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Tanzania Education System Tanzania Education System

School Ownership 1. Public Schools owned by the Government 2. Community Schools owned by School Ownership 1. Public Schools owned by the Government 2. Community Schools owned by the local community together with the Government 3. Privately owned schools

Education System • 2 -7 -4 -2 -3+ • Pre-primary 2 yrs Age between Education System • 2 -7 -4 -2 -3+ • Pre-primary 2 yrs Age between 5&6 yrs • Primary 7 yrs • Secondary 4 yrs • Higher (A) level Secondary 2 yrs • Tertiary 3+yrs

Structure of the Tanzanian Education System CSTC FDC Technical College (Cert) Pre -Primary TTC Structure of the Tanzanian Education System CSTC FDC Technical College (Cert) Pre -Primary TTC (Cert) Technical College (Diploma--3 years) Vocational Training Secondary School University "O"-Level "A"-Level Degree Courses 6 2 Standards 3 4 5 6 7 1 Forms 2 3 4 Forms 5 6 1 2 3 3+ 7 8 9 12 13 14 15 17 18 20 21 22 23+ 10 11 Age 16 O-Level Biases: --Technical --Agriculture --Commerce --Home Econ 19 Acc. Clerks Bus. Admin Medical/ Nursing Agriculture & Veterinary (Cert) Diploma in: -- Accountancy --Planning --Surveying --Water Resource Management --Business Admin --Taxation (3 years) World of Work Primary School 1 Level 5 Diploma in Education (2 years) Distant Learning--Open University Key: CSTC--Civil Service Training Centre FDC--Folk Development College TTC--Teacher Training College Employment --Private/Self Direct Employment Standard 7 Examination Form 4 Examination Form 6 Examination All Exams written and administered by the National Examination Council of Tanzania

Basic Education • • Basic Education Includes: Pre-Primary Education Secondary Education Teachers Colleges / Basic Education • • Basic Education Includes: Pre-Primary Education Secondary Education Teachers Colleges / Vocational Colleges

PRIMARY EDUCATION (medium of Instruction is Swahili) (There are currently about 15856 primary schools) PRIMARY EDUCATION (medium of Instruction is Swahili) (There are currently about 15856 primary schools) • Primary Education is a seven year education cycle after Pre-Primary. • t is universal and compulsory to all children from the age of 7 years. • Begins with STD I, on entry, and ends with STD VII in the final year. • Std VII examination is a Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE), marking completion of the primary education cycle and it is used for selection of students into secondary education.

SECONDARY EDUCATION (medium of instruction is English) (There are more than 4875 secondary schools) SECONDARY EDUCATION (medium of instruction is English) (There are more than 4875 secondary schools) • The 1 st cycle is a 4 – year O – Level secondary education. The O – level cycle begins with Form 1 and ends with Form 4 final examination. • Selection and enrollment in O – level government and non – government secondary schools is made on the basis of a pre-set national standard cut-off points of performance in National Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE).

SECONDARY EDUCATION con’td -The 2 nd cycle is a 2 – year program of SECONDARY EDUCATION con’td -The 2 nd cycle is a 2 – year program of A- Level secondary education. The A – level has Forms 5 and 6. (Selection and enrollment in advanced level secondary education is based on prescribed performance level in the relevant A-level subject combinations after attainment of appropriate credits in the Certificate of Secondary Education Examination (CSEE)). - Students with higher credits are selected for tertiary Education - Others join Teachers Colleges and other Higher Learning Technical Colleges both public and privately owned -Others join privately owned colleges

TEACHER EDUCATION (There are 34 teachers Colleges) • Teachers Colleges / Vocational Colleges offer TEACHER EDUCATION (There are 34 teachers Colleges) • Teachers Colleges / Vocational Colleges offer courses leading to Certificate awards in respective fields to those with O-level certificates and Diploma awards for those with A-level certificates. • Minimum admission requirement for Certificate and Diploma courses are determined by the form IV and form VI examination passes respectively.

