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Tapping the Contributions of Washington's Accomplished Teachers: Evidence from Four Recent Studies about National Tapping the Contributions of Washington's Accomplished Teachers: Evidence from Four Recent Studies about National Board Certification Washington Education Research Association Conference December 6, 2007 Hilary Loeb Julie Kang University of Washington, Seattle Tracy Coskie Western Washington University Nancy Place University of Washington, Bothell 1

Overview of National Board (NB) Certification Portfolio Assessment Center • 15 subject areas and Overview of National Board (NB) Certification Portfolio Assessment Center • 15 subject areas and 4 developmental levels • Demonstration of content knowledge at computer-based testing center • 3 classroom-based entries • 1 documented accomplishments entry • 6 exercises Monthly Support Groups • Regional participation • Orientation to process • Support throughout portfolio preparation 2

Overview of Presentation National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) background p Four discussions Overview of Presentation National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) background p Four discussions of studies about National Board Certified Teachers (NBCTs) in Washington p n n p NBCTs in high-needs schools NBCTs and the model-minority myth NBCTs as brokers for effective instruction NBCTs and teacher leadership Questions and discussion 3

Discussion p What assumptions do you have about NBCTs as. . . n n Discussion p What assumptions do you have about NBCTs as. . . n n n learners? teachers? leaders? Please introduce yourself to someone you do not know and have a brief discussion. 4

Overview of Presentation: Testing Four Assumptions about NB Certification p p Assumption One: Placing Overview of Presentation: Testing Four Assumptions about NB Certification p p Assumption One: Placing an NBCT in a highneeds context means that students will improve. Assumption Two: The NB Support Group process works for all teachers. Assumption Three: NBCTs easily integrate accomplished teaching and lead others to do so as well. Assumption Four: Leadership opportunities are available to NBCTs. 5

NBPTS Background Sizable investment in teacher development since 1987 p Washington state represents supportive NBPTS Background Sizable investment in teacher development since 1987 p Washington state represents supportive policy context p n n n Over 1, 800 NBCTs Program housed in OSPI Strong state and union support and collaboration Numerous district-level supports and incentives Nonprofit organization devoted to improving conditions of teaching Increase in stipend for NBCTs 6

NBPTS Background p Impacts on student achievement § Positive gains (Goldhaber, Perry & Anthony, NBPTS Background p Impacts on student achievement § Positive gains (Goldhaber, Perry & Anthony, 2003; Cavaluzzo, 2004; Vandervoot, Amrein-Beardsley & Berliner, 2004) § No significant differences between NBCTs and general teacher workforce (Sanders, Ashton & Wright, 2005) p Impact of NB process on teaching 1. Changes in science teaching (Lustick & Sykes, 2006) 2. Changes in literacy teaching (Place & Coskie, 2006) 7

NBPTS Background p Distribution and assignment § NBCTs are less likely to work in NBPTS Background p Distribution and assignment § NBCTs are less likely to work in high-poverty schools or schools with large proportions of students of color (Humphrey, Koppich & Hough, 2005, 2006) § Importance of state context (Sykes, Anagnostopoulos, Cannata, et al. 2005) p Impacts on teacher leadership § Evidence of leadership roles and responsibilities (Sato, Hyler & Monte-Sano, 2002) § Lack of mobility to high-needs schools (Humphrey, Koppich & Hough, 2005, 2006) 8

NBCTs in High Needs Schools: Study Questions 1. Are NBCTs more likely than their NBCTs in High Needs Schools: Study Questions 1. Are NBCTs more likely than their counterparts who have not earned the advanced certificate to hold beliefs and report practices that are well-suited to the needs of students of color and students living in poverty? 2. What accounts for the shared beliefs and practices of NBCTs in high-needs schools? 3. In what ways do NBCTs in high-needs schools perceive policies and supports that might encourage larger numbers of NBCTs to work in schools serving greater proportions of students of color and those from low-income households? 9

Inquiry Methodology: Iterative Mixed. Methods Design Phase 1 Phase 2 Fastresponse surveys of WA Inquiry Methodology: Iterative Mixed. Methods Design Phase 1 Phase 2 Fastresponse surveys of WA teachers Semi-structured interviews Review of NBPTS Standards and policy documents 10

