passed out nearly $450, 000 to the Watergate burglars to buy their silence after they were indicted in September of 1972.
NEWS Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein kept on the Watergate scandal throughout the 1972 campaign through articles in the Washington Post. Reporter’s uncovered information that linked many members of administration to the burglary. 1973 -trial of Watergate burglars began, Judge John Sirica made it clear he believed the men did not act alone and just days before the burglars were sentenced James Mc. Cord sent a letter to Sirica that he said he lied under oath and hinted that powerful members of Nixon’s administration had been involved in the break in.
The Scandal Nixon, upon hearing the news, acted by firing counsel John Dean, Richard Kliendienst, and said he did not attempt to cover it up and hired Elliot Richardson to investigate Watergate. By May 1973 the senate began its own investigation by Samuel James Ervin and he called Nixon’s administration to give their testimony. John Dean delivered the first testimony against Nixon stating they had several meetings about the deceit. Alexander Butterfly revealed that Nixon had tapes that showed he knew about the scandal
Surrender…. . Saturday Night Massacre- a name given to the resignation of the US attorney general and the firing of his deputy in October 1973, after they refused to carry out president Nixon’s order to fire the special prosecutor investigating the Watergate affair. The Entire White House is under siege and Vice President Spiro Agnew resigned after it was revealed he accepted bribes from Maryland engineering firms as governor of Maryland. President Nixon nominated House Minority leader General R Ford as his new vicepresident and congress quickly affirmed.
Fessing Up? ? ? In spring of 1974 Nixon told a television audience that he was releasing 1, 254 pages of edited transcripts of the Whitehouse about Watergate. His offerings failed and Nixon refused to release unedited versions of the tapes. The Supreme Court stated that President Nixon must release the tapes and on July 27 th the committee approved three articles of impeachment charging the president with obstructions of justice, abuse of power, and contempt of congress for refusing to obey a congressional subpoena to release the tapes.
Nixon Resigns Nixon released the tapes and there were mysterious gaps that his secretary accidentally erased part of the conservations between H R Haldeman and Nixon. Just days before the House voted on Nixon’s impeachment and Nixon resigned and within a short time General Ford was sworn in as the 38 th president. Impeachment is the process of accusing a public official of a wrong doing. Nixon stated that some of his judgments “were wrong. ” After Watergate, some 25 members of Nixon’s administration were convicted and served prison terms. After Watergate the American public and media opened a general suspicion about public officials that still exists today. Watergate remains the scandal and investigative story against which all others are measured.
FORD Gerald R Ford- 38 th president who urged America to put the Watergate scandal behind them. “I am a Ford not a Lincoln” stating when he pardoned Nixon and lost public support Ford attempted to fight inflation with his “whip inflation now” program, but continued to butt heads with the democratic congress. Ford vetoed more than 50 pieces of legislation Helsinki Accords- a series of agreements that promised greater cooperation between the nations of Eastern and Western Europe which is known as Fords greatest presidential accomplishments.
Carter Jimmy Carter- Democratic nominee and former peanut farmer and governor of Georgia. “I will never tell a lie. ” And Carter won by a narrow margin bringing a down to earth style to Washington. Carter, attempting to help the country’s economic crisis, urged the country to cut back on oil consumption in his “malaise speech” (a feeling of unease). National Energy Act- This act placed a tax on gas guzzling cars, removed price controls on oil and natural gas and extended tax credits for the development of alternative energy.
Panama Canal US Panama Canal relations were better after Panama ratified treaties of the nation and gave back ownership of the Panama Canal.
SALT II Carter insistence on human rights broke down relations between the Soviet Union. They attempted to sign SALT II- which limited strategic weapons and nuclear-missile launchers that each side could produce. The SALT II agreement met opposition in the Senate but when the Soviet Union invaded the neighboring country of Afghanistan Carter refused to fight and SALT II treaty died.
