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Tel: 07711 443 463 E-mail: [email protected] com Website www. safeguardingfirst. com Pam Gartland: Safeguarding First ‘App’ Available for both i. Phone and Android
Keeping Children Safe Whole Workforce Training • Keeping Children Safe Is Your Business • My Business • It’s Everyone's Business
Session Format • • Welcome and introductions What does safeguarding mean? The legal context Individual activity What are we protecting children from? Early identification of need Your statutory role and responsibility in relation to safeguarding children • Finish
Safeguarding Children Safe People Vulnerable Adults Our responsibilities to Safeguarding in schools and settings Safe Premises & Places Safe children
The Session is Informed by the Following: • • Children Act (1989) Children Act (2004) section 10/14 b • Serious Case Reviews: Birmingham/Haringey/Coventry/Bradford/Sunderland/Stockton/Cumbria/Nottingham/ Hartlepool • • • Statutory Guidance on Making Safeguarding Arrangements Education Act 2002 – section 175 (maintained) The Education (Independent School Standards) Regulation 2014 (including Academies/Free Schools) The Education Non Maintained Special schools (England) Regulation 2015 • Keeping children Safe In Education Df. E 2016 • All staff should at least read part 1 - ‘Safeguarding Information for all Staff’ Annex A Further information – should be read by school leaders and those who work directly with Children • Designated LA Service (LADO) – Jane Groom Tel: 0191 561 3901
• Df. E - Statutory framework for the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS), which came into force on 3 rd April 2017 https: //www. gov. uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/596629/EYFS_STATUTORY_FRAMEWO RK_2017. pdf • Working Together to Safeguard Children (HM GOV ) (2015) • Df. E 2015 – what do you do if you are worried about a child – practitioners advice. • Sunderland Safeguarding Children Board Business Manager: Lynne Thomas Tel: 0191 561 7015 Email: lynne. [email protected] gov. uk • Counter Terrorism and Security Act (2015) The Prevent Duty - 1 st July 2015 Schools (and since 18 th September 2015 all colleges) Section 26 of the Act ‘Due regard’ To Prevent ’ - Assess risk of children and young people being drawn into extremism. • Channel Panels - National Response to Radicalisation. SPOC for Northumbria Police: [email protected] pnn. police. uk call 101 Ext 63854 • From October 2015 – Section 5 B Female Genital Mutilation Act 2003 (section 74 Serious Crime Act 2015) places a statutory duty upon teachers to report to the police where they discover either through disclosure by the victim or visual evidence that female genital mutilation ‘appears to have been carried out ‘on a girl under 18. • Df. E 2015 - Information Sharing – advice for practitioners providing safeguarding services to children young people parents and carers • Data Protection Act (1998) • • Freedom of Information Act (2000) Sexual Offences Act (2003)
Key Themes from SCRs Learning has highlighted the importance of: Ø The child’s journey and understanding the child’s lived experience Ø Historic information – previous parenting can be used to predict future behaviour Ø Robust multi-agency assessments – particularly for babies and at the pre-birth stage Ø Professional curiosity and asking the ‘unthinkable questions Ø Procedural compliance Ø Professional challenge Ø A focus on fathers and hidden males Ø Early intervention – addressing need and risk as soon as it is evident
Key Learning from SCRs • Professional optimism • Transition arrangements • Understanding of the early help offer • Impact of the Toxic Trio Domestic Violence Parental Substance Misuse Parental Mental Health Issues • Resistant, hostile and uncooperative parents and carers 8
Making a Referral in Sunderland • Information shared directly to the Designated Safeguarding Lead (DSL) • DSL contacts the Integrated Contact & Referral Team (ICRT) Children’s Safeguarding via Sunderland council’s customer service network on 0191 520 5560 or 561 7007 • Followed up by written referral • DSL may contact the Police on 101 or the Police Safeguarding Department (Previously known as PVP) on 03456 043 in the event of any emergency or if a crime has been committed.
How do we recognise vulnerability? What is it that you will see, hear or intuitively recognise that will help you identify a child that is vulnerable?
Vulnerability Crossword W I T DOWN B E H A V I O U I R R T D P T H D A T E 1. 2. 3. 4. 9. A U T Isolated View towards the world Food intake Promptness To alter N C W D A T T E N D P P E A S C L O N C E R A N C S U R E A U A ACROSS L 5. How you present 6. Regular appearance 7. Physical presentation 8. Verbal sign 10. Physical sign D I T I N J U R H Y A N G E E
Stay Calm, Think Palm! • HOUSE - Who lives in that child’s home • APPEARANCE - What is the physical and mental appearance of that child • NOTICE - observe, recognise change, have ears and eyes open at all times • DISCLOSURE - be prepared for the disclosure and how to manage it • SAFEGUARDING procedures - record, report, take action, follow up, challenge.
