Скачать презентацию Systems Analysis Organizations are systems 2 Types Скачать презентацию Systems Analysis Organizations are systems 2 Types

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Systems Analysis: Organizations are systems. Systems Analysis: Organizations are systems.

2 Types • We commonly think of at least 2 things when we think 2 Types • We commonly think of at least 2 things when we think of systems in organizations: 1. Most commonly we think of systematic solutions • i. e. , a solution that is automated, built into existing practices, or supported in such a way so that it will continue (“I need a system of organization”). 2. Less commonly, we think of systems as the things that impact; and are impacted by the pinpoint we select to improve.

3 Levels of Organizations 1. Performer level l Performance management view 2. Process level 3 Levels of Organizations 1. Performer level l Performance management view 2. Process level l Product or service creation view 3. Organizational level l Total organization view

The Organizational Level From Rummler & Brache, 1995 The Organizational Level From Rummler & Brache, 1995

The Organizational Level Inputs From Rummler & Brache, 1995 Processing system Receiving system The Organizational Level Inputs From Rummler & Brache, 1995 Processing system Receiving system

The Organizational Level: The TPS View Input Processing System Output Internal Feedback External Feedback The Organizational Level: The TPS View Input Processing System Output Internal Feedback External Feedback From Brethower, 2000; Sasson & Austin, in press Receiving System

A TPS Example in Education Children, Teachers, Curriculum Resources Elementary School (K-6) Competent Students A TPS Example in Education Children, Teachers, Curriculum Resources Elementary School (K-6) Competent Students Middle School Internal Feedback External Feedback

Processing System Functions (Silos) Dept 1 Dept 2 Dept 3 Dept 4 Dept 5 Processing System Functions (Silos) Dept 1 Dept 2 Dept 3 Dept 4 Dept 5 Dept 6 Dept 7 Process 1 Process 2 Process 3 Processes

Ed Example - Processing System Functions (Silos) Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade Ed Example - Processing System Functions (Silos) Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 Subject 1 Subject 2 Subject 3 Processes

OBM Network Newsletter Production Process OBM Network Newsletter Production Process

Total Performance System Components -1 • Mission: The major purpose or reason for being Total Performance System Components -1 • Mission: The major purpose or reason for being a performance system • Input: Information, technology, people, money, or material that initiates or is a resource for a work process • Processing system: A system that processes inputs, generating at least one output valued by an external receiver

Total Performance System Components 2 • Internal Feedback: Information about the performance of individuals, Total Performance System Components 2 • Internal Feedback: Information about the performance of individuals, work groups, or processes that is used to guide performance • Output: Information, money, material, or added value that is produced by a work task or process • Receiving system: A set of systems that are closely linked to a processing system and receive its outputs • External Feedback: Information from customers and other external sources, used to guide performance

The Process Level • Process = “A series of steps designed to produce a The Process Level • Process = “A series of steps designed to produce a product or service” • Steps can be shared • Across people • Across departments • Across organizations • At least three different types of processes are critical to a system’s health

Customer Processes • Result in a product or service that is received by an Customer Processes • Result in a product or service that is received by an organization’s customers – Preparing meals at a restaurant – Producing parts for an automobile that is sold to an auto manufacturer – Making payments to clients for an insurance claim

Administrative Processes • Produce products or services that are invisible to the external customer Administrative Processes • Produce products or services that are invisible to the external customer but essential to the effective operation of a business – Balancing a cash register at the end of the day – Paying bills – Sending out paychecks – Hiring/promoting/firing

Management Processes • Processes that result in products or services that ensure adequate performance Management Processes • Processes that result in products or services that ensure adequate performance of customer and administrative processes – Performance measurement – Goal setting – Performance Feedback – Resource Allocation – Rewards – Job Analysis and Design

OBM Network Newsletter Production Process OBM Network Newsletter Production Process

Process Management and Process Mapping • When people, departments, or organizations share steps of Process Management and Process Mapping • When people, departments, or organizations share steps of a task, there is potential for “disconnects” – People may not know how their contribution benefits the end result of the process – Participants in the process may not know the goal or ultimate result of their work – People may make the wrong kind of contribution or spend time producing extra products that are not needed – A person might hold up the process by not completing their portion of the work

Minimizing “Disconnects” • A process must be understood before it can be managed or Minimizing “Disconnects” • A process must be understood before it can be managed or adjusted effectively • Implementing a new process requires planning for relationships and responsibilities • People participating in a process must get feedback from internal co-workers about their individual contributions • People participating in a process must get feedback from those who receive the services/products they produce

Mapping out a Process (“Is” map) • Who are the participating parties (people, departments, Mapping out a Process (“Is” map) • Who are the participating parties (people, departments, organizations)? • What is the end result/product/service of the process? • Who receives the output of the process? • THEN MAP: how does this process get accomplished currently (not how we wish it was accomplished, but how it IS accomplished) • OR, how would we like this process to be accomplished (“should” map)

The Performer Level 2. TASK SUPPORT Ÿ Can the performer easily recognize the input The Performer Level 2. TASK SUPPORT Ÿ Can the performer easily recognize the input requiring action? Ÿ Can the task be done without interference from other tasks? Ÿ Are job procedures and work flow logical? Ÿ Are adequate resources available for performance (time, tools, staff, information)? 1. PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS Ÿ Ÿ Do performers know the desired output and performance standards? Ÿ INPUT Do performance standards exist? Do performers consider the standards attainable? OUTPUT CONSEQUENCES PERFORMER FEEDBACK 5. SKILLS/KNOWLEDGE Ÿ Ÿ Do performers know why desired performance is important? 3. CONSEQUENCES Do performers have the necesssary skills and knowledge to perform? 4. FEEDBACK Ÿ Are consequences aligned to support organizational performance? Ÿ Do performers receive information about their performance? Ÿ Are consequences meaningful from performer's viewpoint? Ÿ Is the information they receive: - relevant? - accurate? - timely? - specific? - easy to understand? Ÿ Are consequences timely? 6. INDIVIDUAL CAPACITY Ÿ Are performers physically, mentally, and emotionally able to perform? From Rummler & Brache, 1995

Performer-Level Analysis Dimensions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Performance specifications Task support Consequences Performer-Level Analysis Dimensions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Performance specifications Task support Consequences Feedback Skills/knowledge Capacity