Camp David Accords Camp David Accords- first signed peace agreement with an Arab Country, Israel agreed to withdraw from the Sinai Peninsula, which it had seized from Egypt during the Six day War in 1967. Egypt, in turn, formally recognized Israel’s right to exist
Iran Hostage Crisis Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini- Muslim Religious leader who led rebels in overthrowing the Shah in Iran and establishing a religious stated based on strict obedience to the Qur’an (sacred book of Islam). Carter let the shah come to the US to receive cancer treatment and this infuriated the revolutionaries of Iran. They seized the US embassy in Iran and took 52 American hostages until Carter would send back Shah. These Americans remained hostages for over a year and were released shortly after Regan took presidential office.
Environmental Activism Rachel Carson- “Silent Spring” growing use of pesticides and how they poisoned food. ½ million copies sold and the nation was aware of the environmental affects on humans Earth Day- April 22, 1970, 10, 000 schools and 2, 000 colleges hosted some type of environmentalawareness activity and spotlighted such problems as pollution, growth and toxic waste, and the earth’s dwindling resources.
Clean up the air……. Environmentalists- someone who takes an active role in the protection of the environment Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)consolidation of 15 existing federal pollution programs in which this new agency was given power to set and enforce pollution standards 1970 - Clean Air Act of 1963 (air standards) Endangered Species Act Alaska Pipeline developed 1968 - Nixon passed the Alaska native Claims settlement Act which gave acres of land to the state’s native tribes for conservations and tribal use Clean Water Act of 1972 Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 Reduction of Acid Rain
3 MILE ISLAND h Three Mile Island- a plant where one of the nuclear reactors malfunctioned where the reactor overheated after its cooling system failed. Many feared that radiation might escape and spread over the region. Two days later a low level radiation actually did escape and officials evacuated some residents while some fled on their own. April 9 th Nuclear Regulatory commission, the federal agency that monitors the nuclear power industry, announced that the immediate danger was over. Many movies were created to make the public aware of Nuclear energy because the government refused to close Nuclear power plants. No new nuclear power plants have been built since 1979. ttp: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=jx. H 9 N 3 N 1 L 08 3 mile island video http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=XLiqv. ZOP 8 T Y Gulf Spill
Women Fight for Equality Male Chauvinist- person who believed men are superior to women Female tennis star Billie Jean King took on male chauvinist Bobby Riggs on the tennis court to prove women could be competitive in sports. King easily defeated Riggs on the tennis court Comparable worth- jobs with comparable worth should receive the same pay National Women’s Political Caucus (NWPC)- goal: to get women into political office
Technology improves 1977 Star Wars- computer generated effects Microprocessor- PC’s became practical in 1971 through a chip Pocket sized calculator- 1971 Video games- 1972 (Pong in arcades) Apple introduced a computer small enough to have at home in 1977 Medical Advances in vaccines for measles, mumps, rubella Computed Tomography Scanner (CT) 1974 Test-tube baby 1978 - in vitro (fertilized egg outside the body) 1 st baby born in 1981 (very controversial back then) Microwaves and Movies at home- working women needed conviencnce and the microwave was invented VCR- allowed people to record TV shows and watch them later Movie rentals increased
Baby Bust and Retirement Boom US population was getting older Birth Dearth- families decreased and there was a lack of births People living longer- life expectancy 74 yrs Retirement- fun, travel, and relocation Rustbelt formed- rusting factories and declining industries of the North because of the Sunbelt
1980’s: Ronald Reagan
The Reagan Revolution 1980 -1988 Ronald Reagan took office in 1981 defeating Carter and based his political ideals on positions of the conservative movement.
