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Technology Promotion role of Ministries, Departments, and Missions CUTS, 14 Nov 2011, 1600 -1730 Dr. Bhaskar Balakrishnan
Role of technology Technology is a crucial determinant of national competitiveness in economic and political domains. Mastery of technology gives a nation an edge over its competitors. Technology can vastly increase military strength as well as economic strength. Leads in technology are temporary as others try and catch up – by various means. IP rules serve to protect technological advances and give benefits to the originators.
International relations bilateral State A Government – federal State B 1 Government – federal Government – state, local Business Industry Academia 2 Academia Political parties and groups Trade unions and labour Religious groups Cultural groups Youth and students Women
International Relations - multilateral Government – federal 1 Intergovernmental organizations Government – state, local Informal groups of states Business Industry Academia 2 Political parties and groups Non-Governmental organizations Trade unions and labour Transnational coalitions Religious groups Cultural groups Youth and students Women
India – foreign relations Nehru laid foundations of Indian foreign policy Non-alignment, Non-interference in internal affairs, cooperation with all. Space for economic development. End of Cold war, new environment , Emergence of new poles of power -USA, EU, China, Russia. Restricting and managing weapons of mass destruction. Competition for resources, energy, materials. Global issues – terrorism, climate change, biodiversity, financial stability, trade and investment issues, etc.
International relations & technology Power plays an important role in IR Power arises from control over key resources, ability to influence other players. Power may be military – hard; or economic and cultural – soft Hard power implies coercion, soft power implies persuasion. Technology plays a key role in determining power – hard or soft.
Technological strength Need for educated skilled human resources – to develop technology as well as to use it effectively. Need for strength in basic scientific research – technology is the practical application of scientific knowledge. Requires mastery over hardware ( S & T knowledge and facts) as well as software (ability to apply and innovate and think beyond limits – the ignited mind). S & T educational system needs to move beyond mere imparting of hardware of knowledge and foster sense of inquiry and creativity. This requires changes in teaching methods. Identify talented individuals and develop their capacities
Technological strength - 2 • • • Developing countries – need to access, absorb, technology to achieve competitiveness for their products and services. Can participate in basic research through international collaborations. Developed countries – strong basic science base and ability to develop new technology and innovations. Economic problems may affect funding for basic research. India, China, Brazil, South Africa, Israel, etc – have features of developing countries as well as developed countries in Science and Technology
Technology Promotion is a part of technology management. Technology management includes – access, incorporation in a successful business venture, marketing and sales, controls over use. Technology protection- IPRs, export restrictions on sensitive equipment and knowledge, etc. Technology sales – clients can use technology and produce shared benefits. Technology is dynamic – constantly evolving – today’s cutting edge may be obsolete tomorrow.
Technology management To gain access to technology for business, defence, etc. To sell technology to business entities or create new ventures using technology. To realize returns on investment. To jointly develop technology with partners. Where foreign entities are involved, diplomacy has a role.
Modes of Promotion Diffusion of technological knowledge via reputable publications, the internet, to reach target groups. Direct marketing contacts at special events, conferences, fairs, etc. Joint ventures and investments in projects, negotiated at business meets, techmarts, b 2 b contacts. Political leveraging –used in case of defence related technology.
Technology and diplomacy • • Diplomacy is involved in dealing with foreign entities. Foreign entities – businesses, government agencies, regulatory agencies. Increasing role of private sector. Sensitive technologies – increasing government regulation and controls. Prevent leakage of technology to hostile states and entities. Prevent competition from products from other countries. WTO/TRIPs agreement further strengthens bargaining power of those who have technology.
Harnessing synergies National entities and diplomatic missions need to coordinate efforts in technology management. Accessing technology – to locate and approach those who have it. Exporting technology -- to locate and approach potential buyers. Deal with barriers to technology access or exports, and restrictive business practices.
Technology promotion roles Role of national entities – S&T related ministries, R & D institutions, academic bodies, business. Role of Ministry of External Affairs(MEA), Missions abroad. Technology acquisition related issues Technology export and sharing related issues Proactive role, facilitatory role, or mixed mode
Role of National entities • • • Identify knowledge gaps that need to be filled. Strategic planning for meeting these gaps. Research efforts or collaborations – in house, national or international. Access technology from abroad, if available Participate in international R & D programmes. Secure funding for R&D activities.
