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Technology Guide 1 Hardware 1 Technology Guide 1 Hardware 1

What is a Computer System § Computer hardware is composed of the following components: What is a Computer System § Computer hardware is composed of the following components: üCentral processing unit (CPU) üInput devices üOutput devices üPrimary storage üSecondary storage üCommunication devices 2

Computer System 3 Computer System 3

Representing Data § Today’s computers are based on integrated circuits (chips), each of which Representing Data § Today’s computers are based on integrated circuits (chips), each of which include millions of subminiature transistors. § The “on-off” states of the transistors are used to establish a binary 1 or 0 for storing one binary digit, or bit. § A byte is a sufficient number of bits to represent specific characters— usually 8 bits. § The two most commonly used coding schemes are: 1. ASCII (American National Standard Code for Information Interchange) 2. EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code) 4

Representing Pictures § Pictures are represented by a grid overlay of the picture. ü Representing Pictures § Pictures are represented by a grid overlay of the picture. ü The computer measures the color (or light level) of each cell of the grid. The unit measurement of this is called a pixel. 5

Representing Time § Time is represented in fractions of a second. The following are Representing Time § Time is represented in fractions of a second. The following are common measures of time: ü Millisecond 1/1000 seconds ü Microsecond 1/1, 000 seconds § Size is measured by the number of bytes. Common measures of size are: ü Kilobyte 1, 000 bytes (actually 1024) ü Megabyte 1, 000 kilobytes 106 bytes 6

Evolution of Computers § The first generation of computers, 1946– 1956 ü Used vacuum Evolution of Computers § The first generation of computers, 1946– 1956 ü Used vacuum tubes to store process information § The second generation of computers, 1957– 1963 ü Used transistors for storage and processing information § Third-generation of computers, 1964– 1979 ü Used integrated circuits for storing and processing information § Early to middle fourth-generation computers, 1980– 1995 ü Used very large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits to store/ process information 7

Evolution of Computers (cont. ) § Late fourth-generation computers, 1996–present ü Use grand-scale integrated Evolution of Computers (cont. ) § Late fourth-generation computers, 1996–present ü Use grand-scale integrated (GSI) circuits to store/ process information § Fifth Generation of Computers, Present ü Uses massively parallel processing to process multiple instructions simultaneously § Future Generations of computers ü DNA Computers ü Optical Computers 8

Types of Computers § Supercomputers ü The computers with the most processing power ü Types of Computers § Supercomputers ü The computers with the most processing power ü Use the technology of parallel processing § Massively parallel computers ü Uses a large number of processors ü The processors divide up and independently work on small chunks of a large problem § Mainframes ü Not as powerful and generally not as expensive as supercomputers ü Most often used by large corporations 9

Types of Computers (cont. ) § Minicomputers (midrange computers) ü Smaller and less expensive Types of Computers (cont. ) § Minicomputers (midrange computers) ü Smaller and less expensive than mainframe computers ü Designed to accomplish specific tasks § Workstations ü Based on RISC (reduced instruction set computing) architecture ü Provide high-speed calculations and high-resolution graphic displays § Microcomputers (micros or personal computers, PCs) ü The smallest and least expensive category of generalpurpose computers ü Four classifications based on their size: – Desktops - Note books – Laptops - Palmtops 10

Types of Computers (cont. ) § Personal digital assistant (PDA) ü A palmtop computer Types of Computers (cont. ) § Personal digital assistant (PDA) ü A palmtop computer that combines a fast processor with a multitasking operating system § Smart Card ü An even smaller form of computer that has resulted from the continuing shrinkage of integrated circuits ü Uses for smart cards are appearing rapidly and include; – Checkbooks – a bank ATM that can “deposit money” into the card’s memory for “withdrawal” at retail stores – transporting data between computers 11

Network Computers & Terminals § Network computer (NC) ü “thin” computer ü desktop terminal Network Computers & Terminals § Network computer (NC) ü “thin” computer ü desktop terminal that does not store software programs or data permanently § Windows-based terminals (WBTs) ü subset of the Network computer ü reduces maintenance & 12 support costs

