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TEXT TYPES Disampaikan dalam Pelatihan Menulis Teks Bahasa Inggris untuk Guru-Guru SMA Oleh: Emilia, Ph. D Bandung, 2 Juni 2007
Text & Context Types
Text: weaving; referring to words and sentences woven together to create a single whole (Christie and Misson, 1998, p. 8). Text= discourse in critical discourse analysis (CDA) = “language use in speech and writing” (Fairclough & Wodak, 1997). “A text is a semantic unit, … the language people produce and react to, what they say and write, and read and listen to, in daily life. … The term covers both speech and writing … it may be … conversation, telephone talk, debate, … public notices, . . . intimate monologue or anything else” (Halliday, 1975, p. 123). • Whether a stretch of language is a text or not has nothing to do with its size or form. … The single word stop on a road sign and Tolsoy’s novel War and Peace are both texts because they are unified wholes. One page of War and Peace, though longer than a stop sign, is not a text because it cannot stand alone as a unified whole (Feez and Joyce, 1998, p. 4; juga bisa dilihat dalam tulisan Lemke, 1991; Eggins, 1994; Christie and Misson, 1998).
• Context: “being woven together”, with the prefix Con carrying the sense of being together; elements that accompany a text (Christie and Misson, 1998, p. 8). • Context of Situation: immediate situation of language: Field, Tenor, Mode (Register) • Context of culture: Factors which determine collectively the way the text is interpreted in its context of situation.
The Relationship Between Language, Register dan Genre (cited from Eggins, 1994, p. 34)
The relationship between Text and Context : Dialectical: Text creates the context as much as the context creates the text. Any text is said to be comprehensible in terms of the context which gives rise to it. Context is known only because of the text which gives it life. Conversely, text is only known because of the context which makes it relevant (Christie and Misson, 1998, p. 8).
Texture: “what holds the clauses of a text together to give them unity” (Eggins, 1994, p. 85). Intertextuality: The way text refers to other texts.
Two important Dimensions of Texture: Coherence dan Cohesion. • Coherence refers to the way a group of clauses or sentences relate to the context. Two types of coherence: situational or registerial coherence and generic coherence. • A text has situational coherence when we can think of one situation in which all the clauses of the text could occur. i. e. when can specify a field, mode, and tenor for the entire collection of clauses. • A text has generic coherence when we can recognize the text as an example of a particular genre, i. e. when we can identify a Schematic Structure, with each part of the text expressing one element of the unfolding, staged organization of the language event.
Look at The following examples • 1. Up road runs they. 2. To sign please form those page on. 3. Three children Shirley have: boy two, girl (Source: Eggins, 1994) • 1. I’ve been learning English for two years. 2. He’s been playing the guitar for six months. 3. They’ve been living in Sydney for one month. 4. We’ve been working here for 3 years. 5. She’s been studying French for two weeks (Source: Eggins, 1994). • 1. Once upon a time there was a little white mouse called “Tiptoe”. 2. It’s very rarely hot in Paris. 3. When does the race start? 4. It does so. 5. No, I don’t know how to make chocolate
• The little white mouse sniffed the cheese carefully. Camembert is a soft, French cheese. The French consume a lot of dairy products. Isn’t milk an important source of calcium? You know of course that vitamin deficiencies can lead to feelings of fatigue and listlessness (Source: Eggins, 1994). • I had always wanted to see Paris. 2. However, you can imagine how excited I was one there. 3. We had wanted to do some sightseeing. 4. And unfortunately it was cold and wet. 5. Meanwhile we were exhausted by 6 o’clock (Source: Eggins, 1994).
• Mark offered Lisa the box of chocolate. 2. She took two of the chocolates out of the box of chocolates. 3. She put one of the chocolates down on the saucer of her cup. 4. She started eating the other one of the chocolates she had taken out of the box of chocolates. 5. Then she started eating the other chocolate she had taken out of the box of chocolates. 6. These chocolates out of the box of chocolates are delicious, she said. 7. Is that chocolate out of the box of chocolates delicious, he replied. 8. “Why don’t you take another chocolate out of the box of chocolates” he suggested. 9. I will take another chocolate out of the box of chocolates” she replied. 10. And so she took another chocolate out of the box of chocolates (Source: Eggins, 1994).
1. Mark offered Lisa the box of chocolates. 2. She took two out of the box. 3. Placing one down on her saucer, 4. she started eating the other. 5. “These are delicious” she said. 6. “Are they? ” he replied. 7. “Then why don’t you take another? ” he suggested. 8. “I will” she replied. 9. And so she did (Source: Eggins, 1994). Spoken language A: 1. Have a chocolate, Lisa. B: 2. The ferry just left. A: 3. Thank you. B: 4. Hallo
Text Types Families of Texts Types: Information Texts: Descriptions Explanations Reports Directives Texts which combine more than one of these text-types Story Texts: Recounts, Narratives Persuasive Texts (Opinion Texts): Expositions, Discussions
• 1. Spoof/ Recount Social function : to retell an event with a humorous twist Generic (Schematic) structure Orientation : sets the scene Event(s) : tell what happened Twist : provide the ‘punchline’ Significant lexicogrammatical features: Focus on individual participants (in bold below) Use of Material Processes (in italics below) Circumtances of time and place Use of past tense Example: : Penguin in the Park Orientation Once a man was walking in the park when he came across a penguin. Event 1 He He took him to a policeman and said ‘I have just found this penguin. What should I do? ’ The policeman replied, ‘Take him to the zoo’. The policeman replied, ‘Take him to the zoo” Event 2 The next day the policeman saw the same man in the same park and the man was still carrying the penguin with him. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked, ‘Why are you still carrying that penguin about? Didn’t you take it to the zoo? ’ ‘I certainly did, ’ replied the man, Twist ‘and it was a great idea because he really enjoyed it, so today I’m taking him to the movies!’
