- Количество слайдов: 30
Television After the printing press, the most important invention in communication technology
Broadcast TV Networks A national organization distributing programs for a substantial part of each broadcast day to TV stations in all parts of the U. S.
Cable TV Networks
Premium Cable Networks Additional Cable Fees = No Commercials = Free reign with content (sex, violence, language)
Subscription Video on Demand Netflix – 36% (2014 stats) Amazon Prime – 13% Hulu Plus 6%
Primary Affiliation/Markets Local stations “affiliate”/contract with a network to provide national programs to a local audience (Market) The Cleveland Market - #18 out of 210 (includes Cleveland, Akron, Canton)
TV Ratings/Shares Measure 37, 000 homes/100, 000 people in top 56 markets Measured by Nielsen Ratings (114. 7 mil hh) Must watch for 7 min. in 15 min. intervals High rating = high commercial fees
Rating Share Households tuned in to a TV show All households with TVs Households tuned in to a TV show All households watching TV at that day and time
TV Demographics Key area: Age & Income (ages 18 -49) Also considered: Race, location, gender, sexuality & education Glee and The Office drew fewer total viewers than NCIS during the 2009– 10 season, but earned an average of $272, 694 and $213, 617 respectively, compared to $150, 708 for NCIS
Sweeps Periods Network TV uses Nov, Feb, & May to set the ad/commercial rate Local stations use diary surveys during these months and also in July to also measure viewership
FCC Federal Communications Commission Regulating interstate and international communications by radio, television, wire, satellite and cable. Directed by five Commissioners appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate for 5 -year terms
Brief History of TV 1939 – TV debuts at the World's Fair RCA broadcast 2 hours of NBC 1941 – First two commercial stations approved 1947 – Ed Sullivan, Candid Camera, Howdy Doody, Meet the Press, and Milton Berle all debut 1948 – First prime-time TV season
1950's TV Three TV networks: ABC, CBS, NBC 1950's – more TVs sold (70 mil) than children born (40. 5 mil) Politics: 1954 – Edward R. Murrow exposes Sen. Joseph Mc. Carthy as a liar and hypocrite for his “Red Scare” Key programs Variety shows, Westerns (Gunsmoke), TV Quiz Shows, comedies (I Love Lucy, The Honeymooners) daytime talk shows (Today)
1950's Quiz Show Scandal Game shows and many TV programs featured single-program sponsorship 1959 – The 64, 000 Question exposed as being “fixed” by advertisers and producers – resulted in networks paying for content/spot commercial sales
1960's TV 1960 – TV in 90% of homes; still only 3 networks Politics: Kennedy/Nixon debate; 63 – Kennedy Assassination, Civil Rights Movement, Vietnam War Coverage Key programs: family sitcoms (Andy Giffith Show, Beverly Hillbillies), cartoons (Flintstones) debut of 60 Minutes , talk shows (Tonight Show w/ Johnny Carson, Donahue) game shows (Jeopardy) daytime soaps (Days of our Lives)
1970's TV Politics: Watergate Scandal, Iran Hostages (Nightline 79) Sports in primetime – World Series, Olympics, 1 st Superbowl 1970 The Golden Age of Sitcoms - Norman Lear/CBS sitcoms (All in the Family, Maude, Jeffersons) TV taboos broken! Other key programs: satirical comedy: M*A*S*H, Mary Tyler Moore, Three's Company, the mini-series movie (Roots) SNL, offbeat reality (Gong Show) cable (HBO, TBS), Happy Violence with dramas; still only 3 networks!
1980's TV Politics: Wedding of Princess Diana/Prince Charles = 750 mil viewers world-wide, 1984 Cable Com. Policy Act – deregulated cable = higher prices; fall of Berlin Wall NBC sitcoms: Cosby Show, Family Ties, Cheers, Golden Girls Daytime talk shows: Oprah, Donahue Prime-time Soap Operas: Dallas, Dynasty Cable goes national: 24 Hour News: CNN/ MTV Fox debuts 10/86 - Married w/Children, The Simpsons Happy Violence w/dramas
1990's TV Focus on the single-lifestyle: Seinfeld and youth Beverly Hills 90210 Dramas focus on realism: NYPD Blue, ER Basic Cable w/first run shows: Real World Pay-per-view becomes popular (boxing WWF) 1997 - V-Chip and TV ratings 1994 – O. J. Simpson/white Ford Bronco
9/11/01 HDTV, 2000's TV CW debuts 2006 TV moves online (full-length episodes of first-run and rerun material, web-episodes, You. Tube, Hulu) Premium TV grows (HBO, Showtime, Starz) The Golden Age of Dramas: (the anti-hero) Sopranos, Mad Men Primetime reality programs: Survivor, American Idol TV Comedies become one-dimensional, more satirical Arrested Development, The Office, 30 Rock Daytime – court shows: Judge Judy
Dynamics that have changed what we watch - The rise of cable - Quest for young viewers (18 -49) - Change in viewing habits - now individualized - Change in family unit (singles, multi-racial, LGBT) - Technology – DVRs, Smartphones, Internet TV, On. Demand, HDTV - Social Networking
2010 and beyond TV 2013 – Netflixs/Amazon producing TV show: Arrested Development, House of Cards, Orange in the New Black HBO-Go, Showtime Online, Hulu, Apple TV, WWE Network Dramas continue to shine but on cable: Breaking Bad, Game of Thrones, American Horror Story, The Walking Dead (record ratings) Comedies: Modern Family – Emmy winner 4 years in a row
Comedy Some TV Genres Drama (serial, procedural, soaps) Mini-series (takes up multiple days) Reality TV News – (news magazine, documentary) Makeover (home, lifestyle, cooking) Animation/cartoons Soap Operas Game Shows Kids programming
TV Comedies Situation comedy – most common on network TV; canned laughter, stationary sets, 3 -4 cameras, 30 min. (Big Bang Theory) Smart comedy – edgier, more satirical, no laugh track, multiple sets, shot with single-camera, 30 min. (Louie, Veep) Dramedy - humor and drama; usually single-camera, no laugh track, 1 hour (Glee) Sketch comedy - no recurring characters, skits, focus on current events/satire (SNL)
6 Elements for Humor 1) Appeal to intellect, not emotion 2) Mechanical (not having or showing thought) 3) Inherently human 4) Set of societal norms which the observer is aware of 5) Situation + Parts (action/dialogue) must be inconsistent to the surrounding 6) Perceived by the observer to be harmless/painless to participants.
Content Patterns in TV Gender equity a little better: 60 -66% male, 34 -40% female Primetime female characters are younger than primetime males Female characters are more likely to be married and/or parents 84% of primetime TV featured at least one offensive incident/sexual harassment. The perpetrators are overwhelmingly male (74%) and 1/3 of the acts involved sexist comments.
Media Effects include Behavioral Effects (actions) Attitudinal Effects Cognitive Effects (thoughts/beliefs) Physiological Effects (body)
Psychologists have demonstrated that our perceptions of the world are shaped by schemas, a set of beliefs about people, events or situations that we use as guides in our interaction with these things. Thus, we are able to treat that person or object in what we perceive to be an appropriate manner, that is, consistent with our schema.
Gender Schema Theory Society’s beliefs about the traits of males & females Gender Schema Influences processing of social information Childre n and adolesc ents use gender as an organizi ng theme to classify and underst and their percepti ons about the world. Influences selfesteem (only behavior or attitudes consistent with gender schema are acceptable)