Role of Missions – some general aspects Roles may differ according to the level of technology in the host country and sending country – receiver or supplier of technology, or both. Develop a general science and technology profile of the country- its strengths and weaknesses. Evaluate potential for technology collaboration with national entities. Locate and develop contacts with institutions with strong scientific and technological capacity in the host country. Share information with national entities. Establish contacts and obtain information on technology restrictions mechanisms in place. Develop policy and strategy in technology areas in the host country, in consultation with national entities.
Role of Missions – specific tasks Promote linkages with appropriate national entities, and development of institutional mechanisms. Respond to requests for information on specific technology requests from national entities or local entities. Facilitate visits by representatives of national entities looking for technology collaborations. Disseminate information on technology available from home country to potential users in host country. Undertake promotional and lobbying actions designed to support achievement of objectives in technology sector. Interact with major R & D institutions, Universities, and Corporates in areas of science and technology. Implementation of agreed joint programmes and activities, S & T agreements, develop proposals for new collaborative activities.
Role of Missions – some issues Trained S & T personnel not available in foreign ministries. Lower priority to S & T work compared to political, economic, cultural diplomacy. Several possible roles – proactive (maximal), facilitatory (minimal), or mixed(intermediate). Lack of linkages with home country S & T entities. Lack of designated nodal points for subsectoral knowledge areas.
Indian context • • Indian Missions do not have a specifically defined role in S & T, it is assumed to be a part of general economic diplomacy. Lack of S & T expertise in HQrs as well as in Missions. Many of FS personnel come from science or engineering background in recent years. Their capabilities need to be harnessed. Lack of capacity in MEA – personnel resources. Very few science counselors in Indian missions abroad. S & T wings in Germany, Russia, Japan, USA Science counselors posted abroad need special training to perform a diplomatic role. Much greater coordination is needed between MEA and S&T entities in India. Lack of a suitable forum or platform.
S &T - some areas needing coverage Nuclear technology - civilian and strategic. Missile and aerospace technology Chemical weapons convention Biological weapons convention Biotechnology, bioinformatics, and regulatory issues Outer Space treaties, international space collaboration. Ocean space and Law of the Sea. Antarctic Treaty and cooperation. Climate change and environment Technology control regimes ICT, Cybercrime and IT security. Nanotechnology and materials science. IPR and TRIPS related issues Health care technology and services Energy sector technologies
India – nuclear issues Efforts for complete nuclear disarmament failed Nuclear option kept open Nuclear programme pursued under DAE NPT considered discriminatory- resist attempts to impose it on India Nuclear Technology denial regime post 1974 - the NSG; post 1998 US & Japan economic sanctions. Post 2005 - Indo-US nuclear deal, NSG waiver. De facto status similar to nuclear weapons states. Restraints on nuclear testing, separation of civil and strategic components, international safeguards on civil component. No first use policy, objective of complete ban on nuclear weapons.
India space and missile issues Government launched space programme. Payloads developed indigenously Launch system development – restrictions under MTCR Indigenous launch vehicle development including cryogenic engine. India’s missile development programme. IRBM Agni III Brahmos supersonic cruise missile.
Chemical Weapons Convention Since 1993, 188 countries have signed the CWC Bans chemical weapons. But many such chemicals are used in industry – eg Chlorine. Requires controls on a wide range of dual use chemicals which are toxic or can be used to make toxic chemicals (precursors). Controls include export controls, verification and inspections, registers of chemicals, all of which involve costs of implementation.
IT and Security issues Rapid growth of IT in all economic sectors, government activities. Emergence of Cyber crime and cyber warfare and terrorism. Vulnerability of critical systems. Security of financial service systems, banks, stock markets, etc. Lack of a global convention to combat cyber crime and terrorism.
Technology control -examples Wassenaar Arrangement – coordinates export controls on dual use technology - 40 participating countries US technology export controls – Bureau of Industry and Security of Dept. of Commerce – export licensing for sensitive goods and technologies. India-US agreement on end user verification of defence and sensitive technology.
Intellectual Property rights Indian stand on patent protection – process not product patents in pharma sector. Indian pharma industry able to reverse engineer and produce lower cost drugs. Intense pressure on India to change patent regime. Post Uruguay round, India changed its patent laws. Greater awareness among all stakeholders, tougher negotiations in Doha Round.
Biological Weapons Convention Since 1972, 162 countries have signed it. Bans bioweapons and toxins. Many countries have declared and destroyed their BW assets. Lack of agreement on verification mechanisms – US has opposed proposals from EU and others. Threat of terrorist groups and non state actors getting access to such weapons and materials.
