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Technologies Affecting Libraries Ancient, Modern and Post-modern Times Subal Chandra Biswas Naclin 2011 Technologies Affecting Libraries Ancient, Modern and Post-modern Times Subal Chandra Biswas Naclin 2011

Overview n n Introduction Library technologies q q q n n Ancient period Modern Overview n n Introduction Library technologies q q q n n Ancient period Modern period Post modern period Top 10 technology trends Library technology truths Barriers to technology implementation Conclusions S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 2

Introduction n Libraries have played an important part in the world for centuries to Introduction n Libraries have played an important part in the world for centuries to store and retrieve information for scholars and others. The method of obtaining information from libraries has changed from clay tablets, hand written materials, to printed materials, to microforms, to CD-ROMS, and to the online storage, including databases of the present times. The changes were introduced by different generations to meet the changing needs of users. S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 3

Introduction of Technologies in the Libraries n n n Technology was introduced in libraries Introduction of Technologies in the Libraries n n n Technology was introduced in libraries during the second half of the Twentieth Century. In the present Twenty-first Century, western nations have been successful in implementing technology in their libraries, but many other nations including third world countries of Asia, Africa, and the Middle East are struggling. India, one of these third world countries, is no exception. S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 4

Libraries and Technology n Already mentioned: q q n Contemporary information & communication technology Libraries and Technology n Already mentioned: q q n Contemporary information & communication technology is doing the same thing q n n technological imperative: libraries always depended, among others, on technology keeps transforming libraries in a BIG way And because of it many new players that were not in the library business are entering into the arena of digital libraries Tails that wags the dog S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 5

INPUT Selection and Acquisition Population of documents Conceptual analysis Translation of conceptual analyses into INPUT Selection and Acquisition Population of documents Conceptual analysis Translation of conceptual analyses into index terms Preservation Description and Indexing Documents Document profiles (Index terms) Storage file (Document store) Request doc. from store SEARCH FILE (Matching of document and request profiles) Feedback System vocabulary An IR System Request profiles (Search strategies) Translation of conceptual analyses into index terms Searching Population of system users S. C. Biswas Requests Conceptual analysis OUTPUT Naclin 2011 6

Ranganathan’s Predictions n Dr. S. R. Ranganathan, in the 1950 s said, technology will Ranganathan’s Predictions n Dr. S. R. Ranganathan, in the 1950 s said, technology will become an important part of libraries. n His prediction has certainly become a reality. n The information is now available even from outside the library, twenty-four hours a day from homes, offices, dormitories, and other places for all interested users seeking information. S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 7

My Convictions n n The libraries have changed and are changing from the manual My Convictions n n The libraries have changed and are changing from the manual systems of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries to the electronic systems in the present century. There is no doubt that a few countries in the third world, including some in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East, have been successful in introducing technology in their libraries but they have a long way to go before they will catch up with the Western nations. S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 8

S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 9 S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 9

Clay Tablet n n n Library of Ashurbanipal, the last great king of Neo. Clay Tablet n n n Library of Ashurbanipal, the last great king of Neo. Assyrian Empire Established 7 th century BC Location Nineveh, capital of Assyria (modern day Iraq) Collection Size over 20, 000 cuneiform clay tablets Contents include royal inscriptions, chronicles, mythological and religious texts, contracts, royal grants and decrees, royal letters, various administrative documents, etc. S. C. Biswas Tablet containing part of the Epic of Gilgamesh (Tablet 11 depicting the Deluge), now part of the holdings of the British Museum Naclin 2011 10

Parchment n n Parchment is a thin material made from calfskin, sheepskin or goatskin, Parchment n n Parchment is a thin material made from calfskin, sheepskin or goatskin, often split. Parchment was invented under the patronage of Eumenes of Pergamum (3 rd & 2 nd century BC), as a substitute for papyrus. Common use as a material for writing on, for documents, notes, or the pages of a book, codex or manuscript. The finer qualities of parchment are called vellum. S. C. Biswas An English deed written on fine parchment or vellum with seal tag dated 1638. Naclin 2011 11

