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Tailoring Project Management Processes Increasing The Efficiency Of Projects 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Tailoring Project Management Processes Increasing The Efficiency Of Projects 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 1

Overview • • Background The Problem The Journey to Tailored PM Processes – Classification Overview • • Background The Problem The Journey to Tailored PM Processes – Classification – Process Selection – Example • Suggested Implementation Steps • Questions/Discussion 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 2

Background 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 3 Background 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 3

My Background • Education/Training: – MS Systems Management, USC – Defense Systems Management College My Background • Education/Training: – MS Systems Management, USC – Defense Systems Management College – Many other PM short courses • USAF Program Manager – EW/reconnaissance/intelligence program – Staff in Pentagon HQ USAF R&D – Acquisition consultant to senior AF leadership 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 4

My Background, cont’d – USAF PMO Director • Unmanned Air Vehicle Program • F-16 My Background, cont’d – USAF PMO Director • Unmanned Air Vehicle Program • F-16 R&D & logistics 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 5

My Background, cont’d • For-Profit Project Management – PM for electronics test systems (RF My Background, cont’d • For-Profit Project Management – PM for electronics test systems (RF Integrated Chip, transmitter/receiver, satellites, avionics, national spectrum monitoring, etc. ) – PM for wireless base station mfg test systems – Wireless test system business manager/PMO director – Aerospace/defense systems PMO Director – PM Consultant 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 6

The Problem 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 7 The Problem 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 7

The Problem • Consistent, common process issue encountered in every one of my PM The Problem • Consistent, common process issue encountered in every one of my PM organizations: How do you reasonably provide a PM with process flexibility that allows him/her to effectively and efficiently run a project while maintaining reasonable: - Management oversight - Functional responsibility & accountability - Executive decision-making prerogatives 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 8

The Journey 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 9 The Journey 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 9

Journey to the Solution • PMO basic PM processes and training • Reorganization #1 Journey to the Solution • PMO basic PM processes and training • Reorganization #1 result: best practices menu, “multiple processes” approach • Reorganization #2 result: worst case cookbook, “single process” approach • Reorganization #3 result: limited, flexible menu, “tailored processes” approach 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 10

PMO Situation (1999) • Project teams develop and deliver unique systems to a wide PMO Situation (1999) • Project teams develop and deliver unique systems to a wide range of customers – US and foreign government agency contracts – DOD prime contractors & subcontractors – Commercial vendors in a wide variety of different industries – None are “off-the-shelf”, all require some design and customization 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 11

PMO & Projects, cont’d • Projects range widely in size and complexity ($100 K PMO & Projects, cont’d • Projects range widely in size and complexity ($100 K - $12 M) • Some customers are concerned about cutting edge technical performance, others with schedule and/or price • Essential PM processes and skills documented and training provided 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 12

Reorganization #1 • Company reorganization in 2000 – Resulted in world-wide geographically dispersed organization Reorganization #1 • Company reorganization in 2000 – Resulted in world-wide geographically dispersed organization with variety of system products, PM processes and maturity levels – Results of historical “fiefdom” organizational style • 35 product lines within 8 organizations located at 10 different locations 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 13

Reorganization #1 • Senior management understood the need for process improvements • Tiger Team Reorganization #1 • Senior management understood the need for process improvements • Tiger Team formed to address PM processes 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 14

Tiger Team Results (2001) • Year-long tiger team completed documentation of “best practices” PM Tiger Team Results (2001) • Year-long tiger team completed documentation of “best practices” PM and associated processes – Full “cookbook” of processes and techniques successfully used within the organization’s 35 system product lines – Significant training for PMs and team members developed & delivered to ensure the organization understood alternative PM processes available 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 15

Process Journey 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 16 Process Journey 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 16

Reorganization #2 (2002) • Another reorganization was put in place to simplify range of Reorganization #2 (2002) • Another reorganization was put in place to simplify range of products and reduce geographic dispersion • Chance to fix major complaints of stakeholders and team members: – Inconsistent PM process applications – Project results (cost, schedule, performance) weren’t improving as a result of initial process improvements 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 17

Reorg #2 PM Processes • Single set of PM processes developed – Menu of Reorg #2 PM Processes • Single set of PM processes developed – Menu of the best practices with associated tools and techniques – “Worst case” approach—documented processes applicable to largest, most complex projects 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 18

Process Journey 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 19 Process Journey 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 19

Benefits of a Single Set of Processes • One set may be considered a Benefits of a Single Set of Processes • One set may be considered a real win in some organizations • The organization is aligned with a set of known processes and expectations for their use • Training is minimized • Basically, life is predictable! • But… 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 20

Drawbacks of a Single Set of Processes • If there are widely different size Drawbacks of a Single Set of Processes • If there are widely different size and complexity in projects: – Small, less complex projects may be saddled with processes that impede the completion and waste the organization’s resources – Larger, more complex projects may not have the oversight appropriate to the criticality to the organization and the risk to the organization if it isn’t successful 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 21