• 2. Recounts Social function: To retell events for the purpose of informing or entertaining Generic (Schematic) structure : Orientation: provides the setting and introduces participants Event(s) : tell what happened, in what sequence Re-orientation: optional—closure of events Significant lexicogrammatical features Focus on specific participants (in bold below) Use of Material Processes (in italics) Circumtances of time and place (underlined) Use of past tense Focus on temporal sequence
Orientation: I was driving along the crossroad when the car suddenly lurched to one side. Event 1: At first I thought a tyre had gone but then I saw telegraph poles collapsing like matchsticks. Event 2: The rocks came tumbling across the road and I had to abandon the car. Event 3: When I got back to town, well, as I said, there wasn’t much left.
3. Narrative Social Function: To amuse, entertain and to deal with actual or vicarious experience in different ways; Narratives deal with problematic events which lead to a crisis or turning point of some kind, which in turn finds a resolution. Generic (Schematic) structure: Orientation: sets the scene and introduces the participants Evaluation: a stepping back to evaluate the plight Complication: a crisis arises Resolution: the crisis is resolved, for better or for worse Re-orientation: optional Significant lexicogrammatical features Focus on specific and usually individualized Participants (in bold below) Use of Material Processes (and in this text, Behavioral and Verbal Processes) Use of Relational Processes and Mental Processes Use of temporal conjunctions, and temporal Circumtances Use of past tense
• Orientation: • Major Complication: One day she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking about • Resolution: Snow White did not want her Uncle and Aunt to do this so she • Complication: She was very tired and hungry. • Resolution: • Complication: • Major Resolution: Doc said, ‘if you wish, you may live here with us’. Snow White Once upon a time there lived a little girl named Snow White. She lived with her Aunt and Uncle because her parents were dead. leaving Snow White in the castle because wanted they both to go to America and they didn’t have enough money to take Snow White. decided it would be best if she ran away. The next morning she ran away from home when her Aunt and Uncle were having breakfast. She ran away into the woods. Then she saw this little cottage. She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell asleep. Meanwhile, the seven dwarfs were coming home from work. They went inside. There they found Snow White sleeping. Then Snow White woke up. She saw the dwarfs. The dwarfs said, ’What is your name? ’ Snow White said, ‘My name is Snow White’. said, ‘Oh could (I) Tankyou’. Then Snow White told the dwarfs the whole story and Snow White and the 7 dwarfs lived happily ever after.
Narrative Orientation Once upon a time there was a Fairy who was pretty. She had one child. She was good to people and animals. She went to the fairy shop and got a toy bear for her girl. She washed the bear when she came home. Her child was happy. Complication/Resolution When the bear tore Mum mended it. Mum loved the child. Closure We say goodbye (Source: Christie, 2002). MY DAY IN OUTER SPACE One day I was rocketing through Mars and I saw a strange Monster. He had four eyes and you can get past him. If you go next to him he will eat you up. If he comes next time I will press my button and it will fire at him. If it hits him he will just drop down dead (Source: Martin, 1985). Linguistic Features: The use of Once Upon a Time, One day, A long time ago (Adverb of time), Adverb of Place (In a small country town or village …)
Recount It is the school holidays this week. So far, I have done lots of things. On Monday morning, I met Rina at he park. We went skating. In the afternoon we went for a “Stories and Craft’ session at the library. On Tuesday afternoon, I went to the movie with my cousins. We saw Harry Potter. My favourit character is Harry. I think he is great. On Wednesday, Grandma and I went to the zoo. We had a lot of fun. We ate a picnic lunch. On Thursday morning, Mum and I went shopping for my new school shoes. In the evening, I went to a Brownies meeting from 5. 30 p. m-7 p. m. Oh no! I have not done my Maths and English homework. I will need to do that tomorrow. After that I can play with my new computer game, Into Space. Linguistic Features Present tense (untuk menceritakan apa yang terjadi sekarang): It is the school holiday; Present perfect (menceritakan kejadian yang sudah terjadi dan masih berhubungan dengan kejadian sekarang): I have done. First person pronoun: Past Tense (untuk menceritakan kejadian lampau): I met Rina; we went for a …; I went to the movie; We saw …; Grandma and I went to…; We had a lot of fun; We ate a picnic lunch. Pengguaan Pronoun I selalu dibelakang kalau dia dirangkaikan dengan pronoun/propernoun Lain Present Tense: My favourit character is Harry. I think he is … Present Perfect (Negatif): I have not done … Present Future (untuk menceritakan apa yang akan dilakukan di masa yang akan datang): I will need to do that to; Can digunakan untuk menunjukkan kegiatan yang akan dilakukan di masa yang akan datang: I can play
Interview Q: Do you remember how you first got into breeding? A: Yeah, quite by accident (Laughter). Q: Can you tell me? A: Yeah … a friend, she got a little puppy, and I just fell in love with it. And then they told me that there was still one left in the litter, so I went and bought her. No way in the world I’d been thought about showing or breeding or anything like that. I’d always just liked dogs. So, we bought this one and she was terrible. In fact I think she is the worst dog I’ve ever seen. Except, she had a terrific nature and there’s no way in the world I’d ever get rid of her. Still got her. And … we just went from there. We bought another one, and …. Another one, and … we’ve got eight (laughter) (Source: Martin, 1985). Our Excursion We went to an excursion. The man took us there and on the way we got caught in a traffic jam and waited. Then we were in Sydney and the bus stopped and everyone got out. We went into the museum and we put our bags in the cupboard. Then we went to see a film called ”A Message from a Dinosaur”. Then we had lunch and I had some fruit. Then we went back to school (Source: Martin, 1985).
