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Terra Preta Sanitation full reuse in sanitaton and bio-waste-management Learning from successful ancient cultures… Terra Preta Sanitation full reuse in sanitaton and bio-waste-management Learning from successful ancient cultures… Prof. Dr. Ralf Otterpohl

Initial remark on Public Health • Parasites (Salt! removal of most parasites with increased Initial remark on Public Health • Parasites (Salt! removal of most parasites with increased uptake of pure Na. Cl salt over 6 weeks, combne with Vitamin C like fresh fruit also traditional knowledge) • Flue (bird, swine, what is next? ) why did this normal flue lieke swine flu become a WHO pandemy? Keep Vitamin D up! All flue can be treated with high amounts of vitamin D or A, check levels • A really dangerous could come… (who will belive WHO then? see above) • Keep the immune system strong: zink! (trace element, „ammunition of the immune system“, often too low)

Initial remark on Public Health Selling bottled water for 30 40 0 r 50 Initial remark on Public Health Selling bottled water for 30 40 0 r 50 cents per litre to the poorest people in the world… … is brutal misuse of power, killing babies and small children (can those who run this sleep well at night? ) A price of 5 cents for water in a bag is possible

The 3 dimensions of Innovation Concept Innovation Formal Innovation Technical Innovation Source: Prof. G. The 3 dimensions of Innovation Concept Innovation Formal Innovation Technical Innovation Source: Prof. G. Teodorescu, Stuttgart

Volume l/(P*year) Greywater 25. 000 -100. 000 Yearly Loads kg/(P*year) Flushwater can be saved Volume l/(P*year) Greywater 25. 000 -100. 000 Yearly Loads kg/(P*year) Flushwater can be saved 6. 000 - 25. 000 Urine ~ 500 Feaces ~ 50 (option: add biowaste) N ~ 4 -5 ~3 % ~ 87 % ~ 10 % P ~ 0, 75 ~ 10 % ~50 % ~ 40 % K ~ 1, 8 ~ 34 % ~ 54 % ~ 12 % ~ 41 % ~ 12 % ~ 47 % COD ~ 30 Treatment Biogas-Plant Composting Reuse / Water Cycle S, Ca, Mg and trace elements Fertiliser Soil-Conditioner Geigy, Wiss. Tabellen, Basel 1981, Vol. 1, LARSEN and GUJER 1996, FITSCHEN and HAHN 1998

Desiccation toilet ++ Desiccation for hot climates Low/Non-diluting toilets are the key for new Desiccation toilet ++ Desiccation for hot climates Low/Non-diluting toilets are the key for new sanitation concepts

The 3 main Development lines 1. Blackwater and integrated systems design 2. Dry sanitation The 3 main Development lines 1. Blackwater and integrated systems design 2. Dry sanitation / Low Cost solutions 3. Urine-Diversion with flush sanitation

Here: Dry sanitation and a pathway for the furture: • Urine diverting dry toilets Here: Dry sanitation and a pathway for the furture: • Urine diverting dry toilets have been a major step forward (first from Sweden) • Over 1 Million installations, fast growing • Many different toilets have been developed, good but not excellent • Treatment pathway for faeces and urine needs to be improved

Urine …. Diverting Dry Sanitation: Developed from Sweden ROSA, EU 6 th FP Urine …. Diverting Dry Sanitation: Developed from Sweden ROSA, EU 6 th FP

Neue Schultoilette, Ukraine (TUHH/WECF) NGO WECF Women in Europe and TUHH Neue Schultoilette, Ukraine (TUHH/WECF) NGO WECF Women in Europe and TUHH

Major drawbacks in modern dry sanitation: • Urban, peri-urban areas are still difficult to Major drawbacks in modern dry sanitation: • Urban, peri-urban areas are still difficult to be served • Multi storey houses not well solved • Ventilation is not an option for large scale, otherwise the whole region will smell bad • An ancient system offers new perspectives: Terra Preta Sanitation as evaluated by Dr. haiko Pieplow, Germany