Question 1: Comparing NBCTs and the General Population of Teachers p Deeper knowledge of Question 1: Comparing NBCTs and the General Population of Teachers p Deeper knowledge of assessment n p Greater engagement in professional learning n p NBCTs more frequently reported selecting textbooks and other instructional materials (89% vs. 56% reporting a fair amount or a great deal of involvement) Stronger affinity for cultural competence n p NBCTs invest more time: 6. 6 vs. 5. 9 days in calendar year Greater participation in teacher leadership n p NBCTs reported that they integrate assessment into classroom instruction more extensively (35% vs. 13% strongly agree) NBCTs more likely to discuss issues of race, language and ability that are part of our world (89% vs. 65% a moderate amount or a great deal) Need for continued growth in serving students of color n Half of NBCTs do not see themselves as very prepared to manage the 11 diverse learning needs in their classrooms

Question 2: Accounting for the Shared Beliefs and Practices of NBCTs - NB Certification Question 2: Accounting for the Shared Beliefs and Practices of NBCTs - NB Certification Effects p p p Greater use of collaborative learning structures associated with NB Certification experience Increased use of and formative assessment and use of multiple assessment tools Greater rigor in instruction Greater flexibility in viewing student progress Deepened knowledge of individual students Outreach to parents and caregivers I would say, the beginning of my teaching career we studied something and then we’d take the test. And I would say I’ve gotten much more…my assessments become much more multifaceted. And so we’ll have discussions, and I’m getting much better. . . So I have group open book quizzes, not just end of book tests. I have the kids do presentation or essays or writing poetry. I would say I do a lot of variety. It’s no longer read the book and answer the question (Interview, Laura Pritchard, 12 5/8/06).

Question 2: Accounting for the Shared Beliefs and Practices of NBCTs - Characteristics not Question 2: Accounting for the Shared Beliefs and Practices of NBCTs - Characteristics not Linked to NB Certification p p p Commitment to social justice Critical stance about public education Varied use of multicultural curricula Use of knowledge construction practices Preparing students for civic life I’d say the Board process, I don’t think it really emphasized my sensitivity. I think it, again, it sort of validated it because the majority of my work has been with kids with exceptional needs and kids from difficult homes and troubled backgrounds and ethnic differences. And one of the things that I’ve tried to incorporate into my career and into my life and to who I am as a teacher is to have awareness of those differences and to have some sensitivities (Interview, Stephen Holden, 13 5/18/06).

Question 3: Perceptions of Policy Supports of NBCTs in High-Needs Contexts p Stable, collegial Question 3: Perceptions of Policy Supports of NBCTs in High-Needs Contexts p Stable, collegial work environments may be a factor in success p Important policy tools n n n NBPTS Standards NB candidate support groups Stipends Professional networks Leadership opportunities I find again, National Board teachers talk about, discuss, throw ideas off each other that you don’t find…at least I don’t find in my school that I’m in. And so it’s a different level of professionalism. And I enjoy that. So I always try to go. They’re wonderful people and very knowledgeable and I always walk away with a new book title or something I can implement in my classroom (Interview, Beth Kantor, 14 6/24/06).

Question 3: Perceptions of Policy Supports of NBCTs in High-Needs Contexts p Factors inhibiting Question 3: Perceptions of Policy Supports of NBCTs in High-Needs Contexts p Factors inhibiting growing the number of NBCTs n n n p Perception of unfairness Lack of feedback Perception of difficulty Preference for program supporting NB candidates in high-needs contexts over incentives to move schools And if in fact that teacher has been in the same school and it’s a high needs school, the idea of supporting them in their certification pursuit within that school, it seems to me, intuitively, with no data behind me, that they would be more likely to continue in their home school. What we don’t know is once they achieve that stature of NB certification and become a hotter commodity in the job market, would they then be drawn away (Interview, Wendy Loring, 5/31/06). 15

Discussion p What finding in this study was most interesting to you? Why? 16 Discussion p What finding in this study was most interesting to you? Why? 16

Model Minority Myth: Asian American Teachers’ Experience with the NBC Most did not question Model Minority Myth: Asian American Teachers’ Experience with the NBC Most did not question the system, even in its inequity and brutality; if they were skilled enough, cunning enough, hard-working enough, they would get what they needed with the system. (Maxine Greene, 1998) 17

Model Minority Myth in Washington 1, 332 Asian American teachers in Washington p 11 Model Minority Myth in Washington 1, 332 Asian American teachers in Washington p 11 Asian American NBCTs, including three NBCTs from other states (OSPI, 2004) p 18

Research Questions p What are Asian American teachers’ experiences with the NB process in Research Questions p What are Asian American teachers’ experiences with the NB process in Washington State? p Do cultural issues, such as communicative competency, interact with systems of support for Asian American NB candidates, and if so, how? p What conditions and dynamics within their schools and home communities propel or inhibit Asian American NB candidates through the NB process? 19

