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SWG Competitive Project Office Introduction to IBM’s System z Platform SWG Competitive Project Office Introduction to IBM’s System z Platform

Introduction Learning Objectives- What you should Know n Introducing the Mainframe Environment u u Introduction Learning Objectives- What you should Know n Introducing the Mainframe Environment u u u What makes mainframes important for business What are some of the main qualities of the mainframe Who uses mainframes Why enterprises throughout the world rely on the mainframe as the foundation of large-scale computing The IBM System z family − The names of the current mainframes u u The operating systems supported on System z The types of workloads that are commonly associated with the mainframe. Roles and responsibilities of the skilled staff of a mainframe IT organization. Some Terminology to get you started z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 2

If I had just a few things to say about the MF… n Focus If I had just a few things to say about the MF… n Focus on RAS – Reliability, Availability, Serviceability u u n n n Security is essential and comprehensive – lots of $$$ flow through the mainframe: close to impossible to crack (unless there is a rouge system programmer) (Financial companies are the prevalent customers) Shared everything – enables resiliency and scalability Scales up and out – Better than most others u n n n Manages Mixed Workloads Evolutionary workload management Highly evolved virtualization u u n n Includes clustering technologies including ‘special’ H/W & S/W I/O bandwidth without parallel H/W and S/W built to run at 100% CPU utilization u n n Hardware and software scaling Capacity on Demand Capability Concurrent Maintenance Integrated platform – Software architects working with hardware architects to develop platform u n n MTBF design point of at least 50 years Hardware and software built to stay alive Enables efficient resource utilization Provides cost and facility reductions via consolidation It’s a Green Machine Growth on the mainframe is less expensive than growth on distributed z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 3

HARDWARE ACTING ON ITS OWN n Reliability: u n Base Design Point 40+ years HARDWARE ACTING ON ITS OWN n Reliability: u n Base Design Point 40+ years MTBF for critical failure Availability - Self Healing: u u u u u Dynamic PU Sparing (CP, IFL, ICF, SAP) Processor Availability Facility (PAF) Dynamic Memory Chip Sparing Extra I/O Port Sparing Instruction retry Error Correction Circuitry ( ECC ) for memory Concurrent Upgrade (this is upgrading capability) − Availability - Concurrent Upgrade − Processors ( CPs, ICFs, IFLs ) − Memory within card boundary − IO adapters − Network Adapters − Crypto Adapters − Coupling Cards / Links Turns down the clock if it is getting hot. . Redundancy − Two cooling units − Two thinkpads (for fixes and control) Some hardware functions are coded in millicode − Easier and cheaper to fix than circuits on a board… Did I mention Phone Home? z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 4

z. Series Hardware Availability First Error Data Capture u. Capture errors at run-time n z. Series Hardware Availability First Error Data Capture u. Capture errors at run-time n Processor u. Dual execution with compare u. Enhanced application preservation u. Transparent CP/ICF/IFL/SAP sparing u. Dynamic CPU de-allocation u. Concurrent upgrade u. Capacity backup n I/O Channels u. Concurrent install/replace u. ESCON port sparing. u. Capacity on Demand ESCON-16 ports. u. Partial I/O restart n Memory u. ECC Chip kill memory u. Memory chip sparing u. Hardware memory scrubbing u. Concurrent memory add u. Partition memory restart u. Storage protect keys u. ECC Data buses n Cache u. Cache coherency u. L 1 line delete / sparing u. ECC L 2 line/directory delete/sparing n Other u. Secondary support element u. Redundant hot plug power & cooling n z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 5