4. Reports • Social Function: To describe the way things are, with reference to a range of natural, man-made and social phenomena in our environment. • • Generic (Schematic) Structure General Classification: tells what the phenomenon under discussion is Description: tells what the phenomenon under discussion is like in terms of • – parts (and their functions) – qualities – habits or behaviours, if living; uses, if non-natural • • • Significant Lexicogrammatical Features Focus on Generic Participants (in bold) Use of Relational Processes (in italics) to state what is and that which it is Use of simple present tense (unless extinct) No temporal sequence
Whales • General Classification: Whales are sea-living mammals • Description: (behaviours, qualities, parts): They therefore breathe air but cannot survive on land. Some species are very large indeed and the blue whale, which can exceed 30 m in length, is the largest animals to have lived on earth. Superficially, the whale looks rather like a fish, but there are important differences in its external structure: its tails consists of a pair of broad, flat, horizontal paddles (the tail of a fish is vertical) and it has a single nostril on top of its large, broad head. The skin is smooth and shiny and beneath it lies a layer of fat (blubber). This is up to 30 cm in thickness and serves to conserve heat and body fluids.
5. Description • Social Function: To describe a particular person, place or thing • Generic Structure: Identification: identifies phenomenon to be described Description: Describe parts, qualities, characteristics Significant Lexcogrammatical Features: -Focus on specific Participants -Use of Attributive and identifying processes -Frequent use of ephitets and classifiers in nominal groups -Use of simple present tense
Natural Bridge National park • Identification Natural bridge National Park is a luscious tropical rainforest • Description: It is located 110 kilometers south of Brisbane and is reached by following the Pacific Highway to Nerang and then by travelling through the Numinbah Valley. This scenic roadway lies in the shadow of the Lamington national park. The phenomenon of the rock formed into a natural ‘arch’ and the cave through which a waterfall cascades is a short I kilometre walk below a dense rainforest canopy from the main picnic area. Swimming is permitted in the rock pools. Night-time visitors to the cave will discover the unique feature of the glow worms. Picnic areas offer toilets, barbeques, shelter sheds, water and fireplaces, however overnight camping is not permitted (text source: Wignell, 1995)
Tips to Look After Your Husband (Extract from -1960 Home Economics Book) Source: Love, K. , Pigdon, K. , Baker, G. , and Hampston, J. (2001). BUILT. Building Understandings in Literacy and Teaching. Melbourne: The University of Melbourne; http: //www. edfac. unimelb. edu. au/LLAE Have dinner ready: Plan ahead, even the night before, to have a delicious meal ready on time. This is a way of letting him know that you have been thinking about him and that you are concerned about his needs. Most men are hungry when they come home and the prospect of a good meal is part of the warm welcome needed. Prepare yourself: Take 10 minutes to rest so that you will be refreshed when he arrives. Touch up your make up, put a ribbon in your hair and be fresh looking. He has been with a lot of work-weary people. Be a little gay and a little more interesting. His boring day may need a lift. Clear away the clutter: Make one last trip through the main part of the house just before your husband arrives, gathering up school books, toys, paper etc. Then run a dust cloth over tables. Your husband will feel he has reached a heaven of rest and order, and it will give you a lift too. Prepare the children: Take a few minutes to wash the children’s hand faces (if they are small), comb her hair, and if necessary change their clothes. They are little treasures and he would like to see them playing the part. Minimise all noise: At the time of his arrival, eliminate all noise of washer, dryer, diswasher or vacuum. Try to encourage the children to be quiet. Greet him with a warm smile and be glad to see him. Some don’ts: Don’t greet him with problems of complaints. Don’t complain if he’s late for dinner. Count this as minor compared with what he might have gone through that day. Make him comfortable: Have him lean back in a comfortable chair or suggest he lie down in the bedroom. Have a cool or warm drink ready for him. Arrange his pillow for him and offer to take off his shoes. Speak in a low, soft, soothing and pleasant voice. Allow him to relax-unwind. Listen to him: You may have a dozen things to tell him, but the moment of his arrival is not the time. Let him talk first. Make the evening his: Never complain if he does not take you out to dinner or to other place of entertainment. Instead, try to understand his world of strain and pressure, his need to be home and to relax. The Goal Try to make your home a place of peace and order where your husband can renew himself in body and spirit.