Management & Administration of Education • Two ministries coordinate and manage the Education Sector: Management & Administration of Education • Two ministries coordinate and manage the Education Sector: Mo. EVT and PMO-RALG (TAMISEMI)

MOEVT Roles • Curriculum Development : Implements through its agency Tanzania Institute of Education MOEVT Roles • Curriculum Development : Implements through its agency Tanzania Institute of Education (TIE). • Policy and Quality Control of Education • Responsible for Teachers Training Colleges • Examinations: Implements through its examination agency The National Examination Council (NECTA)

PMO-RALG (TAMISEMI) Roles • Management of School Infrastructure • Employs and Manages Human Resource PMO-RALG (TAMISEMI) Roles • Management of School Infrastructure • Employs and Manages Human Resource in Schools • Works Closely with Community School building’s construction and Asset acquirement • Works closely with Mo. EVT

PMO-RALG (TAMISEMI) Structure • Regional Education officer who works closely with the regional Development PMO-RALG (TAMISEMI) Structure • Regional Education officer who works closely with the regional Development Director • District Education Office (DEO) for secondary and DEO for Primary the two of them are under the REO but works closely with the District Development Director

COMMON POSITIONS IN TZ SECONDARY SCHOOLS /TEACHERS COLLEGES COMMON POSITIONS IN TZ SECONDARY SCHOOLS /TEACHERS COLLEGES

 • Principal / Head of School (HOS) / Headmaster / Headmistress / Mkuu • Principal / Head of School (HOS) / Headmaster / Headmistress / Mkuu wa Shule – Responsible for all school administration decisions – Is supervized by respective DEO • Deputy Principal / Secondmaster / Secondmistress / Mkuu wa Shule Msaidizi – Responsible for the school when HOS is away – Responsible for day to day operations management and discipline – Internal Administrator for teaching and non-teaching staff • Academic Master / Mtaaluma wa Shule – Responsible for logistics of the school, timetable, supplies (such as chalk, paper, dusters, filing of records, student files, scheme of work), and coordinating school exams

 • Classmaster / Classmistress / Mlezi wa Darasa – Tutor assigned to a • Classmaster / Classmistress / Mlezi wa Darasa – Tutor assigned to a particular class or stream – Responsible for supervising weekly tests, recording final marks, and filling out character assessment forms • Teacher on Duty (TOD) / Mwalimu wa Zamu – Rotating tutor position responsible for all student-related matters for a week at school – Examples of duties: Giving permission to leave school, school cleanliness, attendance, discipline, making sure meal time goes smoothly, bed-checks • Discipline Master / Mwalimu wa Nidhamu – First step in discipline process • Sports Tutor / Mwalimu wa Mchezo – Responsible for sports activities and equipment

Other supporting positions … • Student leaders – prefects and monitors • Storekeeper / Other supporting positions … • Student leaders – prefects and monitors • Storekeeper / Boharia • Maintenance tutor / Mwalimu wa matengenezo • Accountant / Mhasibu • Personal Secretary / Katibu Muhtasi • Office Attendants / Wahudumu • Cooks / Wapishi • Guards / Walinzi

Questions? ? Questions? ?

Paradigm Shift COMPETENCE-BASED TEACHING/LEARNING APPROACH AND ASSESSMENT (CBTL) Paradigm Shift COMPETENCE-BASED TEACHING/LEARNING APPROACH AND ASSESSMENT (CBTL)

Secondary Education Curriculum 1. Ordinary Level (Forms 1 -4) Students are required to study Secondary Education Curriculum 1. Ordinary Level (Forms 1 -4) Students are required to study at least 7 subjects These include: • Civics, Geography, English, Biology • History, Kiswahili and Basic Mathematics 2. Advanced Level (Forms 5 - 6) a student specializes in a combination of three subjects (minimum ) The curriculum review cycle in Tanzania is 8 years. Review of O-level syllabi is over, that of A-level is in progress.

Secondary Education Curriculum Cont’d The existing review cycle is due to; 1. Serious social Secondary Education Curriculum Cont’d The existing review cycle is due to; 1. Serious social problems i. e. HIV/AIDS, Poor gender relations, environmental destruction 2. Serious scientific and technological changes in the world i. e. information and communication technology 3. Serious changes in the pedagogy and teaching/learning methods 4. Major shift in curriculum paradigm

What do you envisage to be the roles of students and those of teachers What do you envisage to be the roles of students and those of teachers in the following teaching and learning approaches? 1. Teacher centered Vs Learner centered. 2. Content Vs Competence. 3. Knowledge inheritance Vs Knowledge construction. 4. Product Vs Process. 5. End of lesson evaluation Vs Classroom assessment. 6. Behaviorism theory of learning Vs Constructivism theory. 7. Memorization of facts Vs Higher order thinking skills.