What could cause these things to happen? n n n n Your airplane might What could cause these things to happen? n n n n Your airplane might not land safely (air traffic control) Your ATM would not give you $$ (banks all over the world) There would not be any websites for the Olympics You would not find what you wanted on at the super store. (product distribution) Your email would not arrive. (manufacturing and design processes) You could not buy something online (transaction processing) You could not trade stock (database updates) Trains could not run everywhere (virtual Linux servers) servers You would not get your paycheck (payroll processing) Hospitals could not find get patient records (Patient Management() You could not get your prescription filled (legally of course) Your Fed. Ex /UPS package would not ship? (shipping and tracking of shipments) The Shuttle would not take off. The CIA would be in a panic. No one would know how fast serves are at Wimbledon! The internet would not work. Just ask Al Gore z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 6

7 th April 1964, Poughkeepsie NY n A new generation of electronic computing equipment 7 th April 1964, Poughkeepsie NY n A new generation of electronic computing equipment was introduced today by International Business Machines Corporation. IBM Board Chairman Thomas J. Watson Jr. called the event the most important product announcement in the company's history. n The new equipment is known as the IBM System/360. n "System/360 represents a sharp departure from concepts of the past in designing and building computers. It is the product of an international effort in IBM's laboratories and plants and is the first time IBM has redesigned the basic internal architecture of its computers in a decade. The result will be more computer productivity at lower cost than ever before. This is the beginning of a new generation - - not only of computers - - but of their application in business, science and government. " z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 7

Over Four Decades of Value – now entering Fifth n 40 + Batch IMS Over Four Decades of Value – now entering Fifth n 40 + Batch IMS CICS Lots of Patents S/390 z 900/z 990 VM and Virtual Storage Sysplex UPC CMOS G 5/G 6 z 800/z 890 System z 9 z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 10

It all started with the IBM 701 n Circa 1951: And proceeded through the It all started with the IBM 701 n Circa 1951: And proceeded through the 700, 1400, S/360 & 370, 303 x, 308 x, 4300, S/390 Parallel Server, to today’s e. Server z. Series z 10 z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 11

Mainframes… 44 years of growth The 3033, circa 1977 – yes, it filled a Mainframes… 44 years of growth The 3033, circa 1977 – yes, it filled a room – 4. 7 MIPS – 4, 6 or 8 MB central storage – 12 channels (up to 3 MB/sec transfer rate) (total bandwidth = 36 MB/sec) The z 10 2008 – >30, 000 MIPS – Up to 1. 5 TB Central storage – Theoretical Bandwidth Around 288 Gbps channels And customers can run most of the same apps on the z 10 as they could in 1977 on the 3033! z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 12

Notable quotable… n “I predict that the last mainframe will be unplugged on March Notable quotable… n “I predict that the last mainframe will be unplugged on March 15, 1996” u Stewart Alsop, former Info. World columnist (now at Fortune Magazine), March, 1991 Annual growth in MIPS of over 30% since 1992 More than $20 B in mainframe revenue since 1996 (when the last one was to have been unplugged…) But there have been many changes in the mainframe since 1991! Prior to the mid-90’s, mainframes were the IBM “cash cow”. Revenues are still healthy and margins high, but things have changed… z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 13

IBM Mainframe Architecture S/360 S/370 -XA ESA/370 S/390 z Architecture 4/9/1964 6/1970 1981 1988 IBM Mainframe Architecture S/360 S/370 -XA ESA/370 S/390 z Architecture 4/9/1964 6/1970 1981 1988 9/1990 10/2000 24 Bit 1 -2 Processors General Purpose Channels Multi-tasking 24 Bit 1 -2 CPUs 64 MB Storage Memory Chips Virtual Storage 24/31 Bit 1 -4 CPUs TCM Channel Subsystem Exp Storage 1 -6 CPUs PR/SM Vector Processor Crypto Processor 24/31 Bit 1 -12 CPUs EMIF Parallel Sysplex ESCON MCM FICON CMOS 24/31/64 Bit 1 -32 CPUs Hypersockets 20 XX Model 20 -195 125, 135, 145, 168, etc. 3031 -3033 31 xx 308 x 3090 9672 G 1 -G 6 z 900 & z 800 z 990 & z 890 System z 9 -109 z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 14

