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Symposium on Energy Efficient Electronic Systems (E 3 S) CITRIS / UCB What the Symposium on Energy Efficient Electronic Systems (E 3 S) CITRIS / UCB What the Real World Tells Us about Saving Energy in Electronics Bruce Nordman Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory June 11, 2009 [email protected] gov — efficientnetworks. LBL. gov Slide 1 of 33

Overview • Why care? • Electronics energy use • Things we know • Efficiency Overview • Why care? • Electronics energy use • Things we know • Efficiency opportunities • Building networks Networks a principle theme / example Slide 2 of 33

“What the real world tells us about saving energy in electronics” • What are “What the real world tells us about saving energy in electronics” • What are “electronics” “Devices whose primary function is information” – Computation, communication, storage, display • Potential savings derive from actual use • What is relevant in the real world besides circuits – People, organizations, economics, public sector, … • How to cause future savings Slide 3 of 33

Why care about electronics, energy? • Core – Energy – Carbon – $$€€£¥ • Why care about electronics, energy? • Core – Energy – Carbon – $$€€£¥ • Extreme conditions – Power deserts (no mains) – Power oceans (datacenters) – Power ponds (e. g. notebook) Slide 4 of 33

First, Think Broadly …. Slide 5 of 33 First, Think Broadly …. Slide 5 of 33

How much energy does The Internet use? 1999 “At least 100 million nodes on How much energy does The Internet use? 1999 “At least 100 million nodes on the Internet, … add up to … 8% of total U. S. demand. … It's now reasonable to project that half of the electric grid will be powering the digital- Internet economy within the next decade. ” emphasis added 2007 Slide 6 of 33

How much energy does The Internet use? 1999 “At least 100 million nodes on How much energy does The Internet use? 1999 “At least 100 million nodes on the Internet, … add up to … 8% of total U. S. demand. … It's now reasonable to project that half of the electric grid will be powering the digital- Internet economy within the next decade. ” Wrong Question Wrong Answers emphasis added Slide 7 of 33 2007

Some questions worth asking • How much energy does all electronics use? … network Some questions worth asking • How much energy does all electronics use? … network equipment? • Where is all this headed? • How much can we reasonably save? … how do we do it? • [ How much energy does IT avoid ] • What are research and implementation priorities? Slide 8 of 33

Networks and Energy Network equipment …. Routers, switches, modems, wireless APs, … … vs Networks and Energy Network equipment …. Routers, switches, modems, wireless APs, … … vs networked equipment PCs, printers, set-top boxes, … Product Network Interface How networks drive energy use • Direct – Network interfaces (NICs) – Network products • Induced in Networked products – Increased power levels – Increased time in higher power modes (to maintain network presence) Network induced consumption > all direct Slide 9 of 33 Network Product

Electronics / network electricity use All Electricity: ~3, 700 TWh Residential Buildings Electricity: ~2, Electronics / network electricity use All Electricity: ~3, 700 TWh Residential Buildings Electricity: ~2, 700 TWh NOT to scale Commercial Electronics: ~290 TWh Networked: ~150 TWh ? One central baseload power plant (about 7 TWh/year) Slide 10 of 33 Network Eqt. : ~ 20 TWh Telecom • U. S. only • Annual figures circa 2006 • All approximate

Electronics / network electricity use Buildings Electricity: ~2, 700 TWh Residential This time to Electronics / network electricity use Buildings Electricity: ~2, 700 TWh Residential This time to scale Commercial Electronics Networked ~150 TWh ? Net. Eqt. ~ 20 TWh Tel. ~290 TWh One central baseload power plant (about 7 TWh/year) Slide 11 of 33 • U. S. only • Annual figures circa 2006 • All approximate

