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17th Century Literature.pptx

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Turmoil Religious & Political Queen Elizabeth dies 1603 King James 1603 -1625 King Charles Turmoil Religious & Political Queen Elizabeth dies 1603 King James 1603 -1625 King Charles 1625 -1649 Oliver Cromwell 1642 - 1660 King Charles II 1660 - 1685 “GLORIOUS REVOLUTION”

Periods: Jacobean Period: reign of King James I Caroline Period: reign of Charles I Periods: Jacobean Period: reign of King James I Caroline Period: reign of Charles I Commonwealth Period Restoration period : the restoration of Charles II (1660)

The Controversy Royal family are Anglican (Catholic sympathizers) WHILE Common people are Protestant sympathizers The Controversy Royal family are Anglican (Catholic sympathizers) WHILE Common people are Protestant sympathizers

Divine Right of Kings King is Head of Church & State But : Transition Divine Right of Kings King is Head of Church & State But : Transition from absolute monarchy to constitutional monarchy

King James l. James VI and I, King of Scotland England. l. Came to King James l. James VI and I, King of Scotland England. l. Came to the throne 1603 when his cousin, Elizabeth I, the last Tudor monarch, died l. Died 1625 Invented British flag -- combined England's red cross of St. George with Scotland's white cross of St. Andrew.

King Charles l. Angers Parliament l. Angers Puritans l. Private arrests, trials l Catholicize King Charles l. Angers Parliament l. Angers Puritans l. Private arrests, trials l Catholicize worship (High Church) l. Last straw Presbyterian Scots & the new liturgy!

Charles I and Parliament • Crowned in 1625 • Clashed with Parliament over money Charles I and Parliament • Crowned in 1625 • Clashed with Parliament over money • King Charles needed money for his wars, and Parliament refused to fund them. Charles eventually dissolved Parliament and would not call it into session for 11 yrs.

CIVIL WAR: Cavaliers vs. Roundheads l Cavaliers =Royalists (Royal Loyalists) l “Cavalier poetry” by CIVIL WAR: Cavaliers vs. Roundheads l Cavaliers =Royalists (Royal Loyalists) l “Cavalier poetry” by Lovelace and Suckling among others l seen as brave, graceful and witty l Roundheads = Puritans l seen as dull, boring and religious

Royalists loose l King Charles I executed (beheaded) in 1649 Contemporary engraving of the Royalists loose l King Charles I executed (beheaded) in 1649 Contemporary engraving of the execution of Charles I. He is already being seen as a martyr.

Oliver Cromwell (1599 -1658) l Given the title “Lord High Protector” l Former general Oliver Cromwell (1599 -1658) l Given the title “Lord High Protector” l Former general in charge of Parliament’s New Model Army

Cromwell’s Rule l. Puritan strictness l. Military power l. Suppression of theatre l& other Cromwell’s Rule l. Puritan strictness l. Military power l. Suppression of theatre l& other frivolous activities l. Tyrant/dictator

Who are the Puritans? l A generalization, as there are wide variances in this Who are the Puritans? l A generalization, as there are wide variances in this group. l Included the Presbyterians, Independents, Congregationalists, Baptists, Quakers. Most of these religions are some form of Calvinism. l Not only did the Puritans wish to “purify” themselves, they also strove to "purify" both the English church and society of the remnants of "corrupt" and "unscriptural" "papist" ritual and dogma.

The Restoration l Cromwell’s death dooms Puritan rule l Parliament asks King Charles II The Restoration l Cromwell’s death dooms Puritan rule l Parliament asks King Charles II back from exile in Holland l People revolted vs. Puritan strictness

Act of Indemnity and Oblivion l Charles granted an amnesty to Cromwell’s supporters l Act of Indemnity and Oblivion l Charles granted an amnesty to Cromwell’s supporters l Not covered under this act were the judges and officials involved in his father’s trial and execution.

Repealing Cromwell’s Laws l One of the first things Charles did when he returned Repealing Cromwell’s Laws l One of the first things Charles did when he returned was to repeal all of Cromwell’s laws. l Inns reopened, theaters reopened, sports started up again, and life in England became “merry” again.

