- Количество слайдов: 31
systems in Russia and the USA
Aims: ь Talk about the differences between systems. ь Find out the advantages and disadvantages of each system.
Content: ⋄ ⋄ ⋄ ⋄ Kindergartens Elementary school Junior school High school Universities Grading scale Uniform
“Education is what remains when we have forgotten all we have been taught. ” Lord Halifax (1633 -95) Education in its broadest sense is any act or experience that has a formative effect on the mind, character or physical ability of an individual. In its technical sense education is the process by which society deliberately transmits accumulated knowledge, skills and values from one generation to another.
Education in the United States is mainly provided by the public sector, with control and funding coming from three levels: federal, state, and local. Child education is compulsory. 90% of schools are free state schools. Education system in Russia is federal and centralized. Education is compulsory for all children. Most of schools are state ones.
Kindergarten At 5 years American children go to primary school, in the zero class. This zeroclass is not mandatory. About 60% of young Americans visit it. Kindergartens exist separately in the U. S. and are called "pre-school“. Russia's kids can attend nursery school from 1 to 3 years, in rare cases - from 2 months to a year. Children attend kindergarten from three to seven years. Most kindergartens funded by the state, municipalities or agencies.
The education is from five to sixteen. There are twelve “grades”; elementary school (1 th - 8 th grade); high school (9 th – 12 th grade). Some states have ‘junior high’ schools (7 th – 9 th grade). The education is from seven to seventeen. There are 11 “grades”; elementary school (1 th – 4 th grade); basic general education (5 th – 9 th grade); secondary (complete) general education (10 th -11 th grade).
Common: ь There are public and private schools; ь School day lasts for about 6 hours; ь Students are taught 180 days; ь Summer break period from June to August. Difference: ь In the U. S. academic year begins on the first Tuesday in September; ь September 1 - the traditional Day of Knowledge in Russia.
Elementary school ь One teacher teaches all subjects except physical education, fine arts and music; ь The class has one of its own room, where all classes are taught, except those that require special room or equipment; ь Minimum core set of knowledge and skills necessary for life and any work: reading, literate, elementary mathematics, writing. In addition to this general developmental classes are held: music, physical education, sometimes dancing, art and science.
Junior high v Each course has a teacher - a specialist in this discipline, which is enshrined in his own cabinet, and the class during the school day goes from class to class; v Each class has its own form-master; v Separation of pupils into ordinary and advanced levels ь At 16 students do exams called GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education); ь Students can choose options or ‘electives’; ь Student receives a certificate of general secondary education; ь All subjects are compulsory;
High school Students can choose their classes more freely than before, and only need to fulfill the minimum criteria for obtaining a diploma, which sets the school board. Typical minimum requirements are: natural sciences (the year of chemistry, biology and year of Physics), mathematics, literature, social sciences, usually includes the history and polity of the USA, and PE. Other subjects, students must choose for themselves. Students take ‘A’ or ‘A/S’ level exams in their specialized subjects as a part of the university entrance procedure.
High school The main purpose of a high school is a preparation for entrancing a college. The course includes further studing of subjects previously studied in junior school and a small number of new disciplines. Students pass the Unified State Examination in the end of studing at school. Students must pass Math and Russian. The other subjects student should choose himself, as a rule, these subjects are needed for admission to the chosen university. "School Certificate" is a document certifying the acquisition of knowledge in the amount of the state standard.
Grading scale 5 excellent 4 good 3 satisfactory 2 and 1 unsatisfactory
Uniforms There is a school uniform in many private schools. In public schools, there is no single form, although some schools have introduced a dress code. There is no single school uniform but many high schools and grammar schools, especially the most prestigious, have their own form, emphasizing the students belonging to a particular institution.
Universities Education consists of four years of studing at an institution of higher learning. There are 4, 352 colleges, universities, and junior colleges in the country. The vast majority of students (up to 70%) lack the financial resources to pay tuition up front and must rely on student loans and scholarships from their university, the federal government, or a private lender. Depending upon the type of school and program, annual graduate program tuition can vary from $15, 000 to as high as $50, 000.
Universities There are 562 (45, 9%) State Universities of Russia. To obtain the qualification "bachelor" the student should study four years. For an excellent training students receive scholarships, but the amount is not large. There is a small number of budget places in the institutes
ª Brown University 1764 ª Harvard University 1636 ª Dartmouth College 1769 ª Yale University 1701 ª Columbia University 1754 ª Cornell University 1865 ª University of Pennsylvania 1751 ª Princeton University 1746
University of Pennsylvania
Rating of Russian “Classical Universities“ ◦ Moscow State University M. V. Lomonosov ◦ St. Petersburg State University ◦ Moscow Physico-Technical Institute (National Research University) ◦ Peoples' Friendship University ◦ Novosibirsk State University
Moscow State University M. V. Lomonosov
St. Petersburg State University
Peoples' Friendship University
Conclusion Every education system has its advantages and disadvantages. Russian and the U. S. education systems have much in common today. But the U. S. education is considered more elite, because of famous universities, than Russian one, although Russia is ahead of the U. S. in the level of education.
The project was maid by Diana Chernyadeva, Roman Ifutin and Ilya Lukashin.