Shifting Trends Favor the Mainframe Again n n n n Continuous availability is even Shifting Trends Favor the Mainframe Again n n n n Continuous availability is even more important in the web world Security and compliance are top of mind Server sprawl has driven up the cost of labor TCO pressure is driving customers to consolidate workloads on virtualized platforms Network economics favor consolidation once again Cost of power is increasing Growing use of Linux IBM has delivered dramatic mainframe price reductions Improved Capacity on Demand Provisioning Make the mainframe part of your winning proposal! z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 15

The Value of Mainframe Computing þ Mainframe core business systems can be easily extended The Value of Mainframe Computing þ Mainframe core business systems can be easily extended þ Mainframes have a much lower environmental impact þ Consolidation is a proven way to save money and simplify operations þ Modern mainframe tools enable speed to value, flexibility, deployment, productivity and reduced cost þ The mainframe delivers superior qualities of continuous operations, rapid scale up, and security þ Modern mainframes leverage the latest hardware and software technology for maximum business value z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 16

Meet the IBM Mainframe n Advanced innovation u. Meeting customer needs for 40+ years Meet the IBM Mainframe n Advanced innovation u. Meeting customer needs for 40+ years n A long standing commitment to protecting our customers investment in applications u. Created the concept of upward compatibility u. Unparalleled record of delivering on this commitment n In a single environment supports multiple, diverse n workloads concurrently − Online transaction processing − Batch − UNIX workloads − Linux workloads − Web serving − CRM − ERP n 490 of the Fortune 500 rely on IBM mainframes u. Financial institutions u. Municipal, state, and u. Retailers u. Manufacturing federal governments IBM z 10 z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 17

Why mainframes? n Capacity & performance u Cost per MIPS is meaningless − MIPS Why mainframes? n Capacity & performance u Cost per MIPS is meaningless − MIPS cost on distributed much cheaper − Commercial workloads are data-intensive, not processor-intensive − Distributed systems are “data poor” − Much processing is done outboard from the actual “CPU” (e. g. RISC in I/O subsystem) n Superior multitasking & Multiprocessing Mixed workloads on mainframe, single workloads on distributed u 100% CPU utilization on mainframes is normal, but fatal on distributed systems u n Personnel costs No “end-user maintenance” on mainframes u Mainframes take more support personnel, but costs have declined considerably u n Data integrity & security is built in n Scalability u Parallel Sysplex u Availability (“ 5 Nines”) z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 19

Mainframe facts Who uses mainframes? u Most Fortune 1000 companies use a mainframe environment Mainframe facts Who uses mainframes? u Most Fortune 1000 companies use a mainframe environment u 60% of all data available on the Internet is stored on mainframe computers n Why mainframes? u Large-scale transaction processing − Thousands of transactions per second u Support thousands of users and application programs u Simultaneously accessing /sharing resources u Terabytes of information in databases u Large-bandwidth communications n n There are more CICS transactions processed daily than Web pages served z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 20

How are Mainframes Different from Distributed n Mainframes run at 100% CPU utilization by How are Mainframes Different from Distributed n Mainframes run at 100% CPU utilization by design u n Mainframes run multiple workloads at the same time u n Distributed systems traditionally have a ‘floor life’ of 3 – 5 years before upgrades. Mainframe software is architected with the hardware in mind, and the hardware is architected with the software in mind u n Distributed system do not have the aggregated recovery capability like the mainframe Mainframes have been in use for 10 years or more at accounts u n Distributed cannot match the bandwidth without incurring power, space, cooling issues Mainframes have significant technology to maintain continuous availability using both hardware and software error correction and retries u n Distributed workload management is not as well evolved Mainframes have high I/O bandwidth to support batch and transactions loads u n Distributed clustering is usually done through software enablement Mainframes have goal oriented workload management optimized through hardware and software u n Distributed has single node applications Mainframes have specific hardware to enable clustering u n Distributed systems usually run 60% at the most Distributed software is generally commodity based and is not usually optimized in conjunction with hardware architects Incremental upgrades on the mainframe are usually at a lower cost than like deployments on distributed platforms. u Distributed platforms are not as extensible as the mainframe. Extensibility is built into the mainframe z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 21