Charles II (1630 -1685) I May, 1660 - Charles II came back to England Charles II (1630 -1685) I May, 1660 - Charles II came back to England

No Legitimate Children l Charles married Catherine of Braganza, the Infanta of Portugal, in No Legitimate Children l Charles married Catherine of Braganza, the Infanta of Portugal, in 1662 l never had children Queen Catherine

James II §James II came to the throne in 1685 §Catholic sympathizer § appoints James II §James II came to the throne in 1685 §Catholic sympathizer § appoints Catholics to influential government & military posts §religious persecution of Scottish Protestants

The Yorks as Catholics l James’s Protestant wife, Anne Hyde, Duchess of York, converted The Yorks as Catholics l James’s Protestant wife, Anne Hyde, Duchess of York, converted to Catholicism towards the end of her life. l She died in 1671, and shortly after, James converted to Catholicism. l By Charles’s royal decree, the princesses Mary and Anne were brought up Anglican.

Further York troubles l In 1673 James married the Italian princess Maria of Modena, Further York troubles l In 1673 James married the Italian princess Maria of Modena, who was also Catholic. l They had four children before James became king. l All died before he took the throne. • June 1688 a Catholic prince James Francis Edward Stuart born.

Glorious Revolution (Bloodless Revolution) u William of Orange (Protestant) u Mary (James II’s daughter) Glorious Revolution (Bloodless Revolution) u William of Orange (Protestant) u Mary (James II’s daughter) u Parliament asks them to rule in place of James II u New limited monarchy

1689 Bill of Rights • William and Mary agreed to Parliaments Bill of Rights 1689 Bill of Rights • William and Mary agreed to Parliaments Bill of Rights • This bill guaranteed Parliament the right to approve all taxes and forbade the monarch to suspend the law. • England thus attained a limited, or constitutional, monarchy.

The Last Stuart Monarch l Anne, younger daughter of James II and Lady Anne The Last Stuart Monarch l Anne, younger daughter of James II and Lady Anne Hyde, Duchess of York. l Died childless in 1714 l Passed the throne on to her cousins in the House of Orange from Hanover.

The Pretenders l James never accepted defeat, and claimed the throne for the rest The Pretenders l James never accepted defeat, and claimed the throne for the rest of his life, as did his son, “The Old Pretender” and l his grandson, the “The Young Pretender, ” or Bonnie Prince Charlie as he’s often called in literature.

London grows to 600, 000! London grows to 600, 000!

Historic Events Great Plague in London 1665 ------68, 000 die! Historic Events Great Plague in London 1665 ------68, 000 die!

Historic Events Great Fire of London - 1666 (Christopher Wren - rebuilder) Historic Events Great Fire of London - 1666 (Christopher Wren - rebuilder)

Political Parties § Tories § Supported royal authority § Did not want war with Political Parties § Tories § Supported royal authority § Did not want war with France § Whigs § Wanted to limit royal authority with wealthy merchants and nobles § Wanted to limit French expansion in Europe and North America

Movements in literature • Metaphysical Poets: John Donne, George Herbert, Richard Crashaw, Henry Vaughan, Movements in literature • Metaphysical Poets: John Donne, George Herbert, Richard Crashaw, Henry Vaughan, Andrew Marvell • Cavalier Poets: Ben Jonson and his followers (Richard Herrick, Richard Lovelace, Edmund Waller, Sir John Denham). The Sons of Ben. • Puritans: Andrew Marvell, John Milton

Forms of Literature • Theatre: – imitators of Shakespeare (Webster, Ford, Middleton, etc. ) Forms of Literature • Theatre: – imitators of Shakespeare (Webster, Ford, Middleton, etc. ) – Variety of comedies and masques by Ben Jonson – Theatres closed during the Puritan Revolution • Sonnet: – gradually goes out of fashion in the Jacobean period; Donne used it for religious purposes, and Milton for political purposes • New forms and genres: – Heroic couplets, verse satires, essays, biographies

Cavalier Poets -- Lovelace, Suckling, Herrick -u Anglican u supporters of the King u Cavalier Poets -- Lovelace, Suckling, Herrick -u Anglican u supporters of the King u topics of wine, women, war & love u simple & easy to understand u avoided religious topics u witty & satirical “Tribe of Ben”

Metaphysical Poets -- Donne, Herbert, later Herrick -- u Protestant u Not happy with Metaphysical Poets -- Donne, Herbert, later Herrick -- u Protestant u Not happy with the King u religious & philosophical topics u challenging, demanding, symbolic u metaphysical conceits – unusual metaphors

John Donne (1572 -1631) ‘Jack Donne’ John Donne (1572 -1631) ‘Jack Donne’

John Donne ’ ‘Dr. Donne ‘The proportion of the world disfigured is. ’ John Donne ’ ‘Dr. Donne ‘The proportion of the world disfigured is. ’