Procedure Or Recount? If You want to grow beans the first thing you do is to go to a shop and get a packet of bean seeds. Buy them. Bring them home. Plant them in the garden water. Every foow days water them. When they grow your pick them. Send them to the froot macker. And then someone buys them. They take them home and eat them (written by a year 3 child, adapted from Martin, 1985: 5) Compare the above Procedure with the following text. Identify the differences. We wanted to grow beans, so we went to the shop and bought a packet of bean seeds. Then we brought them home and planted them in the garden. We watered them every few days and when they grew we picked them. Then we sent them to the fruit maker. Someone bought them and took them home and ate them.
Description Or Report? Where did my family come from? My dad came from England My mum came from Australia My nana came from Australia My papa come from Australia. My great grandmother came from Australia. My great grandmother come from Scotland. My great, great grandmother came from Ireland. I don’t know anymore so good bye. (year 3) Australian Immigration Australians come from many different countries, including England, Ireland Scotland. Many Australians were born right here in Australia. Birds My bird lived up in a tree. It ate so it wouldn’t dies. It was a black bird and it was small. Birds live up in a tree. If they don’t eat they die. Red birds, black birds any coloured birds dark birds light birds. Some are small and others are big (Year 3).
Recounts, Procedures, Descriptions and Report- How they are alike and different in terms of generality and focus Particular General Event focus Recount Procedure Thing focus Description Report
Braschosaurus, the largest dinosaur of all, was three times as heavy as Apatosaurus. One skeleton has been found that is 30 metres long. When it was alive, this animal must have weighed more than fifteen times as much as modern elephant. Brachiosaurus was a plant eater (Year 2, Martin, 1985)). Radios have been around for years. They come in all sizes. Tape recorders have six buttons. That’s one for eject, one for stopping, one for starting, one for rewinding, one foreword and one for recording. There are three switches. One is for stereo and mono (mode), and one is for tape, fm and am (function) and off and on (monitor 0. It also has a dial that puts it on different stations. The stations are 2 WS, 2 SW, 2 JJJ, 2 UW, 2 EA, 3 EA, 2 UE, M. M. M and 2 GB. On tape recorders there are two wide speakers. Also there are two volume dials. It as from ziro to ten. Our tape recorder is a PYEsre 4032. There is a place where you can attach your ear phones to. In the back there is a little place where you can put the batteries in (Martin, 1985).
Explanations Note: Some reports do contain explanations Sequence Explanation Purpose: To sequence the phases of a process To show and why the phases occur in that order Stages: Phenomenon identification which identifies what is being explained Explanation sequence which described a chain of related events Model: Evaporation occurs as part of the water cycle. When air warms up in the sun and circulates above large bodies of water such as oceans, the water on the surface of the ocean is turned into water vapour and this water vapour rises.
The Water Cycle The water cycle has four main phases: evaporation, condensation, precipitation and run-off. When air warms up in the sun and circulates above large bodies of water such as ocean, the water on the surface of the ocean is turned into water vapour and the water vapour rises. This is called evaporation. As it rises the water vapour cools into tiny drops of water. These drops condense as clouds. After condensation, the water drops gradually become heavier. When the water drops in the clouds become too heavy, they precipitate or falls as rain, snow or hail. Rainwater runs off the land into creeks and rivers. The run-off then goes into lakes, seas and oceans (Source: Martin, 1985). (A flow chart can be used to explain the sequence of a phenomenon)
Consequential Explanation Purpose: To explain reasons or consequences Explanation of reasons or consequences explain one of two things: the reasons for an outcome or the consequences of an occurrence. Stages of Consequential Explanation of reasons Outcome which: • identifies the outcome • Gives any necessary background • Previews the reasons Reasons which explains the reasons for the outcome by ordering the reasons from the most important to the least important Review which: • Reviews the reasons • Sometimes evaluates the reasons
Explanation of consequences Occurrence which • Identifies the occurrence • Gives any necessary background • Previews the consequences Consequences which explains the consequences for the occurrence by ordering the consequences from the most important to the least important Review which: • previews the consequences • Sometimes evaluates the consequences
Snails have a shell on their back to protect themselves from enemy. They like to hide behind a rock and it leaves a silvery track behind him. A snail has a strong foot. They stick to the ground fermelee (it should be firmly) (Source: Martin, 1985). A friend is important to me because if you don’t have a friend you never play (Source: Martin, 1985).
What were the main causes of the Great Depression? (Source: Feez & Joyce, 1998) The great Depression was an extremely serious economic downturn. It was felt all over the world because the main causes of the depression can be traced back to a world war. This war was World war I which lasted from 1914 -1918. One reason for the depression was that the countries who were fighting in World War I invested everything they had in the equipment and weapons needed to fight a war. When peace returned, these countries were not equipped to manufacture the goods needed for peace and prosperity. Another reason for the depression was that during the war countries like England, the United States, France and Germany had to borrow a lot of money to keep going. After the war they were not able to pay back these debts. This led to inflation, high unemployment, economic and political instability. Finally, groups of countries formed trading blocks which overpaid some countries for their goods making it impossible for other countries to sell their goods. This made world trade very unstable and unreliable. In conclusion , it is clear that the great depression was largely caused by the cost of World War I. These costs included the disruption to investment, the huge debts of war and the formation of economically unhelpful alliances and animosities.