Is Distributed that Bad? - NO n Different architectures are optimized in different ways Is Distributed that Bad? - NO n Different architectures are optimized in different ways u Intel/Windows optimized for low hardware-acquisition costs u Unix/RISC optimized for compute performance u z. Series optimized for maximum throughput − The z 10 Changes this with the 4. 4 GHz and quad cores n z. Series processors have very efficient memory structure with very rapid access to shared cache u n Permits efficient context switching and virtualization Other differences u I/O handling is a z. Series strength u Processors dedicated to I/O − Also contributes to RAS z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 22

Optimizing Workloads on a Mainframe is more effective IBM Mainframes: Up to 100% Utilization Optimizing Workloads on a Mainframe is more effective IBM Mainframes: Up to 100% Utilization – Highly virtualized and shared resources – “hands off”, business priority driven intelligent workload management – Fewer servers, less power, cooling & admin – Optimized use of SW assets UNIX processors: typically under 25% utilization – More of them and more SW license – Static scripted workload management – Higher admin and environmental cost – Intel worse, typically <10% utilization Baldor Electric, Arkansas ‘Baldor migrated to a z 990 in January, and consolidated Unix-based servers onto a single IBM z 990, or "T-Rex, " with 24 separate, secure partitions on Linux and z/OS. According to (Baldor Electric IS director Mark) Shackleford, this has allowed Baldor to increase application performance by 40% and cut IT expenditures from 1. 7% of total sales to 1. 2%. He expects to get that figure under 1% by the end of 2005. From “Tech Target August 2005 z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 23

What determines system capacity? There's more to performance than just processing power Single system What determines system capacity? There's more to performance than just processing power Single system capacity is determined by: Processor speed Memory hierarchy I/O structure CPU Busy CPU Time I/O Busy Memory Time I/O Time Processor, memory, and I/O times vary greatly by application, and by machine type z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 24

Relative single-system capacity There's more to performance than just processing power CPU Busy CPU Relative single-system capacity There's more to performance than just processing power CPU Busy CPU Time Memory Time I/O Time z. Series CPU Busy CPU Time Memory Time I/O Time Others Data intensive workloads like large databases, transaction processing, object oriented code and context switching potentially run better on z. Series servers. z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 25

Relative single-system capacity There's more to performance than just processing power Workloads that do Relative single-system capacity There's more to performance than just processing power Workloads that do not require "balanced" computing, and rely solely on processor power will most likely perform better on other architectures CPU Busy CPU Time Memory Time I/O Time z. Series CPU Busy CPU Time Memory Time I/O Time Others Processor intensive workloads like SPECint, Deep Computing, Graphic Rendering perform poorly on z. Series servers. z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 26

Why the z ? http: //www. ibm. com/systems/z/ n It used to be OS/390 Why the z ? http: //www. ibm. com/systems/z/ n It used to be OS/390 for the software and S/390 for the hardware. u Now it is z/OS and z. Series for the S/W and H/W. u The z (make sure it is lower case) stand for zero down time. − The hardware has a targeted MTBF of ~50 years. − This re-branding took place in October 2000. IBM called its S/W and H/W offerings e. Servers. n IBM re-branded all it’s systems; there is the i. Series, p. Series and x. Series too. u i. Series was the AS/400 - A mid range system with a proprietary operating system u p. Series was the RS 6000 – A RISC system with IBM’s AIX operating system u x. Series was the Netfinity system – An X 86 based system for z. CPO Windows and Linux z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 27

A BIG DEAL IS WHEN MONEY IS INVOLVED n CUSTOMERS n IT CANNOT TOLERATE A BIG DEAL IS WHEN MONEY IS INVOLVED n CUSTOMERS n IT CANNOT TOLERATE DOWN TIME!! COSTS >>>>>> z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 28