Symptoms • Team members on a low complexity project grumble about wasting their time Symptoms • Team members on a low complexity project grumble about wasting their time with non valueadded activities that are mandated by the organization, and/or… • Pressure to “cut costs to the bone” and eliminate important processes on a risky, highly complex project that is critical to the organization THE ORGANIZATION CAN ENABLE OR IMPEDE – THIS IS IMPEDING! 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 22

Organizational ”Aha” Insight • Senior management either enables the PMO which enables the PM Organizational ”Aha” Insight • Senior management either enables the PMO which enables the PM who enables the project team or impedes …. – Enabling is exercising oversight appropriate to the project importance and risk to the organization – Enabling isn’t carte blanche approval or disinterest and it isn’t micromanagement…. , but it exists on various points on the continuum between them 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 23

The Solution • For PMOs with a diversity of projects, develop a flexible set The Solution • For PMOs with a diversity of projects, develop a flexible set of PM processes that are tailored for projects based on; – Project complexity – Project size • Align the organization around these processes • Train and reinforce with the entire organization on these processes, not just the project teams SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND THE PMO CAN ENABLE! 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 24

Process Journey 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 25 Process Journey 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 25

Tailored Processes 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 26 Tailored Processes 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 26

Tailored Process Needs • Need a way to classify each project to know which Tailored Process Needs • Need a way to classify each project to know which set of alternative processes to use • Need to clearly identify the processes to tailor, i. e. , start out tailoring those that have a high payoff in terms of efficiency or effectiveness 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 27

7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 28 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 28

Don’t Try This At Home Warning • This example is to illustrate a methodology Don’t Try This At Home Warning • This example is to illustrate a methodology that can be applied to other organizations • IT IS NOT A SOLUTION THAT CAN BE COPIED DIRECTLY AND APPLIED IN ANY OTHER SITUATION 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 29

Classification Development • The organization analyzed the types of projects and products and came Classification Development • The organization analyzed the types of projects and products and came up with a simple test of 4 characteristics to determine if a project was low, medium or high on the complexity scale • The complexity scale determined which set of processes the project would use 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 30

Classification Factors • • Price Engineering Effort Contract Characteristics Customer Interaction 7/14/2008 On Target Classification Factors • • Price Engineering Effort Contract Characteristics Customer Interaction 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 31

Classification Evaluation Factors Low Complexity Scale Project Characteristics Medium Complexity High Complexity Scale Project Classification Evaluation Factors Low Complexity Scale Project Characteristics Medium Complexity High Complexity Scale Project Characteristics Estimated Price <$500 K - $1. 5 M >$1. 5 M Design Effort (full time equiv) <2 design engineers 2 -4 design engineers >4 design engineers Contract characteristics Std terms and Limited unique terms conditions, std and requirements technical effort (testing, support, documents, etc. ) 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions Significant unique terms, technical reqts or support reqts 32

Classification, cont’d Evaluation Factors Customer Interaction 7/14/2008 Low Complexity Scale Project Characteristics Medium High Classification, cont’d Evaluation Factors Customer Interaction 7/14/2008 Low Complexity Scale Project Characteristics Medium High Complexity Scale Project Characteristics Teleconference reqts and design reviews, informal progress and interaction on technical issues. Formal acceptance tests Face-to-face, formal reqts and design review. Weekly written status summaries, formally documented technical interchange meetings. Formal acceptance tests On Target Program Management Solutions Face-to-face, formal requirements review, preliminary and critical design reviews. Formal face-to-face mgt. reviews. Formal acceptance tests. Training/support on customer site. 33

Classification Rules • Use the highest complexity characteristic to classify project processes to be Classification Rules • Use the highest complexity characteristic to classify project processes to be used • Determine classification before doing the work breakdown structure for the proposal basis of estimate and have sponsor buy-in • If the characteristics change later, reevaluate the project processes to be used, as well as the cost, schedule and risk assessment 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 34

Tailored Processes • Goal: provide a clear set of standard processes and expectations documented Tailored Processes • Goal: provide a clear set of standard processes and expectations documented for each of the three levels of complexity – Provide summaries of expected project team actions as well as templates and tools to accomplish – Forerunner of “lean” concept—eliminate nonvalue added activities 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 35

Inputs to Selecting the Initial Processes for Tailoring • Team members and stakeholders recommendations Inputs to Selecting the Initial Processes for Tailoring • Team members and stakeholders recommendations • Resources required for different functions • Organization’s core strengths and competitive advantages • Results from retrospectives from previous projects 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 36

Initial PMO Processes Tailored • Number of formal decision points and associated decision-maker level Initial PMO Processes Tailored • Number of formal decision points and associated decision-maker level • Internal project information and documentation • Product documentation • Project external interfaces 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 37

Decision-Making • Non-negotiable: each project phase has a formal review before proceeding to next Decision-Making • Non-negotiable: each project phase has a formal review before proceeding to next phase • The effort and time for a review can vary widely, depending upon the formality and decision-making level • Goal: tailor reviews and decision-makers appropriate to the project complexity 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 38

