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Symposium on the Automated Enforcement of Red Light Running in Maryland Presented by: Manu Symposium on the Automated Enforcement of Red Light Running in Maryland Presented by: Manu Shah Maryland SHA

Symposium Objectives l l l Identify and document current and anticipated issues for stakeholders Symposium Objectives l l l Identify and document current and anticipated issues for stakeholders Present principles for automated RLR enforcement Recommend specific actions needed to ensure the continued credibility of automated red-light enforcement systems Manu Shah, Maryland State Highway Administration

Participants l l Approximately 125 participants Stakeholders represented – – – – State and Participants l l Approximately 125 participants Stakeholders represented – – – – State and local law enforcement Representatives Judiciary State and local traffic engineers Elected and appointed officials The media Advocacy groups Experts Manu Shah, Maryland State Highway Administration

Red Light Cameras in MD l l l 168 cameras in use (including Baltimore) Red Light Cameras in MD l l l 168 cameras in use (including Baltimore) Eight counties and Baltimore City Eleven municipal governments 26 cameras removed or deactivated Additional installations planned Manu Shah, Maryland State Highway Administration

Red Light Cameras in Maryland Manu Shah, Maryland State Highway Administration Red Light Cameras in Maryland Manu Shah, Maryland State Highway Administration

Red-Light Cameras l l Installations on state roads or their approaches require approval by Red-Light Cameras l l Installations on state roads or their approaches require approval by SHA requirements include: – – – l Safety studies and justification Evaluation of alternative countermeasures Approved plans Installations entirely on local roadways do not require SHA approval Manu Shah, Maryland State Highway Administration

SHA Concerns l l l Improving intersection safety Maintaining public confidence in the credibility SHA Concerns l l l Improving intersection safety Maintaining public confidence in the credibility of RLR enforcement as a safety tool. Ensuring proper practices are followed by jurisdictions and their contractors Manu Shah, Maryland State Highway Administration

Public Concerns l l That systems are used to improve safety, not generate revenue Public Concerns l l That systems are used to improve safety, not generate revenue The technology and systems are accurate and reliable Mistakes are corrected Receive “fair” treatment in the court system Manu Shah, Maryland State Highway Administration

Engineering Considerations l l l l Signal timing, type, lens size, and placement Sight Engineering Considerations l l l l Signal timing, type, lens size, and placement Sight distance Clearance intervals (all red phase) Length of yellow phase Unwarranted or non-standard signal removal Geometrics -vertical curvature and mainline road width Speed and volume Intersection Advance Warning Flashers Manu Shah, Maryland State Highway Administration

Dilemma Zone l l l Dilemma zones are a problem Determination of an appropriate Dilemma Zone l l l Dilemma zones are a problem Determination of an appropriate yellow clearance interval. Factors contributing to the creation of dilemma zones Manu Shah, Maryland State Highway Administration

Signal Timing and RLR Violations l RLR violations can be affected by: – – Signal Timing and RLR Violations l RLR violations can be affected by: – – l l Green time and total cycle length Yellow change interval and the dilemma zone Synchronization with adjacent signals Driver expectations All-red clearance interval Fixed or actuated timing Manu Shah, Maryland State Highway Administration

The Yellow Clearance Interval l What IS the appropriate perception-reaction time to use. Should The Yellow Clearance Interval l What IS the appropriate perception-reaction time to use. Should posted speed, 85% speed or both be considered Driver expectations and consistency Manu Shah, Maryland State Highway Administration

Safety Improvements l We need to do a better job designing and conducting safety Safety Improvements l We need to do a better job designing and conducting safety studies – – – l Study design Interpretation of results Statistical significance What questions should we ask? – – Are observed changes due to chance or to other improvements? Are changes statistically significant? Is there an area-wide “spillover”? What factors may have affected the change? Manu Shah, Maryland State Highway Administration

Safety Evaluation l What should we use to measure effectiveness? – – – l Safety Evaluation l What should we use to measure effectiveness? – – – l l Fatalities, fatal accidents, injury accidents, or all reported accidents? The number or rate of violations? Both of the above? What are the implications of using these measures? When should cameras be removed? – – Safety improvements Reduced violations rates Manu Shah, Maryland State Highway Administration

Privacy Concerns l l Some citizens are concerned about the privacy implications of RLR Privacy Concerns l l Some citizens are concerned about the privacy implications of RLR cameras. Some concerns can be addressed through public information. Camera systems: – – l Take photographs, not continuous video. Only photograph vehicles that are breaking the law. Most photograph only the rear of the vehicle and do not penetrate the interior of the vehicle. Manu Shah, Maryland State Highway Administration

Contractual Issues l Avoid appearance of incentives for contractors increased numbers of citations – Contractual Issues l Avoid appearance of incentives for contractors increased numbers of citations – – l Fixed fee arrangements are preferable. Different contractors for equipment and citation processing Contractors should not choose locations or control signal timings. Manu Shah, Maryland State Highway Administration

Financial Considerations l l Jurisdictions must set realistic projections of violations and revenues Avoid Financial Considerations l l Jurisdictions must set realistic projections of violations and revenues Avoid the appearance of financial incentives for jurisdictions – – l Avoid directing revenues to general fund. consider funding safety programs and improvements. Establish and stick to a clear policy regarding revenues from cameras Manu Shah, Maryland State Highway Administration