Central Processing Unit Ø The central processing unit (CPU) is also referred to as Central Processing Unit Ø The central processing unit (CPU) is also referred to as a microprocessor because of its small size. Ø The CPU is the center of all computer-processing activities, where all processing is controlled, data are manipulated, arithmetic computations are performed, and logical comparisons are made. Ø The CPU consists of the; 1. Control unit 2. Arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) 3. Primary storage (or main memory) 13

Primary Storage Primary storage, or main memory, stores data and program statements for the Primary Storage Primary storage, or main memory, stores data and program statements for the CPU. It has four basic purposes. § To store data that have been input until they are transferred to the ALU for processing. § To hold data after processing until they are transferred to an output device. § To store data that have been input until they are transferred to the ALU for processing. § To hold program statements or instructions received from input devices and from secondary storage. 14

Buses § § A bus is a channel (or shared data path) through which Buses § § A bus is a channel (or shared data path) through which data is passed in electronic form. Three types of buses link the CPU, primary storage, and the other devices in the computer system. – The data bus moves data to and from primary storage. – The address bus transmits signals for locating a given address in primary storage. – The control bus transmits signals specifying whether to “read” or “write” data to or from a given primary storage address, input device, or output device. 15

Control Unit § The control unit reads § The Machine cycle is instructions and Control Unit § The control unit reads § The Machine cycle is instructions and directs the series of operations the other components of required to process a the computer system to single machine perform the functions instruction. required by the program. § Each machine cycle § The control unit does consists of the; not actually change or ü instruction cycle, and create data; it merely the directs the data flow ü execution cycle within the CPU. 16

Memory § There are two categories of memory: 1. The register ü This is Memory § There are two categories of memory: 1. The register ü This is part of the CPU and is very fast. ü It allows for the fast storage and retrieval of data and instructions during the processing. 2. Internal memory chips ü These reside outside the CPU and are slower. ü The internal memory is used to store data just before they are processed by the CPU. 17

Random-Access Memory § Random-access memory (RAM) is the place in which the CPU stores Random-Access Memory § Random-access memory (RAM) is the place in which the CPU stores the instructions and data it is processing. ü The advantage of RAM is that it is very fast in storing and retrieving any type of data. § Dynamic random access memories (DRAMs) are the most widely used RAM chips. § Synchronous DRAM (SDRAM) is a relatively new and different kind of RAM. 18

Read-Only Memory § Read-only memory (ROM) is that portion of primary storage that cannot Read-Only Memory § Read-only memory (ROM) is that portion of primary storage that cannot be changed or erased. § Programmable read-only memory (PROM) is a memory chip on which a program can be stored. § Erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM) is a special type of PROM that can be erased by exposing it to ultraviolet light. 19

Microprocessor Speed The speed of a chip depends on four things: Ø Clock speed Microprocessor Speed The speed of a chip depends on four things: Ø Clock speed Ø Word length Ø Data bus width Ø Design of the chip 20

Parallel Processing § A Parallel Processing System is a computer system with two or Parallel Processing § A Parallel Processing System is a computer system with two or more processors. ü Today, some PCs have 2 to 4 processors while workstations have 20 or more. ü Processing data in parallel speeds up processing. § Massively parallel processor (MPP) systems are systems with large numbers of processors. 21

Microprocessor Evolution Ø Microprocessors have become dramatically faster, more complex, with increasing numbers of Microprocessor Evolution Ø Microprocessors have become dramatically faster, more complex, with increasing numbers of transistors embedded in the silicon wafer. Ø Chips are now being manufactured from gallium arsenide (Ga. As), a semiconductor material inherently much faster than silicon. Ø Intel has incorporated MMX (multimedia extension) technology in its Pentium microprocessors. ü MMX improves video compression/decompression, image manipulation, encryption, and input/output processing. 22