Tailored Decision Making Project Phase Investigation Decision Point Low Complexity Medium Complexity High Complexity Tailored Decision Making Project Phase Investigation Decision Point Low Complexity Medium Complexity High Complexity Resource Commitment. BM BM BM Proceed to Proposal. BM BM BM Proposal Offer & Pricing. BM BM VP Execution Project Start Up. X X BM Preliminary Design. X X BM Critical Design. BM BM BM Production Readiness. PRM PRM X X X N/A X BM X X BM Requirements Capture Factory Acceptance. Implementation Warranty & Support X = PM 7/14/2008 On-Site Installation & Acceptance Test. Retrospective. BM = Business Manager PRM = Production Manager VP = Vice President On Target Program Management Solutions N/A = No decision 39

Project Information & Process Documentation • Internal, stakeholders and external info • Internal team Project Information & Process Documentation • Internal, stakeholders and external info • Internal team documentation used to communicate, manage, document – E-mail – Share drives, company data bases – Working papers • Content important, format less important • Coordination, sign off, communication etc is informal 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 40

Project Information & Process Documentation, cont’d • Formal team documentation used to communicate status, Project Information & Process Documentation, cont’d • Formal team documentation used to communicate status, issues, etc. to stakeholders – E-mail or presentations • Content and format both important • Coordination, sign off, communication within the team is formal 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 41

Project Information & Process Documentation, cont’d • Formal team documentation used to communicate status, Project Information & Process Documentation, cont’d • Formal team documentation used to communicate status, issues, etc. to external entities – E-mail, contracts letters or presentations – Content and format both important • Coordination, sign off, communication within the team and with stakeholders is formal 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 42

Example Process Information & Documentation Type Low Complexity Medium Complexity High Complexity Decision Point Example Process Information & Documentation Type Low Complexity Medium Complexity High Complexity Decision Point Minutes X F F Project Team Meeting Minutes X X X Customer Meetings and Reviews E E E Issues Tracking X X E Action Item Status X X E Project Plan X X E Requirements Specifications X E E Work Breakdown Structure X X E Project Schedule X X E Risk Assessments X X E Support Strategy E E E Resource Plan X X X Project Contract, Terms & Conditions E E E Partner Agreements E X = Informal team information & documentation F = Formal team information & documentation to internal stakeholders E = formal team information & documentation to external entities 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 43

Example Process, cont’d Information & Documentation Type Low Complexity Medium Complexity High Complexity Cost Example Process, cont’d Information & Documentation Type Low Complexity Medium Complexity High Complexity Cost & Pricing Model F F F Change Tracking (cost/schedule/ performance impacts) E E E Order F F F Material List X X X Project Budget X X X Payment/Billings E E E Acceptance Test Procedure X X E Material Status Reporting X X = Informal team information & documentation F = Formal team information & documentation to internal stakeholders E = formal team information & documentation to external entities 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 44

Product Information • Problem: – Engineering effort to required to document new design features Product Information • Problem: – Engineering effort to required to document new design features was very high – Drove project complexity, costs, schedules & customer satisfaction issues • Solution: – Standard product information format developed that greatly streamlined the process for less complex projects 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 45

External Interfaces • Includes customers, subcontractors, consultants, partner organizations, standards/verification entities, governmental or funding External Interfaces • Includes customers, subcontractors, consultants, partner organizations, standards/verification entities, governmental or funding bodies • When the number of external interfaces is more than 3 -4, need to consider using a variety of tools to manage complex interfaces 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 46

Interface Management Tools • Formal contractual/partner agreement documentation • Integrated project work breakdown structure Interface Management Tools • Formal contractual/partner agreement documentation • Integrated project work breakdown structure and schedule • Integrated risk management, issues management and action item tracking processes • Integrated communication plan • Integrated project plan • Integrated change logs/control processes • Regular extended team meetings • Regular technical exchange meetings • Integrated management level project reviews 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 47

Results • PMs, team members AND Stakeholders have a good understanding of expectations re Results • PMs, team members AND Stakeholders have a good understanding of expectations re PM processes • Processes are appropriate for project complexity and increases effectiveness and efficiency • Schedule and budget performance metrics improved continuously for 2 years as measured in retrospectives 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 48

Implementation • Evaluate projects and decide on the evaluation criteria and number of levels Implementation • Evaluate projects and decide on the evaluation criteria and number of levels of the complexity scale • Determine which processes have the highest payoff when tailored—don’t tackle the entire world of processes – Implies beginning with a set of processes that are reasonably well understood and used – If no standard set of processes, more difficult to decide what areas need to be tailored 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 49

Implementation, cont’d • Let the stakeholders, project team members and PMs critique it and Implementation, cont’d • Let the stakeholders, project team members and PMs critique it and incorporate their ideas • Train everyone on the use and roll it out for use–then use it! • Make usage part of the PM, team member and stakeholder performance evaluations 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 50

Implementation, cont’d • After 2 years of increasingly better project results, start tailoring the Implementation, cont’d • After 2 years of increasingly better project results, start tailoring the next set of processes and implement in the same way 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 51

Summary • Tailoring PM processes can yield greater efficiency and effectiveness in executing projects Summary • Tailoring PM processes can yield greater efficiency and effectiveness in executing projects of varying complexity • Tailored processes compliment project portfolio management theory that stresses having projects of varying size and importance to the organization 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 52