Biotechnology and the ICGEB project to enable developing countries to get access to biotechnology. Countries like Cuba, India, China have made good progress in this field. Many developed countries did not support this project. ICGEB has survived due to support from India, Italy, and others, but full potential is not realized due to lack of support of major developed countries.
Biosafety and GE issues Advances in biotechnology – possible to move genes across species, modify them and even insert artificial genes. Has many applications in human, animal health, agriculture, industry, environment clean up, etc. Problems when large numbers of living modified organisms are released into the environment. Agri-biotech plagued with regulatory problems – Bt Cotton, Bt-Brinjal in India Laboratory and closed production systems using GMOs are considered safe. Bioethics issues – stem cells from embryos, etc.
Environmental issues Ozone layer depletion led to Montreal Protocol 1987, to phase out ODS. 196 countries signed it. Special fund to help developing countries set up. Recognition of “common and differentiated responsibility” of countries. Global warming led to UNFCCC and the Kyoto protocol, to control emissions of greenhouse gases. CO 2 emissions reductions require major changes in production and consumption in society, across all sectors of the economy. Adjustment will have impact on economic growth – developed countries reluctant to agree to cuts, want to shift burden onto major developing countries like India and China despite their low per capita emissions.
Nanotechnology Nanostructures – a nanometre in at least one dimension. Carbon nanotubes, nanoporous materials, nanoparticles, thin films, quantum dots, etc. Surface area increases greatly – more reactivity. Electromagnetic and quantum effects become important. Many useful applications now available, many emerging. Can revolutionize industry – small scale, scalable, transportable, production systems. Government funding for R & D in many countries. Good scope for international collaboration. Regulatory issues – large scale release of nanoparticles into the environment.
Examples Examples of S&T systems in used by several countries. Examples of technology sharing arrangements. Examples of international cooperation opportunities.
Example 1 - US • • A US study (1999) recommended creation of and S&T Adviser to the Secretary of State, and S & T Officers in Missions abroad. Some key functions are Advise the Chief of Mission and the country team about significant scientific, technological, environmental and oceans policies, programs and developments in the host country. Provide an appropriate analysis and evaluation of these developments and participates actively in the formulation of policy recommendations. Implement agreed U. S. policies in host country. Identify scientific and technological areas of mutual interest to both countries which are suitable for bilateral collaboration. Analyze and evaluates the technologies involved, recommends appropriate initiatives, and conducts necessary negotiations. Prepare reports on significant S&T policies and developments in host country, etc.
US State Dept. - S&T institutional set up Science & Technology Adviser to the Secretary of State with 7 support staff. Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs (OES), headed by Assistant Secretary, supported by 5 senior staff. Approximately 50 Foreign Service officers located in embassies around the world who focus exclusively on Environment, Science and Technology and Health (ESTH) issues. Engage on subjects such as, oceans and fisheries; bilateral science cooperation; health policy; environmental and climate change and renewable energy, among others.
Example 2 - UK • • • Chief Scientific Adviser (CSA) is responsible for providing advice to the Foreign Secretary, Ministers and officials on science, technology and innovation. A Science and Innovation Network (SIN) consists of around 90 staff, based in 40 British Embassies, High Commissions and Consulates, across 25 countries around the world. Influence Science and innovation policies of governments, businesses and academia. Help UK policy development through identifying good practice internationally. Exploit opportunities for International science and innovation collaboration. Reporting and advising major UK partners on opportunities and developments in science and Innovation overseas.
Example 3 - Italy S& T collaboration is a part of Cultural Department of Foreign Ministry. Develops and implements bilateral executive programmes in S & T with various countries. Has a network of scientific and technological attachés and experts in 20 countries - drawn from Italian research bodies and universities. To showcase and capitalize on the sectors of excellence and support the advancement of Italian companies operating in advanced technology sectors. An electronic Science and Technology Information Network distributes high-added-value scientific information gathered by Science and Technology Attachés – to participating entities in Italy, who can interact directly with the attaches on matters of interest.
Example 4 - Denmark Three innovation centers in strong, international knowledge environments in Silicon Valley (USA), Shanghai (China) and Munich (Germany). Science and technology (S&T) attaché posted at each of these centers. Attaché provides services to Danish researchers, universities, research institutions and innovative environments. The overall strength of the S&T attachés is their local presence, which is decisive to be able to set up a solid network of key persons in the relevant research, innovation and business environments. Aims at strengthening the access of Danish researchers and enterprises to world-leading knowledge centers outside Denmark.