What is in that 290 TWh/year? Data Centers 22. 5 Servers 2. 7 Storage What is in that 290 TWh/year? Data Centers 22. 5 Servers 2. 7 Storage 2. 7 Network Residential 10 Telecom 37. 9 TOTAL Commercial 47. 2 Desktop PCs 11. 1 Monitors 9. 7 Copiers 8. 8 Network 7. 3 Notebook PCs 5. 7 Printers 89. 8 TOTAL Information Technology 21 Desktop PCs 7. 7 Monitors 7. 3 Modem, router, etc. 2. 8 Notebook PCs 2. 6 Imaging Consumer Electronics 51 Analog TVs 16 Digital TVs 10 Set top boxes, cable 9 Set top boxes, satellite 6. 2 Compact Audio 6. 1 Stereos 6 Rechargeable Electronics 5 VCRs 4. 4 DVD players 2. 3 Clock Radios 2. 2 Home Theaters 1. 6 Security systems 0. 7 Portable Audio 161. 9 Slide 12 of 33 TOTAL

What is in that 290 TWh/year? Location Function Data Centers 13% Computing 35% Commercial What is in that 290 TWh/year? Location Function Data Centers 13% Computing 35% Commercial 30% Communication 19% Residential 57% Storage 4% Display 42% Sources: TIAX, LBNL, Nordman • These figures rough estimates for 2006 • None of this includes cooling, UPS, or other infrastructure Slide 13 of 33

Things we know: Utilization is low • Data networks are lightly utilized, and will Things we know: Utilization is low • Data networks are lightly utilized, and will stay that way, A. M. Odlyzko, Review of Network Economics, 2003 Network AT&T switched voice Internet backbones Private line networks LANs Utilization 33% 15% 3~5% 1% Low utilization is norm in life — e. g. cars • Average U. S. car ~12, 000 miles/year = 1. 5 miles/hour • If capacity is 75 mph, this is 2% utilization Slide 14 of 33

Things we know: Utilization is low, cont. • Snapshot of a typical 100 Mb/s Things we know: Utilization is low, cont. • Snapshot of a typical 100 Mb/s Ethernet link (Singh) Typical bursty usage (utilization = 1. 0 %) • File server link utilization (daytime) (Bennett, 2006) Conclusions (for edge links only) • Bursty • Very low average utilization Slide 15 of 33

Things we know: Edge device energy is mostly idle Core Fact: Most PC energy Things we know: Edge device energy is mostly idle Core Fact: Most PC energy use occurs when no one present All time for year sorted by power level Most of time when idle, could be asleep PC savings potential is most of current consumption Similar patterns apply to set-top boxes, for TVs, printer, … Slide 16 of 33

Things we know: Edge device energy is mostly idle, cont. • Annual energy consumption Things we know: Edge device energy is mostly idle, cont. • Annual energy consumption above idle level – Servers: < 5% – Desktop PCs: < 3% • IP phones: Active consumption < 5% of total • Set-top boxes: < 50% (probably much less; depends on defn. ) • VCRs < 50% playing or recording Slide 17 of 33

Power consumption (W) Things we know: Speed costs energy / power Routers 100000 1000 Power consumption (W) Things we know: Speed costs energy / power Routers 100000 1000 Measured power of various computer NICs (averaged) 100 Source: Christensen, 2005 10 1 0. 1 1 10 100000 10000000 Source: METI, 2006 Maximum throughput (Mbit/s) Energy cost is a function of capacity, not throughput Slide 18 of 33

Things we know: Economics matter • Most energy efficiency investments save >> first cost Things we know: Economics matter • Most energy efficiency investments save >> first cost “Not a free lunch, but one you get paid to eat”* • Rampant market failures – Split incentives between designers, purchasers … purchasers, energy cost payers … payers, users – Lack of information – Inability to use efficiency information • Business-as-usual leads to large energy waste *paraphrased from Amory Lovins Slide 19 of 33

Things we know: People (users) matter • Only reason electronics exist – Key is Things we know: People (users) matter • Only reason electronics exist – Key is to match services desired to those provided • Behavior strongly affects consumption – Reality may or may not match theory • Knowledge of preferences key to much savings Slide 20 of 33

How should we think about networks and energy? Approaches / Focus • Box – How should we think about networks and energy? Approaches / Focus • Box – AC*-powered products • Link – Capacity, usage, distance, technology • Throughput – Traffic totals, patterns, distribution • Application / Protocol – Drivers of infrastructure, nodes • Context – In-use / not, time-sensitive / not, etc. Essential to use all approaches simultaneously Slide 21 of 33