Why we need Mainframes (this data is not from mainframes) Date Duration Cause February Why we need Mainframes (this data is not from mainframes) Date Duration Cause February 7 FEBRUARY 13 16 22 23 24 26 27 March 3 29 April 25 30 May 3 7 90 minutes 2 hours 2. 5 hours 1 hour 30 minutes 2 hours 30 minutes 1 hour 2 hours 1 hour 90 minutes 5 hours 1 hour Hardware failure (system board) Hardware failure (memory) Hardware failure (SCSI card) System crash Software problems Hardware failure (system board) Memory & I/O problems System crash I/O subsystem problems Hardware failure (system board) Software problems z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 29

Why we need Mainframes (this data is not from mainframes) Unplanned Outages are Bad Why we need Mainframes (this data is not from mainframes) Unplanned Outages are Bad for Business Date Duration Cause February 7 FEBRUARY 13 16 22 23 24 26 27 March 3 29 April 25 30 May 3 7 90 minutes 2 hours 2. 5 hours 1 hour 30 minutes 2 hours 30 minutes 1 hour 2 hours 1 hour 90 minutes 5 hours 1 hour Hardware failure (system board) Hardware failure (memory) Hardware failure (SCSI card) System crash Software problems Hardware failure (system board) Memory & I/O problems System crash I/O subsystem problems Hardware failure (system board) Software problems z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 30

And Outages cost BIG BUCKS Representative examples of cost of one hour Web outage* And Outages cost BIG BUCKS Representative examples of cost of one hour Web outage* *Lost revenues based on customer lifetime value (CLV). Outage during peak hours. Source: International Technology Group z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 31

What would happen If all the mainframes suddenly stopped? n n n n Your What would happen If all the mainframes suddenly stopped? n n n n Your airplane might not land safely (air traffic control) Your ATM would not give you $$ (banks all over the world) There would not be any websites for the Olympics You would not find what you wanted on at the super store. (product distribution) Your email would not arrive. (manufacturing and design processes) You could not buy something online (transaction processing) You could not trade stock (database updates) Trains could not run everywhere (virtual Linux servers) servers You would not get your paycheck (payroll processing) Hospitals could not find get patient records (Patient Management() You could not get your prescription filled (legally of course) Your Fed. Ex /UPS package would not ship? (shipping and tracking of shipments) The Shuttle would not take off. The CIA would be in a panic. No one would know how fast serves are at Wimbledon! The internet would not work. Just ask Al Gore z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 32

Ain't Your Grandpa's Mainframe n It's A SERVER n HEY, it’s an SMP n Ain't Your Grandpa's Mainframe n It's A SERVER n HEY, it’s an SMP n It’s a CLUSTER n It’s 64 bit architecture (16 Exabytes worth) n Up to 64 Processors in a server n Up to 60 images in a server n Hot plugging n CPU Sparing n Isolates Memory Errors n Capacity On Demand (Co. D) n Customer Initiated Upgrade (CUI) n Capacity Back. Up (CBU) n Service Download off the Internet n GOT FIBER n GOT JAVA (Really Good Java) n LINUX RUNS on the Hardware n HAS “imbedded” Branded UNIX System n GOT WEBSERVING n HAS TCP/IP n Supports UNICODE, ASCII and EBCDIC n TALK about SECURITY u. LDAP, PKI, Kerberos, Digital Certificates, u. CRYPTO Co. Processors, Key Vaults, MAC Digests, u. TRIPLE DES, VPN z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN . . and it’s Green 33

IBM “Big Green” Messages / System z n Energy efficiency is a global issue IBM “Big Green” Messages / System z n Energy efficiency is a global issue with significant impact today — and will have an even greater impact in the future IBM Project Big Green is defining leadership in data center energy efficiency Real solutions are available today We are deploying these capabilities with our clients and within IBM How to get started n System z Green message: n n Ø System z is a key technology for energy efficiency ØEnergy Efficient design + architecture ØHighest Utilization rates ØWorld’s best virtualization z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 34