Papyrus n n Papyrus is a thick paper-like material produced from the pith of Papyrus n n Papyrus is a thick paper-like material produced from the pith of the papyrus plant grown in the Nile Delta of Egypt. First manufactured in Egypt as in the third millennium BCE. In the first centuries BCE and CE, papyrus scrolls gained a rival as a writing surface in the form of parchment. Used in Ancient Egypt as a writing material. Sheets of parchment were folded to form quires from which book-form codices were fashioned. S. C. Biswas A section of the Egyptian Book of the Dead written on papyrus Naclin 2011 12

Palm Leaf n n n Palm leaf manuscripts are manuscripts made out of dried Palm Leaf n n n Palm leaf manuscripts are manuscripts made out of dried palm leaves (of Palmyra palm or talipot palm). Used as the paper of the ancient world in parts of Asia as far back as the fifteenth century BCE and possibly much earlier. Contents to record actual and mythical narratives in South Asia and in South East Asia. S. C. Biswas 15 th- or 16 -century Christian prayers in Tamil, on palm leaf manuscripts Naclin 2011 13

Birch Bark n n n A birch bark document is a document written on Birch Bark n n n A birch bark document is a document written on pieces of birch bark. Such documents existed in several cultures. For instance, some Gandhara Buddhist texts have been found written on birch bark and preserved in clay jars. On July 26, 1951, during excavations in Novgorod, a Soviet expedition found the first Russian birch bark writing in a layer dated to ca. 1400. Since then, more than 1, 000 similar documents were discovered in various other places in Russia. S. C. Biswas Birch-bark letter no. 292, Oldest known Karelian language text. (First half of 13 th century) Birch-bark letter no. 202 contains spelling lessons and drawings made by a boy named Onfim (aged 6 -7 years). Naclin 2011 14

Paper n n n Paper is a thin material mainly used for writing upon, Paper n n n Paper is a thin material mainly used for writing upon, printing upon, drawing or for packaging. Paper is a versatile material with many uses. The most common is for writing and printing upon. Developed in China during the early 2 nd century AD by the Han court eunuch Cai Lun, although the earliest archaeological fragments of paper derive from the 2 nd century BC in China. Hemp wrapping paper, China, circa 100 BCE. S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 15

Oldest surviving “book” 18 th dynasty, ancient Egypt, circa 1550 B. C. Title: Word Oldest surviving “book” 18 th dynasty, ancient Egypt, circa 1550 B. C. Title: Word of Khakheperraseneb. Technology: wooden board, Content: a literary discourse concerning layer of gypsum; hole for a personal and social chaos cord to hang on a peg S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 16

Most famous library Alexandria library ~330 - 1 B. C. (depiction) Technology: papyrus scrolls Most famous library Alexandria library ~330 - 1 B. C. (depiction) Technology: papyrus scrolls S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 17

A Catalogue Card 600 B. C. Niniveh, Babylonia S. C. Biswas Technology: Clay – A Catalogue Card 600 B. C. Niniveh, Babylonia S. C. Biswas Technology: Clay – glazed, baked Naclin 2011 18

Creating & Preserving books Scriptorium - middle ages (beginning late 400 s A. D. Creating & Preserving books Scriptorium - middle ages (beginning late 400 s A. D. ) Technology: pen, paper, ink; copying S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 19

S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 20 S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 20

Printing Books n n Gutenberg 1397 -1468 n n Printing is a process for Printing Books n n Gutenberg 1397 -1468 n n Printing is a process for reproducing text and image, typically with ink on paper using a printing press. Modern printing characterized by the movable type, first developed by Bi Sheng in China, and the printing press, a more efficient printing process developed by Johannes Gutenberg in the 15 th century. Technology: combined four skeins: ink, paper, movable type & printing press. Created a revolution – role in Renaissance & libraries. Basic idea still operational Print gave a broader range of readers access to knowledge and enabled later generations to build on the intellectual achievements of earlier ones. Replica of the Gutenberg press at the International Printing Museum, Carson, CA S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 21