Donne’s poetics • Radical break from Petrarchan tradition: ‘Donne has purged English poetry of Donne’s poetics • Radical break from Petrarchan tradition: ‘Donne has purged English poetry of pedantic weeds’, he has replaced ‘servile imitation’ with ‘fresh invention’’ (Carew) • Displays his own ingenuity and presents a world in which everything is held together by secret analogies: ‘John Donne is the first poet in the world, in some things. ’ (Jonson) • Distorts traditional rhythmic and stanza patterns: ‘Donne, for not keeping accents, deserved hanging. ’ (Jonson)

The Metaphysical school • Not a ‘school’: no organised group but strong influence of The Metaphysical school • Not a ‘school’: no organised group but strong influence of Donne’s style on a generation of poets before 1660 • Not ‘metaphysical’: ‘it is not philosophical poetry in any real sense, although it uses the concepts and vocabulary of philosophy’ (Bewley) • Main features: colloquial language; the poem takes the form of a philosophical argument with another person; brings in a range of discordant images (Gray)

Related terms • Conceit (concetto): ‘a figure of speech that establishes an elaborate parallel Related terms • Conceit (concetto): ‘a figure of speech that establishes an elaborate parallel between two seemingly dissimilar or remote objects or ideas’ (Gray) – Petrarchan: emotional; the subject is compared extensively to an object (love is war) – Metaphysical: intellectual; striking analogies between two dissimilar things (a flea is a marriage bed) • Wit: ‘intellect’, ‘intelligence’, ‘creative intelligence’; describes Donne’s poetic style, which combines ideas in an ‘unexpected, paradoxical, and intellectually challenging and pleasing manner’ (Gray)

Songs and Sonnets (1593 -1602) • Sonnet: here: a synonym for ‘love lyric’ • Songs and Sonnets (1593 -1602) • Sonnet: here: a synonym for ‘love lyric’ • Addressed to flesh and bone women; consummated love as opposed to Platonic love: ‘Donne holds Platonic love to be a lure. . . With what insidious arguments would he persuade his love to give herself to him entirely!’ (Legouis) • Using and subverting Elizabethan clichés: ‘It seemed to me as if. . . the world was filled with broken fragments of systems and. . . Donne merely picked up, like a magpie, various shining fragments. ’ (T. S. Eliot)

Holy Sonnets (1633 -35) • 19 religious sonnets, written in the last years of Holy Sonnets (1633 -35) • 19 religious sonnets, written in the last years of his life • English sonnet form • Same combination of passion and intellectual argument as in the love poems but the passion is more complex: hope and anguish, fear and repentance

George Herbert (1593 -1633) George Herbert (1593 -1633)

Herbert’s poetics • The Temple: a collection of religious poems • Contest between secular Herbert’s poetics • The Temple: a collection of religious poems • Contest between secular wit and religious devotion • Spiritual struggle rather than auto-biographical sincerity, as in Donne • Emblematic objects: the human body is a church building • Remarkable variety of stanza forms, including pattern poems: ‘Easter Wings’

Herbert’s poetics • The Temple: a collection of religious poems • Contest between secular Herbert’s poetics • The Temple: a collection of religious poems • Contest between secular wit and religious devotion • Spiritual struggle rather than auto-biographical sincerity, as in Donne • Emblematic objects: the human body is a church building • Remarkable variety of stanza forms, including pattern poems: ‘Easter Wings’

MS page of ‘Easter Wings’ MS page of ‘Easter Wings’

Richard Crashaw (1612 -1649) Richard Crashaw (1612 -1649)

Crashaw’s poetics • Steps to the Temple (1646): a homage to Herbert • Sensuous Crashaw’s poetics • Steps to the Temple (1646): a homage to Herbert • Sensuous images describe religious passion • Catholicism: Baroque mannerism; Secentismo, Gongorism

Henry Vaughan (1622 -1695) Henry Vaughan (1622 -1695)

Andrew Marvell (1621 -1678) Andrew Marvell (1621 -1678)

Marvell’s poetics • Metaphysical wit and Classical proportion • Milton’s influence: Christian Humanism, Puritanism Marvell’s poetics • Metaphysical wit and Classical proportion • Milton’s influence: Christian Humanism, Puritanism • Wit is bound up with strong moral sense • Love of nature put to moral purpose

Ben Jonson (1572 -1637) Ben Jonson (1572 -1637)