Example 5 - Cuba/Biocon CIM(Cuba) developed monoclonal antibody technology for a variety of human health applications including head and neck cancer treatment. Biocon & CIM set up a JV with Cuban partner, allocated equity as payment for technology. Technology recipient was assured of performance by involving supplier in a JV. JV Biocon Biopharmaceuticals set up a large scale facility in Bangalore using Cuban technology for manufacture of several important biologicals. Bio. Mab EGFR™ launched in 2006, a novel monoclonal antibody against head and neck cancer and other cancers of epithelial origin. BIOMAb EGFR® is currently approved for treatment of head and neck cancers in India; clinical trials are being conducted worldwide to evaluate the efficacy of this molecule in various other indications also like lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, cervical cancer etc. Cuban side sold out their share of equity for various reasons.
Example 6 – Restrictive practices Solar water heating technology transferred to Tata BP Solar. Technology supplier stipulated that products would only be sold in South Asian region. Exports to other markets were not permitted. Some promising business enquiries from countries such as the Caribbean, Africa, etc could not be pursued. Export restrictions, pricing restrictions, etc. are undesirable restrictive business practices (RBPs). Technology licensing arrangements need to be carefully negotiated by the partners concerned. Competition law in either country can provide help against RBPs which restrict ability to compete.
Example 7 – EU’s FP 7 programme EU’s 7 th Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development -2007 -2013 with a budget of over € 50 billion. Supports cooperation in 10 major sectors. Support to "frontier research" solely on the basis of scientific excellence. Support for researcher mobility and career development, both for researchers inside the EU and internationally. Strengthening research capacities. Nuclear research and training activities. Funding schemes - Collaborative research projects, networks of excellence, coordination and support, individual projects, training and career development, research fro specific groups. India - over 90 projects involving 140 research institutions have been selected under FP 7. Under FP 6(2002 -2006) over 80 projects involving 100 institutions were selected.
International scientific collaboration An important channel to access advanced knowledge and expertise, and apply them to local problems. Enhancing domestic scientific capabilities through the exchange of knowledge and experience. Access to scientific facilities that may not be available locally, for example, large computing facilities, or 'big science' facilities. Access to foreign sources of funding for researchers, eg FP 7. Scientific collaboration as a device to encourage regional integration by focusing on common problems. Useful mechanism for engaging the talents of researchers who have migrated abroad, but still wish to stay in touch with their country of origin. Mutual benefits must be ensured, especially among unequal partners. India plays both roles - a donor and recipient in ISCs with other countries.
International scientific collaboration examples Human Genome Project – India’s participation negligible. Large Hadron Collider project- substantial Indian participation - mutually satisfactory economic basis worked out – Human resources, IT services, and critical component manufacture and supply. ITER Project – Indian contribution about 10% of the ITER construction cost (EU pays about 40%). Most of this will be in the form of components made by the Indian industry and delivered to ITER. Only a small part (~1%) will be paid in cash to a common fund for in-cash procurements by the ITER International Team. India has bilateral S&T cooperation agreements with 73 countries, managed by DST
Bilateral cooperation framework • • Framework S & T agreement. Programmes of cooperation for specific durations, specifying activities and partners. Monitoring Joint Committee at official level Each side to meet its costs on travel and other inputs, local hospitality provided. Each partner in an activity has to arrange its own funds. Lack of long term programmes and funding for major R & D activities. Low rate of implementation.
Conclusions Role of technology issues in India’s foreign relations is bound to grow further. India will be a growing producer and consumer of technology, and participate in more ISCs Requires much closer collaboration between foreign affairs and scientific & technical establishments. Technology dimension of foreign policy and global issues will need to be carefully taken into account.
References The Pervasive Role of Science, Technology, and Health in Foreign Policy: Imperatives for the Department of State, http: //www. nap. edu/catalog. php? record_id=9688 Science in the FCO - http: //www. fco. gov. uk/en/about-us/what-wedo/working-in-partnership/working-with-stakeholdergroups/science-innovation/ Scientific and Technological cooperation- Italian Foreign ministry http: //www. esteri. it/MAE/EN/Politica_Estera/Cultura/Cooper. Scientifi ca. Tecnologica/ Euro India research site http: //euroindiaresearch. org/fp 7_introduction. htm; also EU FP 7 Site - http: //ec. europa. eu/research/fp 7/
Thank You Dr. Bhaskar Balakrishnan Email: bb [email protected] com Website: http: //bbalakrishnan. 110 mb. com