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Tab Labels 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Structure of Argument Claim Grounds -- Introducing Tab Labels 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Structure of Argument Claim Grounds -- Introducing Evidence Grounds – Parenthetical References 6. Warrant 7. Warrant -- “What this shows…” 8. Warrant -- Not Stated, But Implied 9. Warrant – Restatement 10. Transitions

The Structure of Argument (adapted from Stephen Toulmin’s The Uses of Argument) The simplest The Structure of Argument (adapted from Stephen Toulmin’s The Uses of Argument) The simplest form for a complete argument consists of: • Claim Sriracha says: Tab 1, gangsta. • Grounds • Warrant (No, not that kind of argument…)

The Structure of Argument (adapted from Stephen Toulmin’s The Uses of Argument) Claim Evidence The Structure of Argument (adapted from Stephen Toulmin’s The Uses of Argument) Claim Evidence 1 How evidence 1 proves the claim is correct Still Tab 1. Ya heard? Transition to (“This is like” / “By Contrast”) Evidence 2 How evidence 2 proves the claim is correct Sum up argument in some way

Claim A claim is a statement that you are asking the other person to Claim A claim is a statement that you are asking the other person to accept. This is the information you are asking an audience to accept as true. 'Sup. Tab 2. These are thesis statements of multi -part arguments and the topic sentences of individual arguments.

Claim Example claim statements: Thesis Statement: “The Three Bears” is the greatest piece of Claim Example claim statements: Thesis Statement: “The Three Bears” is the greatest piece of literature ever written. Topic Sentence: The story teaches a good lesson. Topic Sentence: The story is action packed. Topic Sentence: Anything to do with bears is awesome. ’S’up.

The Structure of Argument (adapted from Stephen Toulmin’s The Uses of Argument) Problem: Making The Structure of Argument (adapted from Stephen Toulmin’s The Uses of Argument) Problem: Making irrelevant claims Prompt: How does allowing the reader to understand the Three Bears’ point of view shift the sympathy away from Goldilocks? First Body Paragraph: “Goldilocks is a bad little girl. For example, she “lifted the latch” (1) when she saw that nobody was at home. . . ” Huh? What does this have to do with point of view?

The Structure of Argument (adapted from Stephen Toulmin’s The Uses of Argument) Problem: Argument The Structure of Argument (adapted from Stephen Toulmin’s The Uses of Argument) Problem: Argument without a claim

The Structure of Argument (adapted from Stephen Toulmin’s The Uses of Argument) Problem: Argument The Structure of Argument (adapted from Stephen Toulmin’s The Uses of Argument) Problem: Argument without a claim

The Structure of Argument (adapted from Stephen Toulmin’s The Uses of Argument) Problem: Argument The Structure of Argument (adapted from Stephen Toulmin’s The Uses of Argument) Problem: Argument without a claim Thesis: The Three Bears are more sympathetic than Goldilocks. First Body Paragraph: “For example, ‘The bottom of the chair came out’ after Goldilocks sat down in it. ” Huh? What is the argument here?

The Structure of Argument (adapted from Stephen Toulmin’s The Uses of Argument) Problem: Argument The Structure of Argument (adapted from Stephen Toulmin’s The Uses of Argument) Problem: Argument without a claim Thesis: The Three Bears are more sympathetic than Goldilocks. First Body Paragraph: “By describing the damage that Goldilocks does, the reader understands the negative consequences of her actions. For example, ‘The bottom of the chair came out’ after Goldilocks sat down in it. ” The argument is now clear, and the reader knows what to expect.

The Structure of Argument (adapted from Stephen Toulmin’s The Uses of Argument) Problem: Argument The Structure of Argument (adapted from Stephen Toulmin’s The Uses of Argument) Problem: Argument without a claim Plot summaries do not make an argument at all. Adding a claim usually alerts students that they are writing one.

Grounds The grounds are made up of data and facts. It is the “truth” Grounds The grounds are made up of data and facts. It is the “truth” on which the claim is based. Grounds may also include the basic premises on which the rest of the argument is built. This is the textual evidence and textual paraphrase used to support claims. Believe me, this is Tab 3, playa. Sriracha don’t lie.