Efficiency Approaches Product Focus Network Product Focus Examples: Proxying Energy Star Need all approaches Efficiency Approaches Product Focus Network Product Focus Examples: Proxying Energy Star Need all approaches Slide 22 of 33 Interface Focus Protocol / Application Focus CE

Finding Energy Savings Opportunities Sample approaches • Relax assumptions commonly made about networks –when Finding Energy Savings Opportunities Sample approaches • Relax assumptions commonly made about networks –when feasible (rarely in core); mine wireless technology –these assumptions drive systems to peak performance • average conditions require less energy • many assumptions tied to latency • Design for average condition, not just peak –rely on data about typical use • Use Network to gather info about savings opportunities • Use Network to enable edge device savings Slide 23 of 33

Energy Efficient Ethernet Active Low-Power Tw • IEEE 802. 3 az created to standardize Energy Efficient Ethernet Active Low-Power Tw • IEEE 802. 3 az created to standardize EEE • Standards process began with Adaptive Link Rate; eventually settled on alternate method “Low Power Idle” • Stop transmitting between packets • Switch now takes microseconds • Standards process needs about 1 more year • Goal to get EEE technology into ALL Ethernet network hardware globally over next few years • Savings: >1 W/link for 1 Gb/s; >10 W/link for 10 Gb/s Slide 24 of 33 Active Quiet Wake Tr Quiet Refresh Tq Refresh Sleep Active Td Ts Quiet Active

Network Connectivity Proxying Proxy operation 1 PC awake; becomes idle Proxy 3 2 PC Network Connectivity Proxying Proxy operation 1 PC awake; becomes idle Proxy 3 2 PC transfers network presence to proxy on going to sleep 2 4 3 Proxy responds to routine network traffic for sleeping PC 4 Proxy wakes up PC as needed PC Proxy can be internal (NIC), immediately adjacent switch, or “third-party” device elsewhere on network Proxy does: ARP, DHCP, TCP, ICMP, SNMP, SIP, …. Slide 25 of 33 1 LAN or Internet

 • We ignore Consumer Electronics at our peril … Slide 26 of 33 • We ignore Consumer Electronics at our peril … Slide 26 of 33 This the CE equipment in a real house

Buildings Networks “Networking the Real World “ — The other 90% of Buildings Electricity Buildings Networks “Networking the Real World “ — The other 90% of Buildings Electricity Climate (heating, cooling, ventilation), lighting, appliances, security* • Building Network architecture not being done with sophistication and care that went into Internet design • Result may burden us with bad design for decades to come *security arguably belongs in electronics Slide 27 of 33

What is a building network? • People • Light Sources • Light modifiers • What is a building network? • People • Light Sources • Light modifiers • Thermal sources, ventilation • Displays • Sensors • Appliances Slide 28 of 33

really good What is a building network? • People • Light Sources • Light really good What is a building network? • People • Light Sources • Light modifiers • Thermal sources • Displays • Sensors • Appliances • Dynamic • Robust • Efficient Slide 29 of 33

Buildings Networks Needs • Design building networks for next century • Embrace Internet Protocol Buildings Networks Needs • Design building networks for next century • Embrace Internet Protocol and standard network tech. • Adopt goal of “Universal Interoperability” • Across building types, geography, end uses, people, time, … • Create standard “dictionary” of real world • Building elements, ideas, characteristics, actions, … • Be prepared to jettison any / all existing technology Slide 30 of 33

Collective Action • Common in electronics • Grid • Technical standards • Mechanical, electrical, Collective Action • Common in electronics • Grid • Technical standards • Mechanical, electrical, software • Essential for savings • Public policy • Technical standards • Industry consortia • Standards can mandate or prohibit efficiency features Slide 31 of 33

Summary • Common “wisdom” on electronics and energy may not be valid • No Summary • Common “wisdom” on electronics and energy may not be valid • No substitute for empirical data • Networks increasingly important • Utilization is low • Building networks a key priority Slide 32 of 33

Thank you! efficientnetworks. LBL. gov Bruce Nordman Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory BNordman@LBL. gov 510 Thank you! efficientnetworks. LBL. gov Bruce Nordman Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory [email protected] gov 510 -486 -7089 Slide 33 of 33