What were the effects of the great the Great Depression? (Source: Feez & Joyce, 1998) The Great Depression had terrible consequences for the individuals who live through it. It also left some very lasting effects on the whole world. One of the most important effects of the Depression was in Germany. The german economy collapsed. During the economic chaos, Adolph Hitler and the Nazis were able to rise to power. Another major effect of the Depression was that England the United States excluded Japan from their trading partnership. As a result, the Japanese became more aggressive towards the West. Finally, in the United States the Depression forced the Federal Government and the president, Franklin D Roosevelt, to intervene in the economy in a way that had never happened before. This economic intervention was called the New Deal. Overall, the effects of the Depression were very unfortunate. It ultimately led to the Second World war, even if the New Deal gave Americans some hope for a short while.
• Exposition: Schematic Structure: • Thesis: Introduces the issue and the writer’s point of view • Arguments: Support thesis • Restatement of thesis: a stronger and more direct statement of thesis introduced in the first stage. Sometimes exposition begins with a background.
Hortatory Exposition: “Persuades to” 6 L … Drive Moreland 3066 Dear editor, I am writing because of my concern over the fatalities caused through the misuse of firearms. I feel all governments should pass firmer laws on the control of firearms. Small firearms should only be issued under license to responsible people such as policemen and security guards. Large firearms should only be owned and used by gun clubs and their members. This would cease the hunting and slaughter of our wildlife. Recent examples of firearm accidents are – Ronald Reagan’s attempted assacination, an innocent eighteen year old shot by an angry boyfriend a six year old boy killed while playing with a gun at a friend’s house. The government are to afraid of losing their place because of the communities opinion of firearms. Life is to precious to be lost in this tragic way (Martin, 1985).
Analytical Exposition: “Persuades that” The Perfect pet The best pet in the world is a pet that you don’t have to feed, doesn’t fidget and doesn’t make noises in the middle of the night. The pet that fits all these categories is a pet rock! You never have to worry about it dying because it was never alive in the first place. When you take your pet rock for a walk you don’t have to worry about it fighting with another rock. You don’t have to wash it or brush its fur. Pet rocks are also good for weather predictions. If your rock is wet, you know it’s raining. When it starts to fly its windy and when it shakes it must be an earthquake. A pet rock will never run away, it doesn’t answer back and if you don’t like the colour of the rock you can paint it again. The food bill is very low for a pet rock for it will cost you nothing to feed. There are two or three things your pet rock will not do. It will not fetch a ball or stick, won’t beg for food, and can’t roll over for you to rub its stomach. But it also never digs up the garden and doesn’t care if you change its name. Pet rocks never catch a cold or get sunburnt. They are very good for paper weights if they are heavy. Last but not least they can be both indoor and outdoor pet (year 6, Source: Martin, 1985).
Exposition The Government doesn’t concern about the country (Source: Emilia, 2005) Our country has been led by five presidents. Since the end of the leadership of the second president, our country entered (has entered) many crises. The most visible crises are economic crisis and leadership crisis. After being led by Hobbies to Megawati, our country hasn’t been able to go out from the crises. Moreover, what those presidents did only showed that they didn’t concern (weren’t concerned) about the country. We are really in the crisis of leadership. We can see what our latest president did that showed her ignorance. In the new year’s eve, the husband of the president celebrated his birthday with a very glamorous party in Bali. He invited his friends and colleagues to the big party. For the guests whom he invited to the party, he provided rooms in expensive hotels. We can count the cost of the celebration without knowing the exact figure. It might cost more than a hundred million rupiahs, the amount that can help our country at least to reduce the suffering of our country.
Another fact that shows President’s ignorance is her appearance in a famous boy band concert. She and some members of her family came to the concert of F 4 from Taiwan. The ticket cost four million rupiahs for VVIP, one million rupiahs for VIPand 250 thousand rupiahs for the cheapest ticket. Her daughter, Pan Maharani, as reported in (the) METRO, spent 200 million rupiahs to treat her friends to come to the concert. We can imagine how much money the president and the vice president spent for the concert. The last fact that shows that the government doesn’t concern about the country is the raising of price of three public commodities in one time. Although the raising of telephone tariff was cancelled and the new prices of fuel were revised, the government still insists on raising the prices someday. The lower-middle class will still suffer from this condition while the higher-middle class will perhaps not feel any meaningful effect. Those facts that I mentioned above show that the government doesn’t concern about the country. There must be many ways the government can do to show its concern to (with) the country’s condition. If the president can’t spend her money to help this country to reduce the debt at least she shouldn’t spend so much money in front of the citizens of this country. What she did only showed that our country is really in the crisis of leadership.
• Discussion • Purpose: To discuss both sides of an argument • Schematic Structure: An Issue: introduces the issue and summarises the debate Arguments for one side Arguments for the other side Recommendation or judgment which is presented as the most logical conclusion.