Grounds Example grounds statements: Thesis Statement: “The Three Bears” is the greatest piece of Grounds Example grounds statements: Thesis Statement: “The Three Bears” is the greatest piece of literature ever written. Topic Sentence: The story teaches a good lesson. Grounds: Goldilocks is “an impudent, bad little Girl, [who] set about helping herself. ” Topic Sentence: The story is action packed. How you gonna steal a grown Grounds: “Somebody has been at my bear’s porridge and porridge!” then try to act like it Topic Sentence: Anything to do with bears ain’t no thing? is awesome. Grounds: “They were good Bears-- a little rough or so, as the manner of Bears is, but for all that very good-natured and hospitable. ”

The Structure of Argument (adapted from Stephen Toulmin’s The Uses of Argument) Problem: Argument The Structure of Argument (adapted from Stephen Toulmin’s The Uses of Argument) Problem: Argument without grounds No Evidence = Failing

The Structure of Argument (adapted from Stephen Toulmin’s The Uses of Argument) Problem: Argument The Structure of Argument (adapted from Stephen Toulmin’s The Uses of Argument) Problem: Argument with poorly contextualized grounds “Somebody has been at my porridge!” Huh? Who said this and why?

The Structure of Argument (adapted from Stephen Toulmin’s The Uses of Argument) Problem: Argument The Structure of Argument (adapted from Stephen Toulmin’s The Uses of Argument) Problem: Argument with poorly contextualized grounds “The Three Bears’ is an action-packed extravaganza. For example, after noticing the spoon in his food, the Huge Bear says, ‘Somebody has been at my porridge’ (2)!” Context establishes the relevance of the evidence.

Grounds – Introducing Evidence Transition Statements • For example/instance • As an example/illustration/demonstration • Grounds – Introducing Evidence Transition Statements • For example/instance • As an example/illustration/demonstration • To illustrate/demonstrate/explain Don’t hate: appreciate. Tab 4. And, wait, there’s more … • One example/instance • Another way • More specifically

Grounds – Introducing Evidence Language Templates • [X] states/explains/says, “______. ” • As [X] Grounds – Introducing Evidence Language Templates • [X] states/explains/says, “______. ” • As [X] puts it/states/explains/says, “______. ” • [The author] writes/says/explains, “______. ” Sriracha don’t lie. • When [something happens], [a character] states/explains/says, “______. ” • In [X]’s view, “______. ”

Grounds – Parenthetical References “_____” (author last name Tab 5. Ya feel me, dawg? Grounds – Parenthetical References “_____” (author last name Tab 5. Ya feel me, dawg? If you are using just one source, you do not need this (as long as it is clear who said it). If you establish the author in the introduction to the quote (even with multiple sources), you also do not need this. page number). end punctuation: period, comma, quotation mark, etc.

Warrant Purple monkey dishwasher: Tab 6. A warrant links data and other grounds to Warrant Purple monkey dishwasher: Tab 6. A warrant links data and other grounds to a claim, legitimizing the claim by showing the grounds to be relevant. It answers the question, “Why does those data mean your claim is true? ” This is usually where the argument breaks down in high school writing.

Warrant Example warrant: Topic Sentence: Anything to do with bears is awesome. Grounds: “They Warrant Example warrant: Topic Sentence: Anything to do with bears is awesome. Grounds: “They were good Bears-- a little rough or so, as the manner of Bears is, but for all that very goodnatured and hospitable. ” Warrant: What this shows is just how cool bears really are. Even though they have their own place in the woods, the Bears are not standoffish or caught up in their own success. Instead, they are always willing to share a bowl of porridge or invite a friend over to sample Word. the hospitality of their comfortable chairs.

The Structure of Argument (adapted from Stephen Toulmin’s The Uses of Argument) Problem: Argument The Structure of Argument (adapted from Stephen Toulmin’s The Uses of Argument) Problem: Argument without warrant “By describing the damage that Goldilocks does, the reader understands the negative consequences of her actions. For example, ‘The bottom of the chair came out’ after Goldilocks sat down in it. Similarly, when…” Huh? What’s the point of this evidence?

The Structure of Argument (adapted from Stephen Toulmin’s The Uses of Argument) Problem: Argument The Structure of Argument (adapted from Stephen Toulmin’s The Uses of Argument) Problem: Argument without warrant “By describing the damage that Goldilocks does, the reader understands the negative consequences of her actions. For example, ‘The bottom of the chair came out’ after Goldilocks sat down in it. The image of the broken chair, then, allows the reader to empathize with the Bears who, through no fault of their, have been forced to endure property damage stemming from the actions of a very selfish little girl. Not only is the chair ruined, but Goldilocks shows no remorse, angering the reader at her apparent disregard for the feelings of the Bears. Similarly, when she…” You have to explain.