Safe in Our Hands SE U HO E RANC PPEA A NOTICE DIS CLO SA FE G UA RD IN G SUR E
Framework for the assessment of Children in Need and their families (DH 2000) • The importance of families in caring for and protecting children and vulnerable adults • Safeguarding is everybody’s business – We identified the need to develop policy, practice and services to reflect these two points. . . – To promote joint working between child & adult focussed services
Early Identification of Need • Knowing what to look for is vital to the early identification of abuse and neglect • Research and Serious Case Reviews have repeatedly shown the dangers of failing to take effective action include failing to act on and refer the early signs of abuse and neglect. (KCSIE, 2016)
Early Identification of Need • Early identification, requires knowledge of the child, family, background and situation • Early identification also requires awareness of age appropriate child development and being observant of changes to a child’s daily presentation and well being • Early identification means facing the problem/difficulty (where appropriate) directly with the child and parent(s) and offering immediate intervention before statutory measures/assessment is required • Early identification means building solid relationships with children and families to ensure clear channels of communication are in place.
Early Identification of Need • Engage children and parents in maintaining good communication with you. • Act quickly and offer support before the situation needs to be resolved through statutory intervention. • Record all actions, interventions and observations you make. • Listen to the voice of the Child and the needs of the family. • You can be the person that prevents the escalation.
Significant Harm is defined in the Children Act 1989 Section 31 (9) as: • Ill-treatment • Impairment of health (as compared to a similar child) Note: harm now includes the impairment of a child’s health or development as a result of witnessing the ill-treatment of another person (Adoption and Children Act 2002)
What constitutes ‘Significant Harm’? Consideration of the severity of ill-treatment may include: • • The degree and the extent of physical harm The duration and frequency of abuse and neglect The extent of premeditation The presence or degree of threat, coercion, sadism, and bizarre or unusual elements What constitutes significant harm: • Single events • Complex and longstanding cases
Types of abuse and neglect All school/college staff should be aware that abuse, neglect and safeguarding issues are rarely standalone events that can be covered by one definition or label. In most cases multiple issues will overlap with one another. Abuse: a form of maltreatment of a child. Somebody may abuse or neglect a child by inflicting harm or by failing to act to prevent harm. Children may be abused in a family or in an institutional or community setting by those known to them or, more rarely, by others (e. g. via the internet). They may be abused by an adult or adults or another child or children. KCSIE 2016
Definitions of Abuse Physical Abuse A form of abuse which may involve hitting, shaking, throwing, poisoning, burning or scalding, drowning, suffocating or otherwise causing physical harm to a child. Physical harm may also be caused when a parent or carer fabricates the symptoms of, or deliberately induces illness in a child. Working Together to Safeguard Children (2015)
Neglect The persistent failure to meet a child's basic physical and/or psychological needs, likely to result in the serious impairment of the child's health or development. Neglect may occur during pregnancy as a result of maternal substance misuse. Once a child is born, neglect may involve a parent or carer failing to provide adequate food and clothing, shelter including exclusion from home or abandonment, failing to protect a child from physical and emotional harm or danger, failure to ensure adequate supervision including the use of inadequate care-takers, or the failure to ensure access to appropriate medical care or treatment. It may also include neglect of, or unresponsiveness to, a child's basic emotional needs” Working Together to Safeguard Children (2015)
Sexual Abuse Involves forcing or enticing a child or young person to take part in sexual activities, not necessarily involving a high level of violence, whether or not the child is aware of what is happening. The activities may involve physical contact, including assault by penetration (for example, rape or oral sex) or non-penetrative acts such as masturbation, kissing, rubbing and touching outside of clothing. They may also include non-contact activities, such as involving children in looking at, or in the production of, sexual images, watching sexual activities, encouraging children to behave in sexually inappropriate ways, or grooming a child in preparation for abuse (including via the internet). Sexual abuse is not solely perpetrated by adult males. Women can also commit acts of sexual abuse, as can other children. Working Together to Safeguard Children (2015)
Emotional Abuse The persistent emotional maltreatment of a child such as to cause severe and persistent adverse effects on the child's emotional development. It may involve conveying to a child that they are worthless or unloved, inadequate, or valued only insofar as they meet the needs of another person. It may include not giving the child opportunities to express their views, deliberately silencing them or ‘making fun’ of what they say or how they communicate. It may feature age or developmentally inappropriate expectations being imposed on children. These may include interactions that are beyond a child’s developmental capability, as well as overprotection and limitation of exploration and learning, or preventing the child participating in normal social interaction. It may involve seeing or hearing the ill-treatment of another. It may involve serious bullying (including cyber bullying), causing children frequently to feel frightened or in danger, or the exploitation or corruption of children. Some level of emotional abuse is involved in all types of maltreatment of a child though it may occur alone. Working Together to Safeguard Children (2015)
Consider the vulnerability and diversity of the children we are protecting here in your school and community What might make them more vulnerable? Something about the child? Something about the parent/carer? Something about the family? How can we ensure we carry out our statutory role?