Secondary Education Curriculum Cont’d Elements of the reviewed curriculum: 1. Competence development 2. Learner-Centered Secondary Education Curriculum Cont’d Elements of the reviewed curriculum: 1. Competence development 2. Learner-Centered teaching 3. Co-operative learning 4. Assessment and Constructivism

Secondary Education Curriculum Cont’d Competences placed in the reviewed curriculum falls into 6 main Secondary Education Curriculum Cont’d Competences placed in the reviewed curriculum falls into 6 main groups: 1. Communication 2. Numeracy 3. Creative and critical thinking 4. Technology 5. Interpersonal competences 6. Self learning/Independent learning competence

Communication The focus is on improving learners understanding of the language demands in the Communication The focus is on improving learners understanding of the language demands in the required areas of learning. As such the learner shall be able to: • Use a range of language experiences for developing knowledge of a subject area • Convey and use information, instructions, ideas and feelings appropriately and effectively in a range of different social and cultural context • Use language for different audiences and purposes relevant to oneself and the subject area • Understand use the vocabulary, structures and forms of expressions which characterize each area of study.

Numeracy Basic mathematics skills and numeracy are fundamental for strengthening in all other fields Numeracy Basic mathematics skills and numeracy are fundamental for strengthening in all other fields of learning. Through this competence students shall have the ability to: 1. Organize information to support logic and reasoning 2. Recognize and use numerical patterns and relationships confidentially and competently 3. Recognize, understand, analyse and respond to information which is presented in numerical and mathematical forms such as graphs, tables and charts as applied within the subject area. 4. Use a range of instruments including electronics confidently and competently. 5. Provide basic estimates and calculations accurately and proficiently

Crreative and critical thinking This competence consists of two aspects: 1. Analytical-involving critical evaluation Crreative and critical thinking This competence consists of two aspects: 1. Analytical-involving critical evaluation of data, identifying and defining problems, identifying probable causes and suggesting possible solutions. 2. Conceptual-involving ability to think in abstract terms to see a big picture and understand how the different parts fit together.

Technology Being competent in Technology students will appreciate the value and limitation of technology Technology Being competent in Technology students will appreciate the value and limitation of technology in society and participate in the shaping of public policies related to technological change

Technology Cont’d As such learners will develop abilities to: 1. Realize their roles and Technology Cont’d As such learners will develop abilities to: 1. Realize their roles and responsibilities related to technological changes 2. Develop modern view of technology and appreciate its value and limitation in the society 3. Make decisions related to technological developments for positive development of the individual and society. 4. Make appropriate use of technology in solving problems at the individual and community level. In particular the competence helps in finding and gathering information from multiple sources and apply that information creatively to specific tasks and problems

Interpersonal Competencies Elements of Learner-centeredness in teaching. • The learner learns by doing a Interpersonal Competencies Elements of Learner-centeredness in teaching. • The learner learns by doing a variety of logical and planned activities • The lesson is built on what the learner already knows • Learner past experiences are respected • The learner seek knowledge by interacting with the teacher, the peer, the T/L materials and the subject content • Teaching and Assessment are done by covering all the 6 levels of the cognitive domain • The teacher is a facilitator of learning rather than a provider of knowledge

Self learning/Independent learning competence Self learning/Independent learning competence

Perceptions on CBTL - The main thrust of the shift of Paradigm was to Perceptions on CBTL - The main thrust of the shift of Paradigm was to put the competence –based curriculum at the heart of what is taught and learned along with constructivist methods of delivering subject content - CBTL aims at engaging students in a learning culture - Through CBTL Students will work harder than their teachers and will develop motivation, self-discipline and self-awareness to become successful learners in terms of outcomes. - CBTL promotes integrated learning and makes the classroom and the school in general an active learning community.

Teacher’s Role in CBTL Unlike in content-based T/L, the teacher has no role of- Teacher’s Role in CBTL Unlike in content-based T/L, the teacher has no role of- a direct knowledge transmitter Instead: 1. The teacher is to influence cognitive development and knowledge construction 2. To facilitate learning through use of guidance strategies and provision of tools such as problem solving and inquiry-based learning activities. 3. Generally, the teacher’s roles in CBTL approach are Motivator, Facilitator and class Manager.