Bio-Systems Design: • If there is one problem, look for other problems and solve Bio-Systems Design: • If there is one problem, look for other problems and solve them together • Waste of one system is food for others • Solutions are searched until no waste is remaining • No Waste equals Zero Emissions • Multiple added value according to Gunter Pauli, ZERI

If there is one problem, look for other problems and solve them together: Problem: If there is one problem, look for other problems and solve them together: Problem: Lack of efficient low cost sanitation Other Problems: Waterless Soil production Water scarcity Weak soils, erosion, depletion Missing food security Lack of income (Urban) gardening Too little jobs Jobs with the systems, greywater in gardening, black soil makes water, health

Soil degradation is stupid, future generations will need land, too… Poor soil can become Soil degradation is stupid, future generations will need land, too… Poor soil can become highly fertile with clever management of biowaste and sanitation

The same soil: highly fertile and carbon rich over many generations long ago with The same soil: highly fertile and carbon rich over many generations long ago with - lactofermented vermicomposted biowaste and faecal matter - 10% charcoal Naturally very poor tropical soil degrades very soon with lack of organic matter Terra Preta Poor soil can become highly fertile with clever management of biowaste and sanitation from: Günther F. (2007). Carbon sequestration for everybody

Terra Preta: - 2000 – 7000 years old - around 10 % of the Terra Preta: - 2000 – 7000 years old - around 10 % of the Amazon Region - 16. century millions of people, today 350. 000 - up to 20 meters deep, partly hills - fertile without adding fertilizer - multiple yield Composition: around 10 % ground charcoal, processed biowaste and feacal matter (lactofermentation and vermicomposting), bones and broken earthware Glaser, B. (2007). Prehistorically modified soils of central Amazonia: a model for sustainable agriculture in the twenty-first century, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. 362: pp 187– 196

from: Günther F. (2007). Carbon sequestration for everybody from: Günther F. (2007). Carbon sequestration for everybody

GEO, March 2009 GEO, March 2009

Historic Amazon: Forest Argriculture in three layers GEO 3/2009 Historic Amazon: Forest Argriculture in three layers GEO 3/2009

An ancient pathway for today: TERRA PRETA (black soil) Production of super-fertile soils, discovered An ancient pathway for today: TERRA PRETA (black soil) Production of super-fertile soils, discovered in the Amazon from ancient cultures, still highly fertile today Composed of biowaste, feacal matter, bones and charcoal Production through lactofermentation (start e. g. by EM or Sauerkraut-liquid) followed by vermicomposting

Four design options for Terra Preta Sanitation: • Siple bucket systems with separate urine Four design options for Terra Preta Sanitation: • Siple bucket systems with separate urine collection • Adapted urine diverted dry toilet • 1 st Class urine diverting dry toilet (to be developed) • If the flush is needed: urine diverting flush toilet, collect solids in an lacto-acid sieving unit Terra Preta Sanitation was mainly inspired by Dr. Haiko Pieplow, Ministry of the Environment, Germany

NO-COST-Sanitation can be highly efficient and feasible with some change of habits 1. ) NO-COST-Sanitation can be highly efficient and feasible with some change of habits 1. ) 2. ) 3. ) Teach users of pit-toilets to divert urine in any way, after learning about fertilising value many people with some space will do this very dense population: urine collection and usage should be organised then no urine, no water into pit, add some charcoal and lacto-acid-bacteria (like in lacto-sauerkraut, pickled foods) Same procedure, but instead of ‚normal‘ pit do 2 alternate shallow pit, put worms into idle pit Use simple bucket system with a lid that closes air-thight otherwise like above

First step: Keep Urine separate opt 1. ) to 3. ) The most simple First step: Keep Urine separate opt 1. ) to 3. ) The most simple approach, personal collector, female / male version Pippinette Norway

Urine collection, male version like in hospitals Urine collection, male version like in hospitals

