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TAROT (Télescope à Action Rapide pour les Objets Transitoires) Michel Boër CNRS – Observatoire TAROT (Télescope à Action Rapide pour les Objets Transitoires) Michel Boër CNRS – Observatoire de Haute Provence ASTEP - 05/09/06 M. Boer, OHP

Les sursauts gamma (GRB) Ø Une explosion rapide suivie d’une décroissance graduelle Ø Evènement Les sursauts gamma (GRB) Ø Une explosion rapide suivie d’une décroissance graduelle Ø Evènement prompt Ø Détecté en gamma par les satellites Ø Dure de 0. 01 à 1000 s Ø 2 populations (0. 5 s et 30 s) Ø Partie rémanente, décroissante en t-1, -2 Ø ~ 2 GRB/j >10 -8 erg/s. cm-2. 4πSter Ø SWIFT 150/an, GLAST 400/an Ø Taux local ~2 Gpc-3 yr-1 Ø Evènements Panchromatiques: Ø Emission maximale entre < 10 and 1000 ke. V Ø Détectés entre 1 mke. V to >? 20 Ge. V) Ø Très variables (< 10 ms) Ø Origine cosmologique (0, 001 < z < 6, 29 (measured) < 15? ? ) Ø Très lumineux: 1051 -52 ergs (mais émission en jets) ASTEP - 05/09/06 M. Boer, OHP

Le modèle de la boule de feu 1016 cm 1013 cm 106 cm g Le modèle de la boule de feu 1016 cm 1013 cm 106 cm g RB G 2 t-1 Emission rémanente G 1 t. GRB taft ASTEP - 05/09/06 M. Boer, OHP

Une chaîne pour la détection HETE position 8 s VHF 0, 5 s INTERNET Une chaîne pour la détection HETE position 8 s VHF 0, 5 s INTERNET Pointage observation (1 s) ASTEP - 05/09/06 M. Boer, OHP

Tarot today ASTEP - 05/09/06 M. Boer, OHP Tarot today ASTEP - 05/09/06 M. Boer, OHP

A fully automated telescope ASTEP - 05/09/06 M. Boer, OHP A fully automated telescope ASTEP - 05/09/06 M. Boer, OHP

Data processing (see A. Klotz) Automated correlation with USNO catalog Automated image comparison for Data processing (see A. Klotz) Automated correlation with USNO catalog Automated image comparison for variable objects ASTEP - 05/09/06 M. Boer, OHP

TAROT & SWIFT Diameter Speed F/3. 5 Pointing time 1 -2 sec. (60 °/s) TAROT & SWIFT Diameter Speed F/3. 5 Pointing time 1 -2 sec. (60 °/s) Acceleration Up to 120°/s 2 Limiting magnitude V = 16. 2 in 10 sec. CCD type EEV 42 -40 BI CCD size 2048 x 2048 (3 x 3 cm) Op. CCD temp. -45°C Readout speed 5 s Typical integration time 10 to 180 s (GRB) Readout noise 8. 5 e- Field of view ASTEP - 05/09/06 25 cm 1. 86 degrees M. Boer, OHP

SWIFT GRBs observed by TAROT Event Tobs after trigger Magnitude GRB 050306 (z = SWIFT GRBs observed by TAROT Event Tobs after trigger Magnitude GRB 050306 (z = ? ) 90 s R > 17. 5 GRB 050416 (z = 0. 65) 8 h 25 R > 19 GRB 050505 (z = 4. 2) 540 s I = 18. 2 GRB 050525 a (z = 0. 6) 360 s R = 15. 0 GRB 050730 (z = 3. 97) 66 s I = 15. 5 GRB 050803 (z = 0. 42) 61 min R > 19 GRB 050824 (z = 0. 83) 600 s R = 18 GRB 050904 (z = 6. 29) 86 s I = 14. 1 GRB 051211 b (z = ? ) (INTEGRAL) 12 s R = 16. 2 GRB 051221 (z = ? ) 281 s R > 18 GRB 060111 b (z = ? ) 28 s R = 13. 2 GRB 060124 (z = 2, 30) 7198 s R > 18. 5 26. 8 s R > 19. 5 23. 1 s R = 15. 8 GRB 060717 GRB 060904 A ASTEP - 05/09/06 M. Boer, GRB 060904 B (z = 0. 703) OHP

GRB 050904 • Event at 01: 51: 44 • T 90 = 225 s GRB 050904 • Event at 01: 51: 44 • T 90 = 225 s • First image at 01: 53: 10 (TAROT reaction time 4 s) 86 s after event started • Last at 1666 s • First images stacked to increase sensitivity • Field observations performed at OHP to calibrate frames ASTEP - 05/09/06 M. Boer, OHP

