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Testing MIMO Radios Day 5: Benchmark Testing of MIMO Performance 31 -Jan-2014 Fanny Mlinarsky Testing MIMO Radios Day 5: Benchmark Testing of MIMO Performance 31 -Jan-2014 Fanny Mlinarsky octo. Scope, Inc.

Wireless Test Challenges • Why is getting repeatable and consistent measurements is next to Wireless Test Challenges • Why is getting repeatable and consistent measurements is next to impossible in open air conditions? 1. 2. 3. Modern wireless devices are designed to automatically adapt to the changing channel conditions. Adaptation algorithms programmed into the baseband layer of these radios are complex and sometimes get into unintended states. Wireless environment is time-, frequency- and position- variable in terms of path loss, multipath, Doppler effects and interference, often stumping the decision logic of the adaptation algorithms. 2

Benchmark Testing • Goals of benchmark testing is to objectively compare performance of devices Benchmark Testing • Goals of benchmark testing is to objectively compare performance of devices from different vendors – Under best conditions – Under challenging conditions 3

Ideal Benchmarking Testbed • Ideal benchmarking testbed must: 1. Create conditions under which throughput Ideal Benchmarking Testbed • Ideal benchmarking testbed must: 1. Create conditions under which throughput of the DUT is maximized 2. Emulate a range of realistic conditions, including path loss, multipath, noise and interference 3. Guarantee repeatable measurements reproducible at labs around the world 4

Evolution of Wireless Test Methods Isolation box MIMO OTA SISO conducted Multi Path Emulator Evolution of Wireless Test Methods Isolation box MIMO OTA SISO conducted Multi Path Emulator (MPE) New generation wireless testbeds must support MIMO OTA testing to accommodate MIMO and multi-radio devices with internal antennas. 5

Factors Impacting MIMO Throughput Factors MIMO channel correlation Angular spread of the received signal Factors Impacting MIMO Throughput Factors MIMO channel correlation Angular spread of the received signal Device antenna spacing and orientation Antenna polarization Noise and interference Motion of devices or multipath reflectors Delay spread of reflections Explanation/Impact Function of several variables including device antenna spacing, antenna polarization and multipath Related to correlation and strongly influenced by multipath in the channel Notes The lower the correlation the higher the throughput Causes clusters of reflections to arrive at the receiver at different times Delay spread is higher for larger spaces (e. g. outdoors) than for smaller spaces (e. g. home environment) Multipath causes signal to bounce around arrive at different angles, thereby widening the angular spread at a receiver. Typically, the wider the angular spread the higher the MIMO throughput. Related to angular spread and correlation MIMO throughput will vary vs. device orientation and antenna spacing. Typically, the wider the antenna spacing the lower the correlation and the higher the throughput. Vertical, horizontal or circular Cross-polarization (vertical and horizontal) is sometimes used to lower MIMO correlation, thus enabling spatial multiplexing. Multipath reflections can alter polarization. High noise power with respect to signal MIMO devices can adapt to the environment by selecting the most power results in low SNR (signal to noise suitable mode of operation (e. g. TX diversity in low SNR conditions; ratio) spatial multiplexing in high SNR, low correlation conditions). Causes Doppler spread of the signal OFDM signaling is sensitive to Doppler spread. Throughput should be measured in a variety of Doppler environments. 6

Maximizing MIMO Throughput in a Small Anechoic Chamber Factors Corresponding chamber capabilities MIMO channel Maximizing MIMO Throughput in a Small Anechoic Chamber Factors Corresponding chamber capabilities MIMO channel correlation Low correlation can be achieved via wide spacing of test antennas Angular spread of the (1) Test antenna array is close to the DUT antennas, widening the angular spread received signal of the LOS signal; (2) chamber geometry creates -20 d. B reflections surrounding the DUT. Both of these factors maximize angular spread of the test channel thereby maximizing MIMO throughput. Device antenna spacing Test antenna spacing can be adjusted. DUT can be rotated with respect to test and device orientation antennas. Antenna polarization Test antennas can be cross-polarized. However, reflections inside the chamber and metal surfaces in the DUT (ground planes, batteries, etc. ) will also alter polarization of the signal that reaches the DUT antennas. Noise and interference Can be injected in a controlled manner via extra RF ports. Motion of devices or Can be implemented via phase dithering of the signal or by using a fader. multipath reflectors Delay spread of octo. Box MPE module models IEEE standard delay spread. reflections 7