Discussion Logging in Old-Growth Forests Source: Feez & Joyce (1998 b, p. 140) One of the most controversial issues in our community is whether old-growth forests should be logged. Some people believe that it is vital for Australia’s rural economy to continue logging in native forests. People on the other side of the debate claim that logging will lead to the destruction of Australia’s few remaining wilderness. Supporters of the logging industry say that only 1% of old growth trees are harvested and that all these trees are replanted. This, they claim, brings new life to the forests. At the same time they point out that logging brings employment to rural communities. This is important at a time when Australia’s country towns are dying as more and more people move to the cities to find work.
On the other hand, there a growing number of people in the community who oppose logging. They argue that logging destroys the habitat of a great number of native animals and plants. The consequence of this is the extinction of many species. Furthermore they point out that forests are vital to the environment because they absorb carbon dioxide and produce oxygen. Although logging supports rural communities, it also threatens the environment. After looking at both sides of this debate, I believe that new industries should be developed for the rural sector and that we should leave areas of untouched wilderness to be preserved for future generations.
Should We Use Animals for Entertainment? Source: Christie (2002, p. 62) Statement of issue “Should we use animals for entertainment” is the name of the topic we’re talking about in this essay. Below I have stated the positive and negative points for this issue. Arguments for In the report we read it said that in order to let a particular species survive, we need to at least capture a few to show to the public, to let them learn about the animals and then may be the public would do something to help the endangered animals. It said the animals are never tortured during training or the performances and they are kept in very clean, natural yards while not performing. At one stage it said that animals are the core element of circuses and the statistics proved that people like the animals best at the circus, therefore human circuses would not meet the public demand. Most people judge circuses on their old ways, not on the current, improved ways.
Arguments against But then on the other hand, animals like the elephants and bears are very prone to stress so they make a habit of standing in one place and rocking or swaying, which is bad for their joints and feet. Things like constant traveling and performing in front of very large audiences nearly every day affect this. They’re nearly always in confined spaces and the biggest places they are ever in are the circus arena or tent, which is also really small. The animals are not usually kept in their natural habitat, which stops their basic instinct like fighting for mates, building nests, hunting, etc, from being used to such a large extent like they do in the wild. An alternative is to use humanism circuses because they can’t exactly force people to join, they have to be voluntary. Recommendation After looking at all these facts, I believe that it’s wrong for us to keep animals in circuses for our entertainment. We should be able to entertain ourselves, not rely on animals. For this reason, and the one I have mentioned before, I believe it is wrong for us to train and force animals to perform in circuses.
LINGUISTIC FEATURES OF A DISCUSSION GENRE (Based on The work of the DSP, 1989; Derewienka, 1990; Christie, 2002). Some language features of a discussion genre: Focus on generic human and nonhuman participants, e. g. advertisements, newspapers, many people, etc. Use of simple present tense. eg. are. Have, is, promote, compete, saves, sells, take up, etc. Use of logical conjunctive relations. eg. while, why, and, because, on the other hand, firstly, also. Use of material, relational, and mental and verbal processes. Some saying verbs that are usually used in a discussion genre: state, claim, argue, point out, point to. . . , suggest, say, observe, assert, contend, . . . put it. . . , reiterate, write, provides a good example of. . . , stresses that. . . , sees/ saw s. t as. . . indicates, represents, highlights, focus. . , recommends, comment, inform, discuss, maintain, believes. Conjunctions used to set contrasts between what goes before and what comes after (ways to introduce another point): however, but, nevertheless, on the other hand, on the other side, In contrast, On the reverse, In contrast to. . . expert who assert the contrary are. . . , on the opposite side, despite this, ultimately we must realize, however, …
Ways to express arguments for: The Miss Universe Contest/Abortion/Capital punishment, it’s been said, In the. . . we read, it is said. . As a (n). . said, abortion/capital punishment/ the Miss Universe Contest. . The proponents of. . . claim. . . positions Supporters of. . . say. . . The advocates of. . Those who are in favour of/defend. . . argue. . . Abortionists. . . . ; Those who argue for abortion/capital punishment/the Miss Universe Contest. . . ; Supporting evidence for this viewpoint comes from. . . The most important work on this issue is the study by. . After interviewing (. . . ) she/he concluded. . . Believers in. . . regard. . . as. . For example, . . strongly supports. . The survey found out that. . . favour abortion. The first argument claimed by supporters of. . is related to/regards, is concerned with, is to do with. . . ; The third position adopted by supporters of. . . is. . , It is argued that. . . ; The argument for. . . is that. . . ; On one hand, some people agree that
Ways to express arguments against: Meanwhile, the opponents of. . . adopt three positions. . To begin, . . . Those who are against. . . argue. . Strong arguments against. . . come from. . But then on the other hand, . . . On the other hand, there a growing number of people in the community who oppose. . . The first reason for the argument against. . . stated by opponents of abortion is that. . It is argued that. . . On the other side some people say that. . . On the against side some people believe. . The argument against abortion in Indonesia is that. . Some people think that. . . Ways to sum up and to introduce recommendations: Thus, in summary, … To sum up, …In summary. After looking at both sides … I believe that …; . . . should/ need /must. . . Therefore after examining all arguments …, it is recommended that / it is important that. . The weight of evidence would suggest …My point of view is …My recommendation after looking at both sides …. It would appear reasonable to conclude then …It would seem that … Ways to write about cause and effect: As a consequence of …An effect of … As result of …. . . led to. . . resulted in …
Review Purpose: to assess the value of a work (of literature or art) Stages: Context which tells us about the social situation in which the characters abnd the actions are placed and gives a brief summary of the text (a synopsis). Text Descriptions which introduces the main characters and describes key incidents: the reviewer usually tells the reader a little a bout how caharacters interact with one another and about incidents which are significant to the story. Judgment where the reviewer makes a judgment of the text and gives a recommendation.
