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Techno. TN Forum 2006 Brussels, 4 -5 September 2006 MULTILINGUALISM Wolfgang Mackiewicz (Freie Universität Berlin, DE) Ian Tudor (Université Libre de Bruxelles, BE)
Presentation in three parts ___________ 1) Multilingualism in the TNPs in the Area of Languages (WM) 2) University language policy (IT) 3) Languages at FUB – a case study (WM)
SIGMA Scientific Committee on Languages (1994 -95) _________ § pilot project (precursor of TNs) § one expert each from EU-15, NO and CH plus reps of 2 European associations and COM § driven by conviction that plurilingual and multicultural competence and linguistic and cultural diversity are of crucial importance for EU
§ crucial responsibility of universities § definition of the HE area of languages: programmes and portions of programmes devoted to transmission of linguistic and cultural knowledge and skills and to language mediation hence - modern language degree programmes, area studies programmes, programmes combining language study with study of other area(s)
- teacher education - training of translators and interpreters and the training of trainers - applied linguistics - delivery of (portions of) courses in (more than) one other language - language provision for students of all disciplines, incl. linguistic preparation and support for mobility
Selected recommendations Language provision for students of other disciplines § all students should be given opportunity to acquire good working knowledge in 2+ Ls § credits for successfully completed language work § high-level competence in school languages; partial skills in LWULT languages
§ at EU level: agreement on and description of recognized levels of linguistic performance => development of a language testing system recognized both by employers and academic institutions § development of self-access facilities => promotion of independent learning § European projects for development of language modules
1. qualitative improvement of provision => European currciulum development for training of university language teachers (a Master? ) 1. to promote the learning of major non. European languages (=> development of programmes together with institutions in target-language countries)
Thematic Network Project in the Area of Languages III (TNP 3) (2003 -2006) __________________ Three sub-projeects § Languages for language-related industries and professions § Languages for enhanced opportunities on the European labour market § Languages as an interface between the different sectors of education
TNP 3 has adopted a radically new approach § TNP 1, TNP-D and TNP 2 driven by official EU language policy – COM/MSs never said: which languages to what level, and what skills § TNP 3 = the first attempt to find out which languages and what skills are relevant to the labour market and the language industry § TNP 3 = the first major attempt to consider HE language / language-related programmes within the LLL paradigm
TNP 3 – Sub-project Two Languages for enhanced opportunities on the labour market Four steps 1) National reports and synthesis report 2) Europe-wide consultation among employers and graduates 3) Recommendations and proposals 4) Creation of a virtual consortium
Consultation - employers § § § Low response rate Languages: typical pattern – EN. . DE, FR. . Skills and competences – work-related foreign language use situations – first foreign language 1 Understanding and interacting in job-related communication situations (e. g. hosting a visitor, telephoning, travel, talking about your job) 2 Reading and writing e-mails and short factual texts 3 Following discussions and presentations in professional contexts 4 Reading specialised articles and reports and summarising or reporting on them 5 Communicating to manage international relations and customer contacts
Consultation – graduates § Fairly high response rate – uneven geographical spread § Most common FL: EN; other FLs: DE, FR, ES § FL use: less frequent than expected § Work abroad: over 50% § Important to learn another language: more than 50%: ES, FR, DE, RU, IT, Chinese, PL, NL, Arabic, PT. . .
§ Work-related FL use situations Ø First FL: 1 Understanding and interacting in job-related communication situations (e. g. hosting a visitor, telephoning, travel, talkig about your job etc. ) = E 1 2 Following discussions and presentations in professional contexts = E 3 3 Reading and writing e-mails and short factual texts related to your field of work = E 2 4 Reading specialised articles and reports related to your field of work and summarising or reporting on them = E 4 5 Understanding and interacting in (inormal) social situations at work = E 9 Ø Second FL: Greater importance attached to Understanding and interacting in (informal) social situations at work
EUROPEAN NETWORK FOR THE PROMOTION OF LANGUAGE LEARNING AMONG ALL UNDERGRADUATES (ENLU) www. fu-berlin. de/enlu/ • Project managed by the European Language Council www. elccel. org • European Commission Call for Proposals EAC/45/03 • Task Force 1: Institution-wide language policies • Goal 1: Investigate current practice in HE language policy • Goal 2: Develop policy guidelines for the promotion of language learning in HE
THE « LANGUAGE CHALLENGE » FOR HE INSTITUTIONS IN EUROPE • BOLOGNA PROCESS – EHEA – Mobility – Employability: reactive + proactive • THE ROLE OF LANGUAGES
CURRENT SITUATION OF LANGUAGE LEARNING IN HE IN EUROPE • Considerable variety – Across countries: Attitudes, traditions of language learning; International status of national language – Across institutions: Institutional priorities; Awareness of role of languages in graduate profile; Willingness to make required investment • Signs of positive action and examples of good practice … but no room for complacency!
