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Technical proposals • A written offer to undertake a project for designing, creating something Technical proposals • A written offer to undertake a project for designing, creating something new or for changing or modifying an existing procedure, method , system or structure within a specified period of time. • Types • Structure 1

TYPES Solicited SALES Unsolicited RESEARCH 2 TYPES Solicited SALES Unsolicited RESEARCH 2

Sales proposal • Sent outside the company to potential clients or customers • Also Sales proposal • Sent outside the company to potential clients or customers • Also known as business proposals 3

Research Proposal • Academic in nature, mostly solicited • May appear in a foreign Research Proposal • Academic in nature, mostly solicited • May appear in a foreign language also • Basic format remains the same 4

Characteristics • Demonstrate to appropriate decision makers that their needs would be met with Characteristics • Demonstrate to appropriate decision makers that their needs would be met with • Keep in view the customer’s convenience, financial gain and prestige • Anticipate any possible reasons for rejection and provide suggestions to overcome them. • Use plain direct and unambiguous expressions 5

Purposes • To construct parking slots, buildings, bridges, highways • To survey area for Purposes • To construct parking slots, buildings, bridges, highways • To survey area for possible water sources • To modernize the office procedures of a company • To train international managers for work in foreign countries, etc. 6

Structure Prefatory Main body Supplementary parts 7 Structure Prefatory Main body Supplementary parts 7

Prefatory Title page Draft contract Executive summary Table of contents List of illustrations 8 Prefatory Title page Draft contract Executive summary Table of contents List of illustrations 8

Main body Introduction Technical section Management section Cost estimate Conclusion 9 Main body Introduction Technical section Management section Cost estimate Conclusion 9

Supplementary Appendix Sources and References 10 Supplementary Appendix Sources and References 10

Title page • • Incorporate the title Name of the person or company Name Title page • • Incorporate the title Name of the person or company Name of the person submitting the proposal Date 11

Draft contract Quick summary ØTopic ØProposer details ØDuration ØCost 1 st year/ subsequent years Draft contract Quick summary ØTopic ØProposer details ØDuration ØCost 1 st year/ subsequent years 12

Continued • Rough draft of the contract proposed • Finalized after the acceptance of Continued • Rough draft of the contract proposed • Finalized after the acceptance of the proposal 13

Executive summary v Back ground v Purpose v Scope v Infrastructure facilities v Technical Executive summary v Back ground v Purpose v Scope v Infrastructure facilities v Technical details v Significance v Re-emphasis 14

Continued • A Concise version of the detailed proposal • Gives a brief background Continued • A Concise version of the detailed proposal • Gives a brief background need for taking up this project) • Summarize the objectives , how they will be met, procedures adopted • Ends with a reemphasis of proposals strengths • Length varies 100 -300 based on the complexity 15

Introduction Problem statement (clearly specifies the need for investigation) Purpose, scope Technical overview Methodology Introduction Problem statement (clearly specifies the need for investigation) Purpose, scope Technical overview Methodology (procedures adopted to carry out the project) Significance Structure 16

Technical section • System overview (Technical description) • Analysis of existing situation • Possible Technical section • System overview (Technical description) • Analysis of existing situation • Possible design solutions • Proposed solution • Sources of information • Methodology 17

Management section Ø Chains of command (org. charts) Ø Corporate / employee credentials Ø Management section Ø Chains of command (org. charts) Ø Corporate / employee credentials Ø Schedules (work, implementation, reporting, maintenance, delivery, completion, payment, forecast) Ø Gantt chart, Milestone chart Ø Team organization Ø Company profile 18

Cost Estimate Ø Important Ø Funding (if internal) Ø Break up (equipment details, man Cost Estimate Ø Important Ø Funding (if internal) Ø Break up (equipment details, man power expenses miscellaneous / consumables) Ø Match with draft contract 19

Conclusion Re-emphasize strengths Assure the reader 20 Conclusion Re-emphasize strengths Assure the reader 20

Appendix • Credentials details • Supporting technical documents • Illustrations 21 Appendix • Credentials details • Supporting technical documents • Illustrations 21