Model (Source: Feez & Joyce, 1998) The green Wind by Thurley Fowler is a novel about a girl called Jennifer, who wants to be a writer and whose only dream is to see her name in print. The novels follow her through her last year of primary school and her struggle to have her writing recognised. The book is set in the late 1940 s. Jennifer is in her last year of primary school. She is a clever girl but someone who loses her temper easily and she can be cruel. The novel tells us about Jennifer’s life with her family. Jennifer father is a war veteran who is suffering from shell-shock. He is a fruit farmer who cares a great deal for his family but his oldest son, Richard is ashamed of him. Jennifer’s mother is a tough, no-nonsense person who the family thinks is heartless. They all find out later in the novel that this is not true when the father takes advantage of this.
Richard and Alexander are Jennifer’s brothers. Richard is a normal kid who contracts diphteria but recovers. On the other hand Alexander is a mysterius child who loves animals but is not very tough. Every time an animal dies he cries. Jennifer’s main ambition is to be a writer, and the key incident in the book is when another character, Raymond Bradley, asks Jennifer to write a story. She calls the story “The Green Wind” which gives the novel its name. Raymond Bradley is a high-school student in Margaret’s class. He is interested in Jennifer’s poems and Jennifer pretends to be Raymonb Brdley’s girlfriend to make her sister jealous. I feel this book is best suited for the 10 to 15 age group. There are many incidents in the book which are sad and funny at the same time. The characters are beleveable for the late 40 s when the book is set. If you don’t mind a slow-moving story, then there will be something in this book for you. However, if you like a fast-moving story with lots of action then I’d give this one a miss.
Linguistic Features: The text, book, novel is about … The main character, main idea … The book/novel is set in … Nouns; Book, characters, author, novel, ending , etc. Evaluation Words: Effective, slow-movong story,
• • • • • Words or Expressions that may be used in writing a recount about ill/sickness. Saya sakit minggu lalu: I was sick/ill last week. Sakit kepala: I had a head ache. Perutku/gigiku sakit: My stomach/tooth was aching. Tifus: Typhoid : My sister suffered from typhoid. I had typhoid. Tifus penyakit yang berbahaya: Typhoid is a very dangerous disease. Sakit panas: I had a temperature/ a fever Panasnya 40 derajat Celcius: Her temperature was 40 degrees Celcius. Adik saya 7 tahun: My younger brother is/was 7 years old. Dokter memeriksa: A doctor / The doctor (Kalau kata dokter sudah disebutkan sebelumnya) examined my mother. Kakak saya diobati: My brother had a medical treatment/wasmedically treated. Dirawat di rumah sakit … : I was in hospital for five days/ I was hospitalized/ I stayed in hospital (Kata hospital jangan pakai “the”, kalau pakai the, seperti dalam “I was in the hospital for five days” berarti di rumah sakit bukan karena sakit, tapi mungkin karena alasan lain”. Ungkapan lain yang ada perbedaan antara pakai the dan tidak adalah: I went to school = ke sekolah untuk belajar; to the school: ke sekolah untuk main; I went to mosque= ke mesjid untuk sholat; to the mosque: Ke mesjid untuk hal lain Kakak saya harus dirawat: My brother must be hospitalized. Must stay in hospital. /. Had to stay/ had to be hospitalized Dokter berkata kepada ibu saya bahwa kakak saya harus dirawat: The doctor suggested/said to my mother (told my mother, told tidak pakai to) that my brother/sister had to stay in hospital/had to be hospitalized. Orang tua saya khawatir dengan … : My parents were really worried about his illness; Orang tua saya panik: My parents panicked. Adik saya tidak mau minum obat: My little/ younger brother/sister did not want to take the medicine (Ingat, to +V 1). Saya terluka/mengalami luka-luka: I was injured/ I was wounded. … Saya Luka berat: I was badly injured/seriously injured
• Luka saya diobati: My injury/wound was treated/cured. • Perlahan-lahan adik saya sembuh: Gradually/ step by step my sister recovered from his/her illness. • Masa penyembuhannya tidak lama: the recovery stage was not long/ did not take a long time. • Kakak saya boleh pulang dari rumah sakit: My brother was dismissed from the hospital/ could go home. • Saya berobat jalan: I became an outpatient/ I had an outpatient treatment. • Adik saya dibawa ke rumah sakit dengan ambulans: My brother was brought hospital by an ambulance • Saya berharap dia cepat sembuh: I hope he will recover from his illness/ will feel better soon. • Saya berdoa mudah-mudahan dia cepat sembuh: I prayed for him/her that he/she would recover/would feel better/would get better soon. • Adik saya sehat sekarang: My little brother/sister is well now/ feels better now.