GRB 050904 & GRB 990123 • Plateau observed for GRB 050904 may have been GRB 050904 & GRB 990123 • Plateau observed for GRB 050904 may have been missed for GRB 990123 because of dead-time – Plateau + flare: how to explain them within context of refreshed shock or reverse shock? – For the future need of better sampling and less dead time • Luminosity of GRB 050904 (1054 erg) comparable to GRB 990123 (2. 4 x 1054 erg) • Behavior of both events quite similar • Suggest class of optically bright OTs – May be used for detection up to very high redshifts even with small / moderate telescopes – Allow fast, 1 s, sampling and easier spectroscopy – Should be confirmed by other events: TAROT data suggest that other events may be bright OTs (050505 & 050730) • Recent work (Gendre et al. 2006) shows evidences for a fireball expanding in the early wind of a massive star: observation of a star at z = 6. 29 ASTEP - 05/09/06 M. Boer, OHP

Sensitivity vs. continuous imaging • Tracked drift mode – Drift mode at 3. 33 Sensitivity vs. continuous imaging • Tracked drift mode – Drift mode at 3. 33 s/pixel rate – Drift image lasts 60 s, i. e. 18 pixels of continuous monitoring – Following images are nontrailed (sidereal tracking on), 30 to 180 s, 5 s deadtime – For GRB 060111 b, USNO star used as comparison ASTEP - 05/09/06 M. Boer, OHP

The light curve • GRB 060111 b – 20: 15: 43 UT – Close The light curve • GRB 060111 b – 20: 15: 43 UT – Close to the Moon – No redshift available but • • UVOT detection (5 min), z < 3 B&G relation gives z = 2, but invalid if z < 0. 5 – Continuous monitoring from 28 to 88 s – From 28 to 61, sampling = 1 px = 3. 33 s, after binning over 4 pix = 13. 3 s • Smooth! – Continuous, fast decay from Ttrig + 28 to 90 s: 2. 4 – No evidence of flare at time of gammaray second peak – Then shallower decay 1. 12, typical AG – If 1 component, Tbreak = 80 s – If 2 component: • • • Alpha 1 = 3. 0 Alpha 2 = 0. 89 Ttrans = 65 s ! ASTEP - 05/09/06 M. Boer, OHP

TAROT: a versatile telescope • In summary – – – A relatively sensitive instrument TAROT: a versatile telescope • In summary – – – A relatively sensitive instrument Wide field Designed for variable objects Large availability, advanced scheduler Versatile, very easy to use One of the rare fully automated telescopes • Full autonomus operations, supervision possible • Advanced scheduler, multi purpose (e. g. satellites, stars, GRB, periodic…), now multi-telescope • On-line data processing, automatic search for variable and transient objects • Archiving and automatic transfer • Immediate results and images availability on the web • Immediate dissemination of transient position (web, e-mail, sms) ASTEP - 05/09/06 M. Boer, OHP

Scientific programs • Variable star catalog – All fields were searched for variable – Scientific programs • Variable star catalog – All fields were searched for variable – Catalog of 2000 objects being published – Fully automated blind search • • • Specific objects (RR Lyr) Supernovae AGNs Solar system objects (binary asteroids…) Orbital environment (satellites and debris) ASTEP - 05/09/06 M. Boer, OHP

TAROT variable star catalog (Damerdji, Klotz and Boër, 2006) ASTEP - 05/09/06 M. Boer, TAROT variable star catalog (Damerdji, Klotz and Boër, 2006) ASTEP - 05/09/06 M. Boer, OHP

Present and future • Enhance archiving and data acces • New release of automation Present and future • Enhance archiving and data acces • New release of automation program • Now, automated dissemination of results • TAROT-Chili is being installed at La Silla • Work with 2 telescopes in synchrone mode, another telescope planned (Australia) • Within the framework of SVOM/ECLAIRs, OHP leads the team for the 1. 50 m followup telescope ASTEP - 05/09/06 M. Boer, OHP

TAROT experience for ASTEP • TAROT has becomed a very efficient instrument – Though TAROT experience for ASTEP • TAROT has becomed a very efficient instrument – Though small, able to give cutting edge scientific results • Experience gained in automated instruments • TAROT are non-attended instruments – System approach – Reliable hardware (specific opto-mechanical design, control/command) – Reliable software – Failure rate very low (i. e. high efficiency) – Advanced scheduling (multi-telescope) – Automated processing and archiving – Diverse types of requests – Now advanced scheduler for both instruments • This experience can be transfered to ASTEP - 05/09/06 M. Boer, OHP