Factor: Angular Spread Shorter distance = wider angular spread = higher throughput 4” 8” Factor: Angular Spread Shorter distance = wider angular spread = higher throughput 4” 8” 8’ Open air throughput decreases with distance Source of plot: Small. Net. Builder. com measurement (linksys_ea 6500_5 ghz_80 mhz_up_mpe_vs_openair. png) 8

Wide Angular Spread in a Small Anechoic Chamber DUT Test antenna spacing can be Wide Angular Spread in a Small Anechoic Chamber DUT Test antenna spacing can be controlled octo. Box chamber 9

Multipath in a Small Chamber -20 d. B absorption on frequencies 1 -6 GHz Multipath in a Small Chamber -20 d. B absorption on frequencies 1 -6 GHz -15 d. B absorption on frequencies down to 700 MHz 2. 25” gradient absorptive foam covers inside surfaces Realistic magnitude of reflections in a typical house. Reflections surround the DUT from walls, ceiling and floor, creating a wide-angularspread environment modeling non-line-of-sight (NLOS) multipath reflections to help achieve maximum throughput. Line of sight (LOS) transmission between the test antennas and the DUT is a function of the proximity of test antennas to the DUT. But what about delay spread of the multipath? 10

Multipath in a Small Chamber Test Antennas Traffic TX/RX DUT AP Ethern et Filter Multipath in a Small Chamber Test Antennas Traffic TX/RX DUT AP Ethern et Filter Multipath segment Attenuators Remote Desktop Etherne t Filter Master Client octo. Box Testbed being used for benchmarking http: //www. smallnetbuilder. com/wirelesshowto/32082 -how-we-test-wireless-products-revison-7 MPE = multi path emulator 11

octo. Box MPE Response vs. IEEE Model B 12 octo. Box MPE Response vs. IEEE Model B 12

octo. Box MPE Frequency Response 13 octo. Box MPE Frequency Response 13

Beware of Adaptation Algorithms Initiation algorithm 4” 8” 8’ Open air throughput decreases with Beware of Adaptation Algorithms Initiation algorithm 4” 8” 8’ Open air throughput decreases with distance 14

Beware of Adaptation Algorithms Example of throughput measurement of an 802. 11 ac link Beware of Adaptation Algorithms Example of throughput measurement of an 802. 11 ac link using Ix. Chariot. TM. In this example the test conditions are static, but it appears that the adaptation algorithm of the TX DUT keeps making adjustments resulting in throughput fluctuations vs. time. 15

Benchmarking of MIMO Throughput Source: www. smallnetbuilder. com http: //www. smallnetbuilder. com/wirelesshowto/32082 -how-we-test-wireless-products-revison-7 16 Benchmarking of MIMO Throughput Source: www. smallnetbuilder. com http: //www. smallnetbuilder. com/wirelesshowto/32082 -how-we-test-wireless-products-revison-7 16

Small. Net. Builder AP Testbed • Client: ASUS PCE-AC 66; driver Win 7 6. Small. Net. Builder AP Testbed • Client: ASUS PCE-AC 66; driver Win 7 6. 30. 95. 26* • Test client machine has Win Defender and Firewall disabled; runs no antivirus; does not run Windows update. It is dedicated solely to being a test client. • Traffic generator/analyzer: Ix. Chariot – Measured throughput strongly influenced by the Ix. Chariot test file size. – Small. Net. Builder uses 2, 000 to 5, 000 Byte file size. – The high performance throughput script uses 10, 000 Byte file size by default. * Subject to change with new standards and technology releases 17