The Structure of Argument (adapted from Stephen Toulmin’s The Uses of Argument) Problem: Argument The Structure of Argument (adapted from Stephen Toulmin’s The Uses of Argument) Problem: Argument without warrant (not developing explanation)

The Structure of Argument (adapted from Stephen Toulmin’s The Uses of Argument) Problem: Argument The Structure of Argument (adapted from Stephen Toulmin’s The Uses of Argument) Problem: Argument without warrant “Contrary to expectation, it is the Bears who gain the reader’s sympathy, not the adorable little girl. For example, Goldilocks ‘looked in at the window, and then she peeped in at the keyhole; and seeing nobody in the house, she lifted the latch’ (1). This shows she is unsympathetic. By contrast. . . ” Oversimplifying is a hallmark of immature writing.

The Structure of Argument (adapted from Stephen Toulmin’s The Uses of Argument) Problem: Argument The Structure of Argument (adapted from Stephen Toulmin’s The Uses of Argument) Problem: Argument without warrant “Contrary to expectation, it is the Bears who gain the reader’s sympathy, not the adorable little girl. For example, Goldilocks ‘looked in at the window, and then she peeped in at the keyhole; and seeing nobody in the house, she lifted the latch’ (1). Rather than knock at the door or wait until someone comes home, Goldilocks helps herself to whatever she wants, a pattern that begins here. The reader is shocked by her brazen behavior, as it violates all expectations of common courtesy and respect, and this begins a shift of sympathy away from her, despite Goldilocks being the only human character in the story. By contrast. . . ” Focus on what the text actually establishes and explain your reasoning completely (do not skip steps).

Warrant – “What this shows…” • [X] matters/is important because ______. • Although [X] Warrant – “What this shows…” • [X] matters/is important because ______. • Although [X] may seem unimportant/trivial, it is in fact crucial because it reveals/shows ______. • [X] has important consequences for [Y] because ______. • The significance of [X] is ______. • [The author] states/writes, “______, ” establishing/ demonstrating/illustrating/indicating/revealing/showing ______. Jikoshokai itadekimas. Sriracha des. And this is Tab 7. • When the author states, “______, ” it establishes/demonstrates/illustrates/ indicates/reveals/shows ______.

Warrant -- Not Stated, but Implied • Although [X] never says it directly/explicitly, it Warrant -- Not Stated, but Implied • Although [X] never says it directly/explicitly, it is clear/obvious that ______ because ______. • One implication of ______ is ______. • While [X] never admits as much, it is clear/obvious that ______ because ______. • Although it might seem that ______ [is true], in fact _____ Fail, damn you, fail! Tab 8

Warrant – Restatement • In other words, ______ • What [X] really means by Warrant – Restatement • In other words, ______ • What [X] really means by this is ______ • In short, ______ • To put it another way, ______ This suck yet? Tab 9.

Transitions Cause/Effect • accordingly • as a result • consequently • hence • it Transitions Cause/Effect • accordingly • as a result • consequently • hence • it follows, then Leave room for Tab 10; there’s a lot to write. • since • so • then • therefore • thus

Transitions Comparison • along the same lines • in the same way • likewise Transitions Comparison • along the same lines • in the same way • likewise • similarly • it follows, then

Transitions Contrast • although • but • by contrast • conversely • despite the Transitions Contrast • although • but • by contrast • conversely • despite the fact that • even though • however • nevertheless • nonetheless • on the contrary • regardless • whereas • while

Transitions Addition • also • and • besides • furthermore • in addition • Transitions Addition • also • and • besides • furthermore • in addition • in fact • indeed • moreover • so too

Transitions Conclusion • ultimately • hence • to conclude • thus • fundamentally • Transitions Conclusion • ultimately • hence • to conclude • thus • fundamentally • of course • in brief See? Told ya there was lots to write. I’m not a liar! But I AM ON FIRE! Get it? Like that rhyme “Liar” and I’m hot sauce … You know what? Nevermind. • in closing • therefore • as a consequence of • consequently • as a result • in sum

Back Side Do • Write in present tense Don’t • “I, ” “we, ” Back Side Do • Write in present tense Don’t • “I, ” “we, ” “us” • Change tense of verbs in • “In my opinion” / “I think” quotes so that they agree with • “maybe” statements (Don’t introductions to quotes be wishy-washy) Example: As Smith writes, “Time [passes] slowly. ” Original sentence: “Time passed slowly. ” • “I don’t know” statements (Don’t draw attention to your deficiencies) • contractions • informal language Catch ya on the flip side.