Camera Implementation Alternatives l l l Purchase, install and operate systems and process citations Camera Implementation Alternatives l l l Purchase, install and operate systems and process citations Contract with commercial firm which requires that a law enforcement officer verify and sign citations Partner with another jurisdiction that has a contract with a commercial vendor. Manu Shah, Maryland State Highway Administration

Public Information l l RLR cameras should be used as part of a broader Public Information l l RLR cameras should be used as part of a broader “ 3 E” program of public education, engineering and enforcement Customer service is essential – – Information Respond to requests for information and complaints Manu Shah, Maryland State Highway Administration

Information l l Regular communication of system benefits and effectiveness Information on the use Information l l Regular communication of system benefits and effectiveness Information on the use of automated enforcement available – – l Technical descriptions (how does it work) When RLR Cameras are used Tours of facilities – – Citation processing facilities Vendors/consultants Manu Shah, Maryland State Highway Administration

Judicial Considerations l l Judges may know little about RLR cameras Items that could Judicial Considerations l l Judges may know little about RLR cameras Items that could impact their decisions – – – l Characteristics –accuracy, capabilities The criteria used to determine when a violation occurs Other Judicial support is critical to the long-term success of automated enforcement efforts Manu Shah, Maryland State Highway Administration

Adjudication l Does the public feel the process is fair? – – l Potential Adjudication l Does the public feel the process is fair? – – l Potential increased costs for challenging tickets (court costs) Some feel that there is “no defense”. Is there way to correct obvious “mistakes” without a court appearance? – Not all mistakes caught by citation reviewers Manu Shah, Maryland State Highway Administration

Signage l Several approaches to signing – – – l At or along the Signage l Several approaches to signing – – – l At or along the approach to an intersection Jurisdictional boundaries and other appropriate locations None at all. Concern about how various practices impact driver behavior: – – – Will signs at intersection contribute to panic stops or other dangerous behavior Anticipation at intersections known to be equipped Spill-over effect (do drivers run fewer lights at intersections without cameras)? Manu Shah, Maryland State Highway Administration

Signage l l l Notification that cameras are in use is an issue for Signage l l l Notification that cameras are in use is an issue for drivers. Practices should be similar across jurisdictions and within the region. Jurisdictions should be aware of any requirements in the MUTCD Manu Shah, Maryland State Highway Administration

Benefits of Principles l l l Promotes consistency among jurisdictions and within a jurisdiction Benefits of Principles l l l Promotes consistency among jurisdictions and within a jurisdiction Supports sound engineering practices Facilitates building on the experience of others Create a foundation for maintaining public confidence and support Serve as a resource for technical professionals Manu Shah, Maryland State Highway Administration

Training and Awareness l Engineers and Transportation Professionals – – – l Signal timing Training and Awareness l Engineers and Transportation Professionals – – – l Signal timing Engineering safer intersections Designing and conducting safety evaluations Elected and appointed officials – – – Critical policy issues to consider Understanding intersection safety Others? Manu Shah, Maryland State Highway Administration

Things the public needs to know l Red-light violations – – l l What Things the public needs to know l Red-light violations – – l l What constitutes a violation? What are the criteria for issuing a citation The dangers of red-light running Information regarding RLR Camera Programs – – How systems work Safety effectiveness Procedures for challenging citations Contact information Manu Shah, Maryland State Highway Administration

Critical Issues l l l l Accuracy and reliability Financial and contractual arrangements Program Critical Issues l l l l Accuracy and reliability Financial and contractual arrangements Program oversight Criterion for selection of candidate sites Signal timing and the “dilemma zone” Effectiveness Driver information and signing Manu Shah, Maryland State Highway Administration

What needs to be done? Next Steps What needs to be done? Next Steps

Develop Principles l l Promote and support the development of principles. Involves a combination Develop Principles l l Promote and support the development of principles. Involves a combination of: – – – l Consensus building Technical analysis & research Training, outreach, and education Somebody’s got to lead or at least coordinate the effort. Manu Shah, Maryland State Highway Administration

What are the principles? l l l Good question! They are not standards or What are the principles? l l l Good question! They are not standards or regulations A document to: – – – Help guide the development of policies and practices by implementing agencies? Framework for identifying specific actions and resources? Other? Manu Shah, Maryland State Highway Administration

Who should participate? l l All stakeholders Consider a regional effort – – – Who should participate? l l All stakeholders Consider a regional effort – – – Maryland DC Virginia Manu Shah, Maryland State Highway Administration

Resolve technical questions l Signal Timing, Coordination, and RL violations – l Clearly describe Resolve technical questions l Signal Timing, Coordination, and RL violations – l Clearly describe how signal timing and coordination affect RL violations Yellow clearance interval – – What perception-reaction time should be used. Should posted speed, 85% speed or both be considered Manu Shah, Maryland State Highway Administration

Provide guidance on: l l l Designing, conducting, and interpreting safety studies Criteria for Provide guidance on: l l l Designing, conducting, and interpreting safety studies Criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of camera programs Engineering studies needed prior to RL use. Manu Shah, Maryland State Highway Administration