Printed Books and Journals n n n A book is a set or collection Printed Books and Journals n n n A book is a set or collection of written, printed, illustrated, or blank sheets, made of ink, paper, parchment, or other materials, usually fastened together to hinge at one side. In library and information science, a book is called a monograph, to distinguish it from serial periodicals such as magazines, journals or newspapers. Even to this day, majority of library collections comprise of stack rooms filled with books and bound volumes of journals. . S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 22

Punched Card n n A punched card, punch card, IBM card, or Hollerith card Punched Card n n A punched card, punch card, IBM card, or Hollerith card is a piece of stiff paper that contains digital information represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions. Use: q q 19 th century – for controlling textile looms Late 19 th and early 20 th century – for operating fairground organs and related instruments Through the 20 th century – for input, processing, and data storage. Now an obsolete recording medium S. C. Biswas Library use of edge-punched (edge-notched) cards Naclin 2011 23

Aperture Card n n n An aperture card is a type of punched card Aperture Card n n n An aperture card is a type of punched card with a cut-out window into which a chip of microfilm is mounted. Such a card is used for archiving or for making multiple inexpensive copies of a document for ease of distribution. The card is typically punched with machine-readable metadata associated with the microfilm image, and printed across the top of the card for visual identification. S. C. Biswas n The microfilm chip is most commonly 35 mm in height, and contains an optically reduced image, usually of some type of reference document, such as an engineering drawing, that is the focus of the archiving process. Naclin 2011 24

Microform (1/2) n n Microforms are any forms, either films or paper, containing microreproductions Microform (1/2) n n Microforms are any forms, either films or paper, containing microreproductions of documents Used for transmission, storage, reading, and printing. Three formats are common: microfilm (reels), aperture cards and microfiche (flat sheets). Libraries q q q as a preservation strategy for deteriorating newspaper collections (mid-20 th century ). decaying books and newspapers could be preserved and thus access and use could be increased. as a space-saving measure. S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 25

Microform (2/2) n n n Microfilm Reader is a device used for reading of Microform (2/2) n n n Microfilm Reader is a device used for reading of documents stored as microform. A microfilm reader is used in projecting and viewing to magnify microfilm images to readable proportions. With the advent of Microfilm, naturally would follow the development of Microfilm readers, e. g. Microfiche Reader. S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 26

CD and DVD n n n The Compact Disc (also known as a CD) CD and DVD n n n The Compact Disc (also known as a CD) is an optical disc used to store digital data. It was originally developed to store and playback sound recordings exclusively, but later expanded to encompass data storage (CD-ROM), write-once audio and data storage (CD-R), rewritable media (CD-RW), Video Compact Discs (VCD), Super Video Compact Discs (SVCD), Photo. CD, A DVD is an optical disc storage media format, invented and developed by Philips, Sony, Toshiba, and Panasonic in 1995. DVDs offer higher storage capacity than Compact Discs while having the same dimensions. These are extensively used in libraries of even today. S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 27

Card Catalogue n n n A library catalogue is a register of all bibliographic Card Catalogue n n n A library catalogue is a register of all bibliographic items found in a library or group of libraries, such as a network of libraries at several locations. The card catalogue was a familiar sight to library users for generations, but it has been effectively replaced by the online public access catalogue (OPAC). The first card catalogues appeared in the 19 th century, enabling much more flexibility, and towards the end of the 20 th century the OPAC was developed. S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 28

First OPACs q An Online Public Access Catalogue is an online database of materials First OPACs q An Online Public Access Catalogue is an online database of materials held by a library or group of libraries. q The first large-scale online catalogues were developed at Ohio State University in 1975 and the Dallas Public Library in 1978 in the United States. q Technology: digital MARC records, computers online access Rutgers University Library OPAC S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 29