Factors that May Influence Asian American Participation in NBPTS 20 Factors that May Influence Asian American Participation in NBPTS 20

Research Design and Methods Multi-case study, using ethnographic field methods p Critical ethnography p Research Design and Methods Multi-case study, using ethnographic field methods p Critical ethnography p Participants & setting p Data Sources and Procedures p n n Focus group interviews Interviews Artifacts and interviews with facilitators Observations 21

Motivations for NBCTs “How do I measure up? ” (David interview, 2005) p “Is Motivations for NBCTs “How do I measure up? ” (David interview, 2005) p “Is my teaching intentional? ” (Barbara interview, 2005) p “It’s a very intellectual process. ” (Susan interview, 2005) p “I was getting board and wanted the rigor of the certification process. ” (Sally interview, 2005) p 22

Motivations for Teachers Who Did Not Achieve Certification “Increase salary while staying in the Motivations for Teachers Who Did Not Achieve Certification “Increase salary while staying in the classroom” (Kyle interview, 2005) p No “strong” motivation (Kelly interview, 2005) p “Impact student learning” (Amy interview, 2005) p 23

Support Group Experience of Candidates Who Did Not Certify “Maybe being Asian, they (the Support Group Experience of Candidates Who Did Not Certify “Maybe being Asian, they (the facilitators) assumed that I was doing everything right… they’ll say it’s good” (Amy interview, 2005) p “It’s the connection…that makes a whole world of difference” (Kelly interview, 2005) p 24

Communicative Competency for Non. Native Speakers p “A lot of first generation Americans might Communicative Competency for Non. Native Speakers p “A lot of first generation Americans might not fare well in this sort of process. It’s just hard, it’s hard to do that, going back and I look, I value my fellow teacher’s comments about obvious ELL mistakes, I call them. When you write and there are places where I make plenty of [English Language Learner] mistakes and it’s hard to avoid them. ” (David interview, 2005) 25

Research Findings: Implications for Practice p Create candidate centered support n n p Understand Research Findings: Implications for Practice p Create candidate centered support n n p Understand the role of culture in learning Keep candidates’ processing styles in mind Appreciate candidates’ multiple intelligences Recognize learning style preferences Build a learning community n n Establish a sense of belonging Improve communication structures & address the writing challenge Foster a collaborative learning environment Provide effective feedback 26

Discussion p How did this study confirm and/or challenge your assumptions about supporting NB Discussion p How did this study confirm and/or challenge your assumptions about supporting NB candidates? 27

National Board Teachers as Brokers for Effective Instruction: Inquiry Questions What have NBCTs learned National Board Teachers as Brokers for Effective Instruction: Inquiry Questions What have NBCTs learned about their instructional practice by participating in the certification process? p How is this learning manifested in classrooms or school situations? p How might NBCTs integrate their new understandings into their school communities? p 28

Learning from the NB Process: Core Propositions and Standards p Appropriation of NB Core Learning from the NB Process: Core Propositions and Standards p Appropriation of NB Core Propositions and Standards n Standard - “Knowledge of Students” p n Standard – “Advancing Student Learning” p n (Place & Coskie, 2006) (Lustick & Sykes, 2006) Standard – “Knowledge of Assessment” p (Darling-Hammond, Atkin, Sato, Chung, Dean, Greenwald, Hyler, Kelly, Vaughn, 2007; Lustick & Sykes, 2006) 29

Learning from the National Board Process: Conceptual Tools p Appropriation of conceptual tools n Learning from the National Board Process: Conceptual Tools p Appropriation of conceptual tools n Portfolio questions provided a protocol that: Emphasized the importance of meeting the needs of all children p Focused teachers on fundamental aspects of curriculum and instruction p Guided teachers through an assessment-goal settinginstruction-assessment cycle p 30

Communities of Practice (Wenger, 1998) p Community of Practice n n n Teachers “tune Communities of Practice (Wenger, 1998) p Community of Practice n n n Teachers “tune their enterprise” to the NB’s idea of “accomplished” practice. Teachers develop a “shared repertoire” – appropriating conceptual pedagogical tools that mediate how they approach their work. Teachers identify themselves as NBCTs. 31

Multiple Communities of Practice p Yet, teachers belong to other communities of practice as Multiple Communities of Practice p Yet, teachers belong to other communities of practice as well: n n n Grade level teams or academic departments School and district Professional associations 32

Tensions for NBCTs p Knowledge of Students n p Knowledge of Curriculum n p Tensions for NBCTs p Knowledge of Students n p Knowledge of Curriculum n p Standardized curriculum Rethinking purposes Knowledge of Assessment n Mandated vs. formative 33