Distributed Power Costs Have Become a Major Issue n According to the Wall Street Distributed Power Costs Have Become a Major Issue n According to the Wall Street Journal, distributed server farms can generate as much as 3, 800 watts per square foot (up from 250 in 1992) u u u By comparison, a System z 9 consumes 107 -312 watts per square foot – one tenth or less the amount Turning on an IFL processor consumes 75 additional watts Cooling cost is roughly an additional 60% of the power cost n More than half of all serious outages are now caused by power problems* u Room temperatures averaging 92ºF lead to erratic machine behavior n Aside from cost, some data centers can’t obtain additional power from their providers *Source: recent AFCOM survey of 200 z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 35

IBM System z: Balanced System Design System I/O Bandwidth Balanced System CPU, n. Way, IBM System z: Balanced System Design System I/O Bandwidth Balanced System CPU, n. Way, Memory, I/O Bandwidth* 172. 8 GB/sec 96 GB/sec 24 GB/sec GBs 512 GB 256 GB 64 GB 288. 15 450 ~ 600 ITRs for 1 -way 16 -way 32 -way System z 9 EC* z. Series 990 54 -way CPUs *z 9 EC exploits a subset of its designed I/O capability z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN z. Series 900 Generation 6 Generation 5 36

IBM System z: System Design Comparison System I/O Bandwidth Balanced System CPU, n. Way, IBM System z: System Design Comparison System I/O Bandwidth Balanced System CPU, n. Way, Memory, I/O Bandwidth* 288 GB/sec* 172. 8 GB/sec* 96 GB/sec Memory 1. 5 TB** ITR for 1 -way 24 GB/sec 512 GB 256 GB 64 GB 300 450 ~920 ~600 16 -way 32 -way z 10 EC z 9 EC 54 -way *Servers exploit a subset of its designed I/O capability ** Up to 1 TB per LPAR 64 -way Processors z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN z. Series 990 z. Series 900 37

IBM System z 10 EC Quick Reference z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe IBM System z 10 EC Quick Reference z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 38

IBM System z 10 EC Naming Summary Brand Name: IBM Product Class: IBM mainframe IBM System z 10 EC Naming Summary Brand Name: IBM Product Class: IBM mainframe Family Name: IBM System z Family Short Name: System z* Product Line Name: IBM System z 10 Product Line Short Name: System z 10* Model Names (Short Names): IBM System z 10 Enterprise Class (z 10 EC or System z 10 EC)** z 10 EC Configs: E 12, E 26, E 40, E 56, E 64 * Please note, “IBM” can be dropped only after first usage of full family or product line name. ** When using short name, NEVER use EC without z 10 preceding it. Short names may NOT appear on nameplate of hardware and can only be used after first usage of full formal names within content and collateral. z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 39

IBM z 10 EC Continues the CMOS Mainframe Heritage 4000 4. 4 GHz 3500 IBM z 10 EC Continues the CMOS Mainframe Heritage 4000 4. 4 GHz 3500 3000 1. 7 GHz MHz 2500 2000 770 MHz 1500 420 MHz 1997 G 4 1000 300 MHz 1998 G 5 1. 2 GHz 550 MHz 500 0 1999 G 6 2000 z 900 2003 z 990 2005 z 9 EC 2008 z 10 EC G 4 - 1 st full-custom CMOS S/390® z 900 - Full 64 -bit z/Architecture® z 10 EC – Architectural G 5 - IEEE-standard BFP; branch target prediction z 990 - Superscalar CISC pipeline extensions G 6 – Copper Technology (Cu BEOL) z 9 EC - System level scaling z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 40