DOCUMENTATION STYLES • MLA (Modern Language Association) • APA (American Psychological Association) • Chicago DOCUMENTATION STYLES • MLA (Modern Language Association) • APA (American Psychological Association) • Chicago style • IEEE style 22

Details for Documentation • • Author/s ( whether editor/s) Year Title of the book/article Details for Documentation • • Author/s ( whether editor/s) Year Title of the book/article , Edition if any Name of Journal/Newspaper/Magazine, Volume No. Page no. • Place of Publication • Name of Publishers 23

WORKS CITED/REFERENCES Berst, Jesse. “ Berst Alert. ” ZD Net 30 Jan. 1998. <http: WORKS CITED/REFERENCES Berst, Jesse. “ Berst Alert. ” ZD Net 30 Jan. 1998. Corporate Credit Union Network. A Review of the Credit Union Financial System. Kansas City: U. S. Central. 1998. Kroll Jack. “T. Rex Redux. ” Newsweek 26 May 1997: 74 -75 Tibbets, Charlene and A. M. Tibbets. Strategies: A Rhetoric and Reader. Glenview: Scott and Company. 1988. 24

Oral presentation • Mend your speech a little Lest it may mar your fortune. Oral presentation • Mend your speech a little Lest it may mar your fortune. William Shakespeare 25

TYPES OF ORAL PRESENTATION • • Reading from the text Memorizing Impromptu Extemporaneous 26 TYPES OF ORAL PRESENTATION • • Reading from the text Memorizing Impromptu Extemporaneous 26

Requirements of Oral Presentation • • Knowing your purpose Audience awareness Use of visual Requirements of Oral Presentation • • Knowing your purpose Audience awareness Use of visual aids Presentation plan 27

Audience awareness • Size up your audience • Speak directly • Converse with them Audience awareness • Size up your audience • Speak directly • Converse with them with conviction & sincerity • Dramatize certain aspects • Give a personal touch • Use humor if possible 28

Use of Audio visuals • • • Integrate the aid with your op Use Use of Audio visuals • • • Integrate the aid with your op Use it when your reach the relevant point Make your aids accessible Interpret the aids Stand on one side and use the pointer Aids should be specific 29

Contd. • Avoid crowding your aid • Keep speaking • Keep writing in case Contd. • Avoid crowding your aid • Keep speaking • Keep writing in case you are using black board 30

Presentation plan • • • Plan and prepare beforehand Bring animation and spontaneity Lift Presentation plan • • • Plan and prepare beforehand Bring animation and spontaneity Lift your head and look at the audience Consult your notes when needed Cite references, quotations etc. Use note cards 31

Contd. • • • Have sympathy for the crowd Avoid reading your presentation Avoid Contd. • • • Have sympathy for the crowd Avoid reading your presentation Avoid memorizing Avoid giving a long introduction Signal the end of your presentation 32

Contd. • Avoid verbal fireworks • Avoid frowning • Ignore the smiles /whispers of Contd. • Avoid verbal fireworks • Avoid frowning • Ignore the smiles /whispers of listeners 33

Dividing your presentation • Introduction Capture listeners’ attention and get them involved Identify yourself Dividing your presentation • Introduction Capture listeners’ attention and get them involved Identify yourself and establish your credibility Preview your main points 34

BODY • LIMITED NUMBER OF POINTS • EXPLAIN AND GIVE DETAILS • KEEP YOUR BODY • LIMITED NUMBER OF POINTS • EXPLAIN AND GIVE DETAILS • KEEP YOUR PRESENTATION SIMPLE AND LOGICAL 35

CONCLUSION • DON’T END LIMPLY • REVIEW ALL THAT YOU SAID • ENCOURAGE QUESTIONS CONCLUSION • DON’T END LIMPLY • REVIEW ALL THAT YOU SAID • ENCOURAGE QUESTIONS 36

Use of connectives • Transitions: end of one thought and indication of the beginning Use of connectives • Transitions: end of one thought and indication of the beginning of another, such as, after having said that……it is time now; in addition to • Internal previews: indicating what the speaker takes up next, such as, we shall discuss its impact • Internal summary: recalling what has been said so far. e. g. in short • Signposts: indicating where the presenter is in his presentation, e. g. the first feature, the second, 37