Brokering p “Brokers are able to make new connections across communities of practice, enable Brokering p “Brokers are able to make new connections across communities of practice, enable coordination, and – if they are good brokers – open new possibilities for meaning” (Wenger, 1998). p Brokers negotiate between perspectives through: n n n Translation: exporting/importing new ideas Coordination: creating connections Alignment: questioning 34

NBCTs as Brokers p NBCTs as potential brokers n n p Legitimacy Mobilizing attention NBCTs as Brokers p NBCTs as potential brokers n n p Legitimacy Mobilizing attention Address conflicting interests Facilitate transactions What’s at stake n n n Living on the boundaries/”Uprootedness” Being pulled away from one community Being rejected by a community 35

Discussion p How have NBCTs acted as brokers in your school and district? 36 Discussion p How have NBCTs acted as brokers in your school and district? 36

NBCTs and Teacher Leadership: Study Questions 1. How has NB certification changed the nature NBCTs and Teacher Leadership: Study Questions 1. How has NB certification changed the nature of activities and professional opportunities in which teachers are engaged? 2. How do NBCTs view their roles and how well supported do they feel to pursue leadership opportunities? 3. To what extent are NBCTs willing to move to highneeds schools and what role do incentives play in influencing their consideration of such a move? 37

Inquiry Methodology: Web-Based Surveys of NBCTs N=398 survey responses (return rate of 48%) p Inquiry Methodology: Web-Based Surveys of NBCTs N=398 survey responses (return rate of 48%) p Linkage of survey responses to state personnel and school-level demographic datasets p Survey participants closely approximate statewide NBCT characteristics p 38

Question 1: Leadership Changes Following Earning NB Certificate p Changes in leadership role n Question 1: Leadership Changes Following Earning NB Certificate p Changes in leadership role n n n p 48% report increase in school level leadership 56% report increase in district level leadership 32% report increase in state level leadership Other activities include… n n Developing and facilitating study groups, workshops and professional development Mentoring or coaching other teachers 39

Question 2: Supports for NBCTs’ Leadership Activities p Participation in leadership? n n n Question 2: Supports for NBCTs’ Leadership Activities p Participation in leadership? n n n p 88% feel supported 60% believe building does a good job of “tapping their leadership skills” Time is greatest barrier More likely, if opportunities are…. n n Aligned with teachers’ interest and skills In close proximity to the classroom 40

Question 3: NBCTs’ Mobility and Willingness to Move p p p Only 22% of Question 3: NBCTs’ Mobility and Willingness to Move p p p Only 22% of NBCTs move following certification 54% would be “somewhat” or “very willing” to move to a higher-poverty or struggling school (no incentives) Incentives substantially increase willingness to move 41

Question 3: NBCTs’ Mobility and Willingness to Move 42 Question 3: NBCTs’ Mobility and Willingness to Move 42

NBCTs and Leadership: Four Policy Issues p Increasing supply and diversity p Ensuring equal NBCTs and Leadership: Four Policy Issues p Increasing supply and diversity p Ensuring equal access p Fully utilizing NBCTs p Supporting NBCTs as leaders 43

Implications across Studies: Reconsidering Assumptions about NBCTs Prior Assumptions One and Two: p Placing Implications across Studies: Reconsidering Assumptions about NBCTs Prior Assumptions One and Two: p Placing an NBCT in a high-needs context means that students will improve. p The NB Support Group process works for all teachers. p Reconsideration. . . p p p Need for targeted, flexible supports Need for cultivating a community of practice Need to better understand the contexts and conditions of NBCTs’ work in high-needs contexts 44

Implications across Studies: Reconsidering Assumptions about NBCTs Prior Assumptions Three and Four: p NBCTs Implications across Studies: Reconsidering Assumptions about NBCTs Prior Assumptions Three and Four: p NBCTs easily integrate accomplished teaching and lead others to do so as well. p Leadership opportunities are available to NBCTs. p Reconsideration. . . p p Need to develop awareness of NBCTs’ contributions as brokers within schools, districts, and the state Need to harness evolving interests and knowledge of NBCTs 45

p For more information about these studies, please contact: n n p Tracy Coskie p For more information about these studies, please contact: n n p Tracy Coskie – tracy. [email protected] edu Julie Kang – [email protected] washington. edu Hilary Loeb – [email protected] washington. edu Nancy Place – [email protected] edu Special thanks go to: n n The Center for Strengthening the Teaching Profession The Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy 46