Telephone n n The telephone (colloq. phone) is a telecommunications device that transmits and Telephone n n The telephone (colloq. phone) is a telecommunications device that transmits and receives sounds such as the voice of humans over a large distance. Developed around the 1870 s by Alexander Graham Bell and others. Use: It has long been considered indispensable to businesses, households and governments, is now one of the most common appliances in the world. Libraries have been using it for a long time for providing various services to the clientele. S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 30

Photocopier n n A photocopier is a machine that makes paper copies of documents Photocopier n n A photocopier is a machine that makes paper copies of documents and other visual images quickly and cheaply. Most current photocopiers use a technology called xerography, a dry process using heat, introduced by Xerox in 1959. Used widely in business, education, and government. For libraries, it promoted making of copies of books those were not lent out to the users, of course within the limits of the copyright laws. S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 31

Two Innovative Applications n Discarded telephone-booths transformed into library in England S. C. Biswas Two Innovative Applications n Discarded telephone-booths transformed into library in England S. C. Biswas n Wet umbrella holder for library clientele manufactured in China Naclin 2011 32

Digital Preservation n Digital preservation is the set of processes, activities and management of Digital Preservation n Digital preservation is the set of processes, activities and management of digital information over time to ensure its long term accessibility. The goal of digital preservation is to preserve materials resulting from digital reformatting, and particularly information that is born-digital with no analog counterpart. Because of the relatively short lifecycle of digital information, preservation is an ongoing process. S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 33

S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 34 S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 34

E-Book and E-Journal n n An electronic book (also e-book, ebook, digital book) is E-Book and E-Journal n n An electronic book (also e-book, ebook, digital book) is a book-length publication in digital form, consisting of text, images, or both. Sometimes the equivalent of a conventional printed book, e-books can also be born digital. In 1971, Michael S. Hart (University of Illinois) created the first ebook by typing the United States Declaration of Independence into a computer. He later launched Project Gutenberg to create electronic copies of more books. E-journals, like e-books, have made it possible to access and disseminate the fruits of research among the academic community far more easy. S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 35

E-document reading devices n E-books are usually read on dedicated hardware devices known as E-document reading devices n E-books are usually read on dedicated hardware devices known as e. Readers or e-book devices. Personal computers and some mobile phones can also be used to read e-books. S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 36

Personal Digital Assistant n n A personal digital assistant (PDA), also known as a Personal Digital Assistant n n A personal digital assistant (PDA), also known as a palmtop computer, or personal data assistant, is a mobile device that functions as a personal information manager. Current PDAs often have the ability to connect to the Internet. A PDA has an electronic visual display, enabling it to include a web browser, but some newer models also have audio capabilities, enabling them to be used as mobile phones or portable media players. S. C. Biswas n n Many PDAs can access the Internet, intranets or extranets via Wi-Fi or Wireless Wide Area Networks. Many PDAs employ touchscreen technology. The first PDA was released in 1986 by Psion, the Organizer II. Naclin 2011 37

Borne digital “book” Electronic new jersey Source: Scholarly Communication Center, Rutgers Libraries Technology: digital Borne digital “book” Electronic new jersey Source: Scholarly Communication Center, Rutgers Libraries Technology: digital S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 38

Digitized and Borne Digital Collections in Libraries S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 39 Digitized and Borne Digital Collections in Libraries S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 39

OPAC or Library Portal n n The newest generation of library catalogue systems use OPAC or Library Portal n n The newest generation of library catalogue systems use more sophisticated search technologies, including relevancy ranking and faceted search, as well as features aimed at greater user interaction and participation with the system, including tagging and reviews. Library portals are single window systems through which all library services are made available to users. S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 40

Barcode n n n A barcode is an optical machine-readable representation of data, which Barcode n n n A barcode is an optical machine-readable representation of data, which shows data about the object to which it attaches. Accuracy, economy, speed and convenience are some of the benefits of barcode technology. Libraries have used it for stock verification, member and document ID generation, fast check-in & check-out, etc. Barcode printer and Scanner S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 41