Further Areas of Vulnerability to Consider Allegations of abuse made against other children Recognising children can abuse their peers Peer on Peer abuse can manifest itself in many ways for example: • • • Bullying, cyber bullying Gender based violence Sexual assaults Sexting Initiations, hazing type violence – activities involving harassment, abuse or humiliation as a way of initiating KCSIE 2016
Online Safety How can we in school help with keeping children safe online? What do we have in place? How do we ensure our expectations are consistently applied? Images taken from the internet of public perceptions
Further areas of Vulnerability to Consider Bullying, including Cyber Bullying Children Missing from Education – attendance, vulnerability, risks of harm Children Missing from Home and Care Child Sexual Exploitation – MSET Domestic Violence - MARAC Drugs Fabricated or Induced Illness Faith Abuse Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) statutory duty to report (October 2015) Forced Marriage Gangs and Youth Violence Gender Based Violence/Violence Against Women and Girls (VAWG) Hate Mental Health Missing and Adult Strategy Private Fostering- New SSCB published materials July 2016 Preventing Radicalisation Relationship Abuse Sexting Trafficking Please see more information via ANNEX A KCSIE , the GOV. UK website or Sunderland Safeguarding Children Board Procedures via http: //www. sunderlandscb. com
Child Sexual Exploitation Is a form of sexual abuse where children are sexually exploited for money, power or status. It can involve violent, humiliating and degrading sexual assaults. In some cases, young people are persuaded or forced into exchanging sexual activity for money, drugs, gifts, affection or status. Consent cannot be given, even where a child may believe they are voluntarily engaging in sexual activity with the person who is exploiting them. Child sexual exploitation does not always involve physical contact and can happen online. A significant number of children who are victims of sexual exploitation go missing from home, care and education at some point. Annex A KCSIE 2016
Some of the following signs may be indicators of sexual exploitation: • Children who appear with unexplained gifts or new possessions; • Children who associate with other young people involved in exploitation; • Children who have older boyfriends or girlfriends; • Children who suffer from sexually transmitted infections or become pregnant; • Children who suffer from changes in emotional well-being; • Children who misuse drugs and alcohol; • Children who go missing for periods of time or regularly come home late; and • Children who regularly miss school or education or do not take part in education.
‘Honour Based’ Violence (HBV) • Crimes which have been committed to protect or defend the honour of the family or community including FGM, forced marriage and practices such as breast ironing • All forms of HBV are abuse regardless of motivation and should be handled and escalated as such. KCSIE 2016
Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), also known as female genital cutting and female circumcision, is the ritual removal of some or all of the external female genital organs Typically carried out by a traditional circumciser using a blade or razor (with or without anaesthesia) FGM is concentrated in 28 African countries, Yemen and Iraqi Kurdistan, and found elsewhere in Asia and the Middle East. The age at which it is conducted varies from days after birth to puberty; in half the countries for which national figures are available, most girls are cut before the age of five. Typically occurs between ages of 5 -8 years old, recent information suggests 8 -15 years and during summer holidays.
Female Genital Mutilation The procedures differ according to the ethnic group. The practice is rooted in gender inequality, attempts to control women's sexuality, and ideas about purity, modesty and aesthetics. Attendance issues may be the first cause for concern -children missing education (repeated occasions), however families often seek to have the procedure performed in this country rather than the child travelling abroad. Huge physical and psychological long term effects on children. https: //www. gov. uk/government/publications/multi-agency-statutory-guidance-on-femalegenital-mutilation FGM is illegal in the UK and a form of child abuse with long lasting harmful consequences. If staff have concern that FGM may occur they should follow their normal CP procedures in school however If a **teacher discovers that an act of FGM may have been carried out on a girl under the age of 18 there will be a statutory duty upon that individual to report it directly to the police. (October 2015 –section 5 b FGM Act 2003/ Section 74 Serious crime Act 2015) **teacher means— (a) in relation to England, a person within section 141 A(1) of the Education Act 2002 (persons employed or engaged to carry out teaching work at schools and other institutions in England);
Forced Marriage • Forcing a person into a marriage is a crime in England Wales. • A forced marriage is one entered into without the full and free consent of one or both parties and where violence threats or any other form of coercion is used to cause a person to enter into a marriage • Threats can be physical or emotional and psychological. A lack of full and free consent can be where a person does not consent or where they cannot consent (if they have learning disabilities, for example). Nevertheless, some communities use religion and culture as a way to coerce a person into marriage.