Jonson’s poetics • Shakespeare’s friend, rival playwright and fellow actor • Poet Laureate; literary Jonson’s poetics • Shakespeare’s friend, rival playwright and fellow actor • Poet Laureate; literary dictator; professional writer • Classicist and Renaissance Humanist: ‘a perfect playwright’

Genres • Comedies of humours: eccentricities of our ruling passions ridiculed; Every Man in Genres • Comedies of humours: eccentricities of our ruling passions ridiculed; Every Man in His Humour (1598) • Classical tragedies: derived from Tacitus, Juvenal, Seneca; Sejanus (1610), Catiline (1611) • Satiric comedies: based on Terence and Plautus; Volpone (1606), The Alchemist (1610) • Masques: for courtly entertainment, symbolic plays with visual variety and rich costumes; Masque of Blackness (1605), Masque of Queens (1609) • Poetry: occasional poems, elegies, compliments, dedications, songs, epigrams • The Work of Benjamin Jonson (1616)

John Milton (1608 -1674) John Milton (1608 -1674)

17 th Century Drama u Ben Jonson u Comedies - Satiric Comedy - Tragicomedy 17 th Century Drama u Ben Jonson u Comedies - Satiric Comedy - Tragicomedy - Comedy of Manners u Puritans close theater u Actresses acceptable by end of century He was not of an age, but for all time. -- To the Memory of Shakespeare

17 th Century Prose u Scientific writing u Hobbes & Locke – Philosophical writing 17 th Century Prose u Scientific writing u Hobbes & Locke – Philosophical writing u Izaak Walton – The Compleat Angler u John Dryden – Literary criticism u Samuel Pepys – The Diary (in code) u John Bunyan – The Pilgrim’s Progress u King James Bible

John Bunyan Our Father which in heaven art, Thy name be always hallowed; Thy John Bunyan Our Father which in heaven art, Thy name be always hallowed; Thy kingdom come, thy will be done; Thy heavenly path be followed By us on earth as 'tis with thee, We humbly pray; And let our bread us given be, From day to day. Forgive our debts as we forgive Those that to us indebted are: Into temptation lead us not, But save us from the wicked snare. The kingdom's thine, the power too, We thee adore; The glory also shall be thine For evermore.

Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress u Written in prison u Main character is Christian u Allegory Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress u Written in prison u Main character is Christian u Allegory of Christian Life u “Last great Christian classic”

Samuel Pepys – Diary Writer June 15 th The Duke of Yorke not yet Samuel Pepys – Diary Writer June 15 th The Duke of Yorke not yet come to town. The town grows very sickly, and people to be afeared of it - there dying this last wek of the plague 112, from 43 the week before - whereof, one in Fanchurch-street and one in Broadstreete by the Treasurer's office.

Milton’s poetics • Christian Humanism: eloquence, fluency in languages, visiting famous literary figures abroad, Milton’s poetics • Christian Humanism: eloquence, fluency in languages, visiting famous literary figures abroad, conscious preparation for poetry • Puritanism: Latin Secretary for Cromwell’s Council of State; defence of the Common-wealth; imprisonment • Renaissance: rich and decorated language, references to Classical literature, ambition of epic poetry • Reformation: christian morality, puritan religion, justifying the case of the Commonwealth

Periods • -1640: education and potic apprenticeship, pastoral elegies, L’Allegro and Il Penseroso (1631), Periods • -1640: education and potic apprenticeship, pastoral elegies, L’Allegro and Il Penseroso (1631), Lycidas (1637) • 1640 -1660: public involvement, sonnets and occasional poems; political, philosophical and religious prose: Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce (1643) Aeropagitica (1644), A Treatise of Civil Power (1659), etc. • 1660 -: mature period, epic poems; Paradise Lost (1667), Paradise Regained (1671), Samson Agonistes (1671)

Sonnets • 24 sonnets between 1630 -58: five in Italian, the rest in English Sonnets • 24 sonnets between 1630 -58: five in Italian, the rest in English • A variety of occasions: public and private, but no love sonnets; not a sequence • Form: Petrarchan structure but avoiding endstopped lines and ignoring the volta.

Paradise Lost (1667) • A religiuos poem: the Fall, Original Sin, and the adventures Paradise Lost (1667) • A religiuos poem: the Fall, Original Sin, and the adventures of Satan • A heroic poem: heroic energy of Satan, an epic battle; spiritual heroism; refusal of obedience to God’s authority • A political poem: an allegory for the case of the Puritan Revolution, a rebellion against the monarchy • Aim: ‘justifying the ways of God to men’, but also: the dignity of the human condition • A great synthesis of contemporary western culture. . .