RFID Systems (1/2) n n Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is a technology that uses radio RFID Systems (1/2) n n Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is a technology that uses radio waves to transfer data from an electronic tag, called RFID tag or label, attached to an object, through a reader for the purpose of identifying and tracking the object. Among the many uses of RFID technology is its deployment in libraries. This technology has slowly begun to replace the traditional barcodes on library items (books, CDs, DVDs, etc. ). S. C. Biswas RFID tags used in libraries: square book tag, round CD/DVD tag and rectangular VHS tag. Naclin 2011 42

RFID Systems (2/2) n It was first proposed in the late 1990 s as RFID Systems (2/2) n It was first proposed in the late 1990 s as a technology that would enhance workflow in the library setting. Singapore was certainly one of the first to introduce RFID in libraries Advantages: 1. Rapid locating 2. Rapid Check-In/Check-Out 3. High reliability 4. High-speed inventory 5. Automated materials handling 6. Long tag life S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 43

Modern Libraries Cerritos Library, Cerritos, CA S. C. Biswas Seattle’s New Library Naclin 2011 Modern Libraries Cerritos Library, Cerritos, CA S. C. Biswas Seattle’s New Library Naclin 2011 44

Top 10 technology trends librarians should be conversant with 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Top 10 technology trends librarians should be conversant with 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Social software Open source software Mobile information devices Collaboration tools Second Life Cloud Architecture Wireless Mashups Multimedia & Streaming Media Catalogue Overlays (http: //medlibtechtrends. wordpress. com/) S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 45

1. Social software n n n As overall user traffic continues to decrease in 1. Social software n n n As overall user traffic continues to decrease in our physical libraries, the need to explore new methods of user engagement virtually increases. Social software has the potential to provide a muchneeded link between the library and virtual users of our libraries. Blogs, wikis, and Facebook are three examples of social software with the potential to engage users where they are. S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 46

2. Open source software n n n Open source software is freely available software 2. Open source software n n n Open source software is freely available software which allows you the ability to alter the source code and customize the software or add functionality. There are working examples of open source Integrated Library Systems (ILSs) such as Koha and Evergreen and learning/content management systems such as Moodle and Sakai. When libraries use open source software, they have the potential to use a larger development community dealing with similar users and issues. S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 47

3. Mobile information devices n n n The role of mobile device use in 3. Mobile information devices n n n The role of mobile device use in libraries will continue to grow as device functionality increases. We live in a mobile world and people want to access resources and their work while they are on the go. Devices such as the i. Phone and the Sony’s new micro computer (Vaio UX) will offer new possibilities and venues for information access on the go. S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 48

4. Collaboration tools n n In addition to engaging users as mentioned in the 4. Collaboration tools n n In addition to engaging users as mentioned in the “Social Software” section, we will need to find new ways to collaborate with our users. Depending on your installation, Microsoft Share. Point has the potential to integrate many different collaboration and communication tools. There also services such as Connotea and Zotero which allow users to save, organize, and share references. This type of software can offer another venue for librarians to be involved with a research team. S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 49

5. Second Life n n n Second Life is an open-ended virtual world created 5. Second Life n n n Second Life is an open-ended virtual world created to offer social interactions between your avatar (virtual self) and other avatars. There is already a group of librarians that have developed Info Island a virtual reference desk. This is another example of technology that has the potential to meet people where they are. S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 50

6. Cloud Architecture n n The concepts of folksonomies and tagging will continue to 6. Cloud Architecture n n The concepts of folksonomies and tagging will continue to affect the future growth of the Internet and Web services. The basic premise behind tagging is that users assign descriptors for a particular object (image, video, book, etc). This concept relies on the ‘wisdom of crowds’ which states that the combined knowledge of the ‘crowd’ is more accurate than any one particular expert. Both librarians and users have a lot to learn from each other. S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 51

7. Wireless n n Wireless technology continues to get faster and is increasingly ubiquitous. 7. Wireless n n Wireless technology continues to get faster and is increasingly ubiquitous. Working in synergy with mobile information devices, wireless technology has the potential to take decision making to the point of service. Wireless ubiquity will allow users to interact with resources they need when they need them. In an age where restaurants (Panera Bread Co. ) and automotive places (Lube Stop) offer free Wi. Fi, users will expect the same from libraries. S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 52