Reagan almost dies…. 1981 - attempted assassination by a mentally unbalanced man, John Hinckley Jr. Reagan was shot but recovered rather quickly. http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=3 Bj 6 a. Ogf c. JU&feature=Play. List&p=1 F 598750308 BE 6 AE &index=0&playnext=1
Conservative Coalition Reagan appealed to Evangelicals- Christians who emphasize the authority of the bible Moral Majority- Political lobbying group headed by Jerry Falwell in 1979 who wanted their voices heard “pro-life, profamily, pro-moral, and pro-America” New Right- Political Movement which focused on conservative causes
Reagan’s Plan Reducing the size of the Federal government Lowering government spending promoting traditional morality and values stimulating business by reducing government regulations and lowering taxes strengthening the national defense
“Reaganomics” To reach this goal Reagan: make deep cuts in government spending on social welfare programs lower taxes
Supply Side Economics “Trickle Down” affect The idea is that: large tax cuts on investments would give more money to the wealthy in turn the wealthy would invest their money in new businesses in order to make more money the new businesses would create new products and services creating more jobs for workers more workers would be making more money creating more taxpayers would increase federal revenues
The Results of Reaganomics 1982 -initially high interest rates caused a severe recession 1986 – inflation dropped to 4% (1980 = 14%) GNP increased by 10% Unemployment declined Stock Market soared
1987 – market crashed due to automated and computerized selling controls 1988 – economy recovered and continued to be a “Bull Market”
Cost of Reaganomics National Debt soared to $4 trillion (1992) (1980 = $900 billion)
Reagan did not cut “entitlement programs” Social Security Veteran’s pensions Medicare
Programs cut: ($40 billion) urban mass transit food stamps welfare benefits job training Medicaid school lunches student loans
Social Concerns of the 1980’s Health Issues AIDS- acquired immune deficiency syndrome Drug Abuse- possibly legalized to reduce gang activity Reagan started his war on drugs campaign “Just Say No”
Social Concerns continued… Education A Nation at Risk- 1983 Americans lagged behind other industrialized nations (23 million could not fill out a job application) Challenger Explosion January 28 th 1986 https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Afnv. Fnzs 91 s URBAN Crisis- Rodney King Riots 1991 http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=ROn_9302 UHg
Equality National Rainbow Coalition- political organization which advocated social progress and equal rights for women, gays, and people of color led to the Gay Rights Movement Women, African Americans, Latinos, Native Americans, Asian-Americans New Jersey v T. L. O- students belongings may be searched with reasonable cause “school rules” Immigration Reform and Control Act- increased border patrol Abortion- Roe v Wade 1973 legalized
Military Spending To strengthen the national defense Reagan increased military spending. Between 1981 and 1984 the defense budget almost doubled ¡ “Star Wars” program (aka) Strategic Defense Initiativecreated a missile shield to protect the US from a nuclear attack by “knocking down incoming missiles
Battling Communism in Central America and the Caribbean Reagan Doctrine- provide aid to support anticommunist insurgents and movements Sandinistas and Contras fighting in Nicaragua- US backed Contras fighting against communist Sandinistas (illegal covert actions had taken place and would get Reagan involved in a scandal) Grenada- US invaded and took over (looked down upon by many other nations)
Iran Contra Scandal In 1983 Iranian terrorist took many American’s hostage until president Reagan had approved the sale of arms to Iran. Reagan’s staff sent part of the profits from the illegal arms to the Contra’s in Nicaragua which was a violation of the Boland Amendment, many of Reagan’s staff members were found guilty and fined for their actions. https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Oi. A-0 HHDIAc
Foreign Policy and the Cold War Mikhail Gorbachev- 1985 Soviet Union leader Glasnost- (openness) allowed for Soviet Government to have freedom of the Press Perestroika- Government having less control INF (Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces) treatyeliminated two classes of weapons systems in Europe https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Yt. Ydjbp. Bk 6 A
Gorbachev 1991 - Gorbachev resigned as president and the Soviet Union dissolved (tearing down of the Berlin Wall) CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States) created 1992 - George Bush and Boris Yeltsin (Russian President) issued a formal statement the Cold War was over and signed STARTT Pact- which cut both nations arsenals by 2/3’s
Communism in China Tiananmen Square- 1989 demonstrations in Beijing by students demanding freedom of speech China’s Premier, Le Peng, ordered the military to stop the protestors while the rest of the world was left to watch these events unfold https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Ye. Fze. NAHEh. U