TOWARDS A FRAMEWORK FOR HE LANGUAGE POLICY • No single model! – Diversity in terms of linguistic situation, current practice, attitudes, levels of awareness, etc. • Shared challenges - Local responses • Reference points: Key parameters and areas within which choices need to be made
REFERENCE POINT 1: LANGUAGE AND THE STRATEGIC POSITIONING OF THE INSTITUTION • Institutional stance re EHEA, internationalisation, the European workplace • Presence of a language policy • Languages for all undergraduates
REFERENCE POINT 2 ENABLING CONDITIONS • Consultation and decision making structures • Pedagogical planning and coordination • Quality assessment and enhancement • Teacher training
REFERENCE POINT 3 PEDAGOGICAL ISSUES • Creation of a learning continuum • Integrating language learning into students ’ academic programme • A broad view of language learning and language contact
REFERENCE POINT 4 DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTEGRATED MODEL • Language choices • Internationisation at home • Language skills of academic and administrative staff
Techno. TN Forum 2006 Brussels, 4 -5 September 2006 CASE STUDY Languages in the General preparation for employability strand of BA programmes at the Freie Universität Berlin (DE)
You cannot implement Bologna without promoting language learning in higher education § European / international dimension of employability § European dimension of higher education (mobility, university co-operation, joint degree courses) § higher education anchored in the lifelong learning paradigm
THREE IMPORTANT POINTS ___________ § We must emphasise the importance of applied / practical language studies for non-specialist students.
THREE IMPORTANT POINTS ___________ § We must emphasise the importance of applied / practical language studies for non-secialist students § We must and we can use the introduction of the Bologna structure for enhancing the quantity and quality of language provision.
THREE IMPORTANT POINTS ___________ § We must emphasise the importance of applied / practical language studies for non-speacialist students. § We must and we can use the introduction of the Bologna structure for enhancing the quantity and quality of language provision. § We must and can use the introduction of the Bologna structure for the integration of applied / practical language studies into study programmes.
New BA courses at the Freie Universität Berlin § three years = 180 credits § all courses have a general preparation for employability strand worth 30 credits (ABV) § Four different types of BA courses - Type 1: a single subject worth 150 credits plus ABV (primarily in the hard sciences) - Type 2: a core subject of >110 credits plus <40 credits from (a) related subject area(s) plus ABV
New BA courses at the Freie Universität Berlin (cont. ) - Type 3: a core subject of 90 credits plus 1 package of modules of 60 credits plus ABV (combi BA) - a core subject of 90 credits plus 2 packages of modules of 30 credits each plus ABV (combi BA) § Special case: teacher education
Expanded provision of languages § ABV: <15 credits for language study (currently: Arabic, EN, ES, FR, IT, NL, PT, RU, TR)
Expanded provision of languages § ABV: <15 credits for language studies (currently: Arabic, (EN), ES, FR, IT, NL, PT, RU, TR) § 60 -credit packages of modules in modern languages - ab initio: 42 credits for applied language studies (ES, IT, PT) (for combi BAs)
Expanded provision of languages § ABV: <15 credits for language studies (currently: Arabic, EN, (EN), ES, IT, NL, PT, RU, TR) § 60 -credit packages of modules in modern languages - ab initio: 42 credits for applied language studies (ES, IT, NL, PT) (for combi BAs) § 30 -credit packages of modules in modern languages ab initio: 24 credits for applied language studies (ES, IT, NL, PT) (for combi BAs)
Language modules in the general preparation for employability strand § definition of entry and exit levels in reference to CEFR § brief description of can dos and content § Article 3 (3) of course regulations: “The learning outcomes of the modules in the modern languages competence area are related to the Council of Europe’s Common European Framework of Reference. ” § Appendix 2 of the course regulations: self-assessment grid in German
The scales of the CEFR § skill-specific descriptions of what a learner CAN DO § CAN DO descriptors can be applied to all – at least all European – languages § six proficiency levels (A 1, A 2, B 1, B 2, C 1, C 2) § frequently sub-divided (-> A 1. 1, A 1, 2 etc. ) § are used as reference points in major testing systems
Language Arabic Dutch French Italian Polish Portuguese Russian Spanish Turkish min. learning outcome max. learning outcome A 1. 1 -A 1. 2 B 1. 2 -B 2. 1 A 1. 2 -A 2. 1 A 1. 1 -A 1. 2 A 2. 2 -B 1. 1 B 2. 2 -C 1. 1 A 2. 2 -B 1. 1
A special case: English § German students: 9+ years at school § many students spent a school year in UK, USA, AU or RSA § weaknesses in writing and oral presentation: modules at B 2 and C 1 § creation of a writing centre
Language modules § § § ________ 5 credits each four contact hours a week / 15 weeks = 60 contact hours one credit = 30 student working hours 90 student working hours spent outside the classroom independent language learning centre
Cooperation with external providers and various stakeholders ______________ § Instituto Cervantes Berlin § British Council Germany § Advisory Board: chaired by vice president for education; deans of studies; representative of the chamber of industry and commerce
Experiences to date § § _________ languages by far the most popular ABV offering (along with IT) Arabic, Dutch, Polish, Portuguese and Turkish particularly popular (apart from Spanish, of course) – even among science students hence generously funded by the Presidium danger of a parallel course of studies
Further information available at www. fu-berlin. de/sprachenzentrum/ www. fu-berlin. de/enlu/ www. fu-berlin. de/tnp 3/ www. celelc. org THANK YOU !