• • • • • A Fishing Adventure Stan and Alex were on holiday. One day they rowed a small boat into the sea and started to fish. They caught one fish , two fish, three fat fish. They were very happy. Suddenly, the wind blew their boat onto some rocks. Water came into the boat. The boat was sinking! Stan and Alex held on to their boat and paddled with their legs. They pushed the boat back to the beach. They rested on the beach. Later, when they looked into the boat, they saw that it was empty! All the fish had swum away! (Source: Ling & Smith 2006) POST CARDS 31 st May 2006 Dear Tom, We went to the beach yesterday. It was very hot. We built a big sandcastle!From, Daniel. Tom Smith 15 De Carle Street. Bunswick, Victioria, Australia 3014 31 st May 2006 Dear Tom, I flew to Yogyakarta in an aeroplane to visit my grandmother. We went shopping yesterday. It was great fun! From, Joey Brown 15 De Carle Street. Bunswick, Victioria, Australia 3014 DIARY Friday 15 th January 2007 It is the school holidays this week. So far, I have done lots of things. On Monday morning, I met Rina at he park. We went skating. In the afternoon we went for a “Stories and Craft’ session at the library. On Tuesday afternoon, I went to the movie with my cousins. We saw Harry Potter. My favourit character is Harry. I think he is great. On Wednesday, Grandma and I went to the zoo. We had a lot of fun. We ate a picnic lunch. On Thursday morning, Mum and I went shopping for my new school shoes. In the evening, I went to a Brownies meeting from 5. 30 p. m-7 p. m. Oh no! I have not done my Maths and English homework. I will need to do that tomorrow. After that I can play with my new computer game, Into Space (Source: Ling & Smith, 2006) Friday, 22 January 2007
• • • • • Yesterday we went to Pangandaran. It was very hot there. So, we drove to the beach. It was very hot on the sand too. We drank lots of water and we swam in the sea to keep cool. Then, we played on the wet sand. Mum brought a picnic lunch for us. We sat under a beach umbrella to eat it. After lunch dad lied down and he went to sleep. After several hours in the beach we went o the hotel to stay overnight there. On the following day, Sunday we went back to Bandung by car (Adapted from Ling & Smith, 2006). Expressions/Words that may be used in writing a recount text on recreation My family and I went to a shopping centre. We took the bus there. We liked the shops. We went to Ayer Island in Jakarta. We went by ferry. Then we walked a long the beach. My family went camping at the beach. We drove there in our car. It was fun. We flew to Padang. We had a great time. I did … on my last holiday. I saw the birds at the park. I rode my bicycle in the garden. I went to the beach, I went swimming, I went shopping, I went camping, I went on a picnic I visited …, I had never been to … before. In the zoo, I petted a monkey, a rabbit, a ….
• • • • They took a ferry past … the … Pilot, tickets, passport, camera, suitcase, trolley We went to the airport by train, We went to the station by … We gave our ticket to a ticketing officer. We saw the pilot of our plane. When the plane flew up in the sky, I was excited We took a plane to Jakarta. Dad drove a car into the country (ayah menyetir mobil di daerah pedesaan) We walked over some hills (kami berjalan menyusuri bukit) It was windy on the hilltops (Di puncak bukit angina bertiup). I carry my clothes in my suitcase. I need a passport to travel to another country. I used a camera to take photographs. • Decide how you would say all the following expressions/sentences in English • • • • • Liburan yang lalu kami ke Jakarta naik pesawat. Saya pergi berlibur ke Yogyakarta selama satu minggu, saya pergi ke sana dengan kereta api. Ayah mengantar saya ke statsiun dengan mobil. Di stasiun saya harus mengantri untuk mendapatkan karcis. Di Yogyakarta saya pergi ke pantai dan berenang di sana. Saya memotret banyak tempat di Yogyakarta. Do Yogyakarta saya merasa senang sekali. Saya sangat menikmati liburan saya di Yogyakarta. Di Yogyakarta saya mengunjungi Borobudur dan Keraton Yogyakarta. Minggu lalu saya dan keluarga pergi ke Lampung. Kami naik ferry dari Merak sampai Bakauhuni. Di laut angin bertiup sangat kencang. Kami mengambil banyak gambar pemandangan di Yogyakarta. Pemandangannya sangat indah. Saya sangat menikmati liburan saya di Yogyakarta. Kami berjalan menyusuri pantai. Keluarga saya mengadakan camping di pantai. Ayah menyetir mobil ke sana. Di sekitar pantai ada banyak taman yang ditanami bunga yang indah. Kami juga naik sepeda di taman. •
More Examples from Students Hallo, my name is Andi Rosada (Pseudonym). My nickk name is Andi. I was born in Bandung. I am thirteen years old. I live in Jalan Kaum No. 74 dayeh Kolot. My telephonme number is 5211244. I want to tell you about my experience. Last school holiday my family and I went to Yogyakarta. I was very excited because I had never been to Yogyakarta before. Early in the morning we had been ready to go. My father drove a car to Yogyakarta…
It was four year ago when I was at 5 th grade. My school was made a trip to the Dufan for school trip. I was very happy, then I told to my parents about the school trip. But when I told about that, my parents didn’t allowed me to. I was wondered, but then they said my granny was sicked. She suffered from “apendicitist” and must got operated soon. I’a shocked. Although I ‘m very wanted to went along I was obeyed them.