• Schools and colleges can play an important role in safeguarding children from forced marriage. • The Forced Marriage Unit has published Multi-agency guidelines, with pages 32 -36 focusing on the role of schools and colleges. • School and college staff can contact the Forced Marriage Unit if they need advice or information. Contact: 020 7008 0151 or email: [email protected] gov. uk.
Counter Terrorism and Security Act 2015 The Prevent Duty - 1 st July 2015 for schools & 18 th September 2015 for colleges, Section 26 of the Act • ‘Due regard’ ‘To Prevent’ assess risk of children and young people being drawn into extremism (based upon different potential risks in each local community) • Work in partnership with LA safeguarding teams and LSCB. • Staff training (Prevent awareness raising, including how and who to refer to) • IT policies are robust-appropriate usage for children and staff so they are not vulnerable through internet access (including filters) • Monitor and enforce through ensuring safeguarding procedures are in place (Inspected by OFSTED).
National and Local Response to Radicalisation • Channel Panels are a multi agency response and assessment of risk of radicalisation for adults and children. • SPOC for Northumbria Police: [email protected] pnn. police. uk call 101 Ext 63854 • For schools/settings dedicated helpline: Due Diligence and Counter Extremism Group (DDCEG) (020 7340 7264) • If you are concerned that a child’s life is in immediate danger or that they may be imminently planning to travel to Syria or Iraq dial 999 or call the confidential Anti-Terrorist Hotline on 0800 789 321. • HM Government: • • • https: //www. gov. uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/fil e/425189/Channel_Duty_Guidance_April_2015. pdf http: //www. emcsrv. com/prolog/PG/Df. E/Schools_Guide. Social_Media_V 16. pdf https: //www. gov. uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/fil e/439598/prevent-duty-departmental-advice-v 6. pdf
The Child’s Voice The role and responsibility of school is to advocate on behalf of the child so please think about the following: • Listening to the child’s views and feelings • Observing the child and their interactions with peers, adults and parents • Valuing your relationship with the child and the information you can offer • Sharing information with the safeguarding lead so that the child’s voice is NEVER lost • Keeping up to date records
Disclosure Receiving information from a child or young person either directly or indirectly
How do you respond to a Disclosure? • • • Be ready to act immediately Understand that a child might find it difficult to share Be supportive of the child and your own well being Be sure that the child understands the next steps you will take Listen to the voice of the child and be clear to use their words Engage and Initiate your safeguarding procedures
Staff have concerns about child (1) Other agency action School/college action child Referral not required. School/college takes relevant action, possibly including early help (2) and monitors locally Referral made if concerns escalate Designated Safeguarding Lead or staff makes referral to children’s social care (and call police if appropriate) 1. 2. Within 1 working day, social worker makes decision about type of response required Child in need of immediate protection: referrer informed Section 47 (3) enquiries appropriate: referrer informed Section 17 (3) enquiries appropriate: referrer informed No formal assessment required: referrer informed 3. Appropriate emergency action taken by social worker, police or NSPCC (4) Identify child at risk of significant harm; possible child protection plan (3) Identify if child in need and offer appropriate support School/college considers early help assessment (2) accessing universal services and other support At all stages, staff should keep the child’s circumstances under review and re-refer if appropriate, to ensure the child’s circumstances improve – the child’s best interests must always come first ‘Actions where there are concerns about a child’ (KCSI 2016, Page 10) 4. In cases which also involve an allegation of abuse against a staff member, see Part Four of this guidance Early help means providing support as soon as a problem emerges at any point in a child’s life. Where a child would benefit from co-ordinated early help, and early help interagency assessment should be arranged. Chapter One of Working Together to Safeguard Children provides details guidance on the early help process Under the Children Act 1989, local authorities are required to provide services for children in need for the purposes of safeguarding and promoting their welfare. This can include s 17 assessments of children in need and S 47 assessments of children at risk of significant harm. Full details are in Chapter One of Working Together to Safeguarding Children This could include applying for an Emergency Protection Order (EPO)
Safeguarding Children Safe People Vulnerable Adults Our responsibilities to Safeguarding in schools and settings Safe Premises & Places Safe children
Safeguarding is Everyone’s Business Focus on the Voice of the Child