REMEBERTHE FOLLOWING • • • Prepare thoroughly Rehearse repeatedly Time yourself Request a lectern REMEBERTHE FOLLOWING • • • Prepare thoroughly Rehearse repeatedly Time yourself Request a lectern Check the room and gadgets Practice stress reduction 38

Tips to remember during presentation • • Begin with a pause Present your first Tips to remember during presentation • • Begin with a pause Present your first sentence from memory Maintain eye contact, correct posture, use gestures Pay attention to facial expressions and Time Control voice and vocabulary Put the brakes on Move naturally Use visual aids 39

Contd. • Avoid digressions • Summarize your main points 40 Contd. • Avoid digressions • Summarize your main points 40

After your presentation Distribute handouts Encourage questions Repeat questions Reinforce main points keep control After your presentation Distribute handouts Encourage questions Repeat questions Reinforce main points keep control Admit if you are unable to answer some question End with a summary and appreciation 41

Business writing: purposes • • • Making /answering an enquiry Placing an order Demanding Business writing: purposes • • • Making /answering an enquiry Placing an order Demanding or refusing credit Selling goods and services Accepting/refusing a project Responding to complaints 42

Contd. • A business letter is a form of communication written by an authorized Contd. • A business letter is a form of communication written by an authorized person of an organization. 43

Letter • A Business letter must appeal to the reader’s interest and induce in Letter • A Business letter must appeal to the reader’s interest and induce in him the proper mood. • “If he is rude be specially courteous. If he is muddle-headed be specially lucid. If he is pigheaded be patient. If he is helpful be appreciative. If he convicts you of a mistake acknowledge it freely and even with gratitude”. • Sir Ernest Gower 44

Points to remember • Before expressing a thought, roll it in your mind to Points to remember • Before expressing a thought, roll it in your mind to avoid ambiguity. • Choose short, common and concrete words. • Avoid jargon and slang. • Arrange your words according to the rules of grammar. • Write short and simple sentences. • Divide your ideas into small and distinct paragraphs. 45

Structure and Layout of Letters • Elements • Heading • Date • Difference • Structure and Layout of Letters • Elements • Heading • Date • Difference • Inside address • Attention line • Salutation • Subject 46

 • • • Contd. Body Complimentary Close Signature Identification marks Enclosure 47 • • • Contd. Body Complimentary Close Signature Identification marks Enclosure 47

Principles of Letter Writing • • • Courtesy and Consideration Directness and Conciseness Avoid Principles of Letter Writing • • • Courtesy and Consideration Directness and Conciseness Avoid Verbosity Avoid Participial endings Positive and Direct Statements Clarity and Precision 48

Styles of Business Letters • • • Indented Style Block Style Complete Block Style Styles of Business Letters • • • Indented Style Block Style Complete Block Style Semi Block Style Hanging Indented Style 49

Indented style • • • Oldest form Each element indented to four spaces Closed Indented style • • • Oldest form Each element indented to four spaces Closed punctuation Salutation on the left Date line & Complimentary close to the right 50

BLOCK STYLE • Date line, complimentary close and signature aligned with the right margin BLOCK STYLE • Date line, complimentary close and signature aligned with the right margin • All other parts to the left • Double spacing • Mixed punctuation 51

Complete block style • All parts of the letter aligned with the left margin Complete block style • All parts of the letter aligned with the left margin • Indentation not required • Open punctuation • Appears imbalanced and heavy on the left 52

Semi block style • • • Like the block style Date line on the Semi block style • • • Like the block style Date line on the right Paragraphs are indented Easier to read Mixed punctuation 53

To sum up • Draft your business letters the way your organization wants it To sum up • Draft your business letters the way your organization wants it • Know the popular practice • Full block format is much in use. 54

Hanging indented style • Like block style • First line of each paragraph aligns Hanging indented style • Like block style • First line of each paragraph aligns with the left margin • All other lines indented four to five spaces • Not so popular • Mixed punctuation 55