Microprocessor Architecture § Computer architecture refers to the arrangement of the components and their Microprocessor Architecture § Computer architecture refers to the arrangement of the components and their interactions. It includes; ü ü ü the instruction set the number of the processors the structure of the internal buses the use of caches the types and arrangements of input/output (I/O) device interfaces. § An instruction set is the set of machine instructions that a processor recognizes and can execute. ü Today, there are two main instruction set strategies: – Complex instruction set computer (CISC) – Reduced instruction set computer (RISC) 23

Input/ Output Devices § The input/output (I/O) devices of a computer are not part Input/ Output Devices § The input/output (I/O) devices of a computer are not part of the CPU, but are channels for communicating between the external environment and the CPU. ü Input devices deliver data and instructions into the computer. ü Output devices provide processing results. § I/O devices are subclassified into the following categories; ü Secondary storage devices: primarily disk and tape drives ü Peripheral devices: any input/output device that is attached to the computer 24

Secondary Storage § Secondary Storage is separate from primary storage and the CPU, but Secondary Storage § Secondary Storage is separate from primary storage and the CPU, but directly connected to it. It provides the computer with vastly increased space for storing and processing large quantities of software and data. § Secondary storage media include; ü Magnetic tape ü Magnetic diskette ü Optical storage ü Digital videodisk (DVD) 25

Input Devices Users can command the computer and communicate with it by using one Input Devices Users can command the computer and communicate with it by using one or more of the following input devices. § Keyboard. The most common input device is the keyboard. The keyboard is designed like a typewriter but with many additional special keys. § Mouse. The computer mouse is a hand-held device used to point a cursor at a desired place on the screen. § Touch Screen. The user activates an object on the screen by touching it with his or her finger. 26

Input Devices (cont. ) § Touchpad. A touchpad or trackpad is a small, flat, Input Devices (cont. ) § Touchpad. A touchpad or trackpad is a small, flat, rectangular pointing device that is sensitive to pressure and motion. § Light Pen. A light pen is a special device with a lightsensing mechanism, which is used to touch the screen. § Joysticks are used primarily at workstations that can display dynamic graphics. They are also used in playing video games. The joystick moves and positions the cursor at the desired object on the 27 screen.

Input Devices (cont. ) § Automated Teller Machines (ATMs). ATMs are interactive input/output devices Input Devices (cont. ) § Automated Teller Machines (ATMs). ATMs are interactive input/output devices that enable people to obtain cash, make deposits, transfer funds, and update their bank accounts instantly from many locations. § Electronic Form. In form interaction, the user enters data or commands into predesignated spaces (fields) in a form. The headings of the electronic form serve as a prompt for the input. § Whiteboard. A whiteboard is an area on a display screen that multiple users can write or draw on. 28

Source Data Automation § Source data automation captures data in computerreadable form at the Source Data Automation § Source data automation captures data in computerreadable form at the moment the data are created. § Examples of Source Data Automation: ü Point-of-sale systems ü Optical bar-codes ü Code scanners ü Handwriting recognizers ü Voice recognizers ü Magnetic ink character readers (MICR) ü Digitizers ü Digital Cameras 29

Output Devices 30 Output Devices 30

Output Devices (cont. ) The output generated by a computer can be transmitted to Output Devices (cont. ) The output generated by a computer can be transmitted to the user via several devices and media. Ø Monitors Ø Impact Printers Ø Nonimpact Printers Ø Plotters Ø Voice Output 31

Communications Media Computer Motion image § CRT and terminals § CD-ROM § Computer interactive Communications Media Computer Motion image § CRT and terminals § CD-ROM § Computer interactive videodisc § Digital video interactive § Compact disc interactive § Computer simulation § § Videodisc (cassette) Motion pictures Broadcast television Teleconference/video conference § Animation & Virtual Reality 32

Communications Media (cont. ) Projected still visuals § Tape/cassette/record Audio § § § Teleconference Communications Media (cont. ) Projected still visuals § Tape/cassette/record Audio § § § Teleconference Audioconference Sound digitizing Microphone Compact disc Music § Slide & Overhead Graphic materials § Pictures § Printed job aids § Visual Displays Text § Printouts 33