Isolating DUTs in a Wireless Testbed Loss of testbed dynamic range due to crosstalk Isolating DUTs in a Wireless Testbed Loss of testbed dynamic range due to crosstalk 18

How to Select RF Isolation Chamber • Two issues to be aware of: – How to Select RF Isolation Chamber • Two issues to be aware of: – Isolation specifications often don’t include the impact of data and power cables that must penetrate the walls of the chamber to power and control the DUT inside during the test. – OTA support requires high isolation, absorption and special conditions to enable high MIMO throughput. Choose peel-and-stick gasketing that’s easy to replace OTA = over the air 19 Plastic rails and hardware to avoid reflections

Wireless Performance Metrics • Metrics for wireless devices and systems include – – – Wireless Performance Metrics • Metrics for wireless devices and systems include – – – Throughput Packet error rate (PER) Range Roaming speed Mesh operation Application specific operation, for example DSRC automotive networks • Test should be performed with and without channel impairments DSRC = direct short range communications 20

Wireless Testbed Building Blocks • Testbeds should be versatile – made up of building Wireless Testbed Building Blocks • Testbeds should be versatile – made up of building blocks suitable for configuring a variety of test topologies • A single large screen room only supports a single airlink 21

Roaming Test Configuration RF attenuators Controller or Ethernet switch Isolation chambers Traffic source/si nk Roaming Test Configuration RF attenuators Controller or Ethernet switch Isolation chambers Traffic source/si nk Ethernet AP 1 RF port ATTEN 1 AP 2 ATTEN 2 Traffic source/si nk Feed-through Ethernet filters octo. Box Stackable 22 Spare combiner ports for connecting a sniffer Client/brid ge under test USB 1: 4 RF combiner

octo. Box Roaming Test Script Programmabl e attenuator ramp Ping requestresponse delay Connection outage octo. Box Roaming Test Script Programmabl e attenuator ramp Ping requestresponse delay Connection outage due to roaming 23

Testbed Considerations Extra RF ports are useful to inject interference or connect monitor probes Testbed Considerations Extra RF ports are useful to inject interference or connect monitor probes An extra filtered USB connections can house a USB module for traffic monitoring 24

Wireless Mesh Testing Wireless Mesh Metrics • • • Self-healing, self-forming Throughput, Qo. S Wireless Mesh Testing Wireless Mesh Metrics • • • Self-healing, self-forming Throughput, Qo. S vs. hops Throughput, Qo. S vs. range Routing efficiency Dealing with interference 25

Wireless Mesh Test Configuration 1 octo. Box quad. Stack isolation enclosures with built-in RF Wireless Mesh Test Configuration 1 octo. Box quad. Stack isolation enclosures with built-in RF combiners and attenuators 26 Maximize attenuators to force auto-re-routing of traffic flow to test self-healing RF splitters used to direct signal to multiple neighboring devices Radios are paced in isolation chambers Fixed attenuators to set traffic flow via one branch or another to test self configuration

Connected Car Testbed Emulate groups of connected vehicles traveling over a busy highway interchang Connected Car Testbed Emulate groups of connected vehicles traveling over a busy highway interchang 27

Example Large-scale DSRC Testbed Emulate motion of groups of cars with respect to other Example Large-scale DSRC Testbed Emulate motion of groups of cars with respect to other groups 8 -port wireless channel emulator Motion Multipath Noise 28 Up to 24 radio modules in each chamber 192 radios in the testbed

Summary • Wireless technology is spreading into many applications • Different benchmarks will be Summary • Wireless technology is spreading into many applications • Different benchmarks will be needed to ensure properation of complex radios used in hostile airlink conditions • Now is a good time to think about a versatile wireless testbed that can accommodate needed tests and provide reproducible measurements in labs around the world. 29

For More Information • To download white papers, presentations, test reports and articles on For More Information • To download white papers, presentations, test reports and articles on wireless topics, please visit http: //www. octoscope. com/English/Resources/Articles. html www. octoscope. com 30