Second step: Feacal matter collection opt. 3. ) Dry toilet shop, Hamburg: www. bergerbiotechnik. Second step: Feacal matter collection opt. 3. ) Dry toilet shop, Hamburg: www. bergerbiotechnik. de Terra preta / EM-Shop: www. triaterra. de Example: Mobile-toilet „toa-standard“ with a closing lid for the bucket after usage: cover with ½ cup of a mixture of 2, 5 kg ground charcoal, 1 kg dolomite-lime, 1: 100 EM A or leachate of lacto-acid-fermented sauerkraut (pickled), some stone-dust operation ok when smell is ok leave lactofermenting for minimum 3 weeks to some month, then vermicomposting in aerobic composter, Process is simple and robust,

Separett Villa, Sweden A good starting point for a luxury version Cover lid Cild Separett Villa, Sweden A good starting point for a luxury version Cover lid Cild seat Terra preata toilets need to close the bucket air-tight after usage, no ventilation needed

(Eco. San Res/ A. Rosemarin 2005) (Eco. San Res/ A. Rosemarin 2005)

Breakthrough in solids treatment at TUHH (BMBF / IPSWa. T) Breakthrough in solids treatment at TUHH (BMBF / IPSWa. T)

Integrated urban bio-systems Integrated urban bio-systems

Win-Win-Situation • Sanitaiton makes soil • Soil makes fuel and food • Watering with Win-Win-Situation • Sanitaiton makes soil • Soil makes fuel and food • Watering with underground pipes is greywater treatment • Operation and gardening creates local jobs • Better health, less violence through good nutrition • House design follows requirements, beautiful homes, good climate

Zentrale der Commerzbank, Deutschland, Frankfurt am Main, 1994 -1997 Zentrale der Commerzbank, Deutschland, Frankfurt am Main, 1994 -1997 "Wie kann man Arbeit und Natur in den Grenzen eines Bürogebäudes miteinander in Einklang bringen? " fragt Foster. http: //www. architektur. tudarmstadt. de/powerhouse/ db/248, id_21, s_Papers. fb 1 5

Reuse through productive bamboo systems local regenerative energy, cost recovery through carbon trading and Reuse through productive bamboo systems local regenerative energy, cost recovery through carbon trading and charcoal around 10 m²/Person, feed only once a day, distribute well www. tuhh. de/aww PHYTOREM, France

Waterless Urinal (Keramag) Sorting-Toilet (Gustavsberg, Sweden) Waterless Urinal (Keramag) Sorting-Toilet (Gustavsberg, Sweden)

Wasserfreie Urinsammlung ist inzwischen in Urinalen relativ problemlos möglich (Fa. Keramag) Wasserfreie Urinsammlung ist inzwischen in Urinalen relativ problemlos möglich (Fa. Keramag)

Rottebehälter / Pre-composting tanc 2 filterbags used for 6 month alternately then vermicomposting with Rottebehälter / Pre-composting tanc 2 filterbags used for 6 month alternately then vermicomposting with biowaste and slice-shred wood (optional) Lacto-acid bacteria are added From Dr. Haiko Pieplow, Ministry of the Environment, Germany

 • Empty bags all 6 month (3 -month intervals or even 1 month • Empty bags all 6 month (3 -month intervals or even 1 month can be tested) • Compost bag contents with vermicomposting, optional addition of biowaste and slice-cutwoodchip Limited amounts of urine can be added according ot C: N ratio From Dr. Haiko Pieplow, Ministry of the Environment, Germany

Conclusions • The pathways for modern dry sanitation where found in ancient civilisations • Conclusions • The pathways for modern dry sanitation where found in ancient civilisations • A very simple model can serve people who care for virtually no costs • Luxury dry toilet models for littel money are feasible • Added value trough less water consumption, fertile soil, local gardening options

Thank you for your efforts towards a better future! and for listening… further info Thank you for your efforts towards a better future! and for listening… further info on www. tuhh. de/aww IWA SG www. ecosan. org

Old Amazonian cultures • All they left was highly fertile soil and beautiful earthware Old Amazonian cultures • All they left was highly fertile soil and beautiful earthware • They could produce food with a very low footprint • 3 -storey agriculture (trees, scrub, ground) • They gave us a key element for the future of our societies: urban and peri-urban agriculture can be combined with biowaste utilisation and sanitation