8. Mashups n Mashups lie at the heart of the Web 2. 0 movement. 8. Mashups n Mashups lie at the heart of the Web 2. 0 movement. n Basically a mashup is when one data source is combined with a second data source so that a tertiary product is created. n There are many examples of this, but the some of the more common involve the use of Google maps and a different data source such as the mashup between Google Maps and Craigs. List. n Libraries can investigate how some of these services could be remixed to offer new services for our users. S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 53

9. Streaming Media n n n Streaming media continues to gain popularity as services 9. Streaming Media n n n Streaming media continues to gain popularity as services such as You Tube and Podcasting continue to develop. There is no doubt about the effects of streaming media on libraries, but there is potential to use this technology for virtual instruction. We could also facilitate the development and organization of streaming media repositories for other areas of our institution. S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 54

10. Catalogue Overlays n n Products such as Endeca and Aqua. Browser are springing 10. Catalogue Overlays n n Products such as Endeca and Aqua. Browser are springing up to put a new face on library catalogues and resources. Librarians of many libraries are questioning whether the traditional library catalogue can continue to link to everything in the library’s collection. S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 55

What libraries of future will look like. . . n Web 2. 0 concepts What libraries of future will look like. . . n Web 2. 0 concepts will carry on, but the technologies will change n More mashups n More open source n More customization and personalization n More social interaction n More interaction with virtual worlds S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 56

Library technology truths n n n Truth #1: Not all technology works as expected Library technology truths n n n Truth #1: Not all technology works as expected Truth #2: It’s hard to know what patrons will want or need Truth #3: Libraries face many concerns and choices Truth #4: Not every library needs the same technologies Truth #5: All visions are imperfect, but we need them S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 57

It’s all about the user S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 58 It’s all about the user S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 58

Barriers to Technology Implementation (1/2) n n There are many hurdles, barriers, and problems Barriers to Technology Implementation (1/2) n n There are many hurdles, barriers, and problems blocking the progress in libraries of these regions. They include q q a shortage of money for technology, books, journals, lack of professional staff, lack of professional library schools, and library educators, and lack of proper facilities including library buildings. S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 59

Barriers to Technology Implementation (2/2) n Technology is still very expensive for a majority Barriers to Technology Implementation (2/2) n Technology is still very expensive for a majority of libraries in Asian, African, and Middle Eastern countries. n How can they think of introducing technology before improving the basic needs of users, including books, journals, training and services? n Another barrier faced by libraries in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East, is the alarming rate of illiteracy. n How can they even think of introducing technology in their libraries when they have to fight hunger, poverty and illiteracy. S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 60

Conclusions n n n Technology has revolutionized libraries, collection strategies, services and user expectations. Conclusions n n n Technology has revolutionized libraries, collection strategies, services and user expectations. For better serving our users, libraries ought to be ready and prepared. In the Internet era, IT has allowed library professionals to collect e-books and subscribe to e-databases. It is essential that librarians develop collective knowledge about the availability of electronic information and assist our distance learners by providing time and space free services. More internal and external collaboration is needed. S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 61

A time line (borrowed from Michael Lesk) S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 62 A time line (borrowed from Michael Lesk) S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 62

Finally. . . A remarkable thing q q q Basically, libraries deal with collecting, Finally. . . A remarkable thing q q q Basically, libraries deal with collecting, organizing, preserving & providing access to human knowledge records This role is constant across civilizations, history, time, geography And it is constant regardless of enormous technological changes S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 63

Subal Chandra Biswas, Ph. D. Professor Dept. of Library & Information Sc. University of Subal Chandra Biswas, Ph. D. Professor Dept. of Library & Information Sc. University of Burdwan – 713104, West Bengal [email protected] co. in S. C. Biswas Naclin 2011 64