Does GHz matter? n GHz does matter u It is the Does GHz matter? n GHz does matter u It is the "rising tide that lifts all boats" u It is especially important for CPU-intensive applications n GHz is not the only dimension that matters u System z focus is on balanced system design across many factors − Frequency, pipeline efficiency, energy efficiency, cache / memory design, I/O design n System performance is not linear with frequency u Need to use LSPR + System z capacity planning tools for real client / workload sizing n System z has been on consistent path while others have oscillated between extremes u Growing frequency steadily, with occasional jumps/step functions (G 4 in 1997, z 10 in 2008) n z 10 leverages technology to get the most out of high-frequency design u Low-latency pipeline u Dense packaging (MCM) allows MRU cooling which yields more power-efficient operation u Virtualization technology (etc. ) allows consistent performance at high utilization, which makes CPU power-efficiency a much smaller part of the system/data-center power consumption picture z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 41

2008+ What do businesses need from their Infrastructure? IT is critical to the business, 2008+ What do businesses need from their Infrastructure? IT is critical to the business, it needs to be there. . . Always Resiliency is a must Opening IT to sophisticated users attracts sophisticated danger. . . viruses, hackers, theft Security is a must Maximizing return on investment by maximizing utilization of IT resources Intelligent virtualization is a must With complex infrastructures, need to be able to control and manage resources Advanced systems management is a must As IT becomes more of a commodity, people become the largest part of IT budgets Advanced automation is a must Having high capacity is needed to support the biggest applications or hundreds of smaller applications Scalability is a must As clients strive to integrate the infrastructure, open standards become the key to success Linux, Java™, Web. Sphere® are a must One final thought It needs to be affordable! z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 42

Mainframes in our midst n n n Mainframes: Are prevalent, yet hidden from public Mainframes in our midst n n n Mainframes: Are prevalent, yet hidden from public eye Not often publicized – stable, reliable, dependable. Contrast with other forms of computing, such as PCs. Present opportunities for college graduates in a variety of technical fields. z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 44

What is a mainframe? A mainframe is a computing system that businesses use to What is a mainframe? A mainframe is a computing system that businesses use to host the commercial databases, transaction servers, and applications that require a greater degree of security and availability than is commonly found on smaller-scale machines. n The power of a mainframe provides computing speed and capacity, enabling it to perform high volumes of processing. n The mainframe can process a mixed workload of jobs from different time zones and of different types. n z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 45

Mainframe facts Who uses mainframes? u Most Fortune 1000 companies use a mainframe environment Mainframe facts Who uses mainframes? u Most Fortune 1000 companies use a mainframe environment u 60% of all data available on the Internet is stored on mainframe computers n Why mainframes? u Large-scale transaction processing − Thousands of transactions per second u Support thousands of users and application programs u Simultaneously accessing resources u Terabytes of information in databases u Large-bandwidth communications n There are more CICS transactions processed daily than Web pages served n z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 46

System z 9 BC and EC Comparison IBM System z 9 BC (2096) n System z 9 BC and EC Comparison IBM System z 9 BC (2096) n n n Server with 8 PUs 2 models – Up to 4 -way High levels of Granularity u IBM System z 9 EC (2094) n n n 73 Capacity Indicators Server with up to 64 PUs 5 models – Up to 54 -way Granular Offerings for up to 8 CPs n Memory – up to 64 GB n Memory – up to 512 GB n I/O u u u n Two LCSSs Up to 420 ESCON channels Up to 112 FICON channels Enhanced FICON Express 2 4 Gbps u Hiper. Sockets – up to 16 u Up to 30 logical partitions u u u n Four LCSSs Up to 1024 ESCON channels Up to 336 FICON channels Enhanced FICON Express 2 and 4 Hiper. Sockets – up to 16 Up to 60 logical partitions z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 47

Z 890 MAINFRAME MODEL 2086 Z 800 (MODEL 2066) z. CPO z. Class Introducing Z 890 MAINFRAME MODEL 2086 Z 800 (MODEL 2066) z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 48

z 890 – Single Hardware Model (announced 7 th of April, 2004) n Machine z 890 – Single Hardware Model (announced 7 th of April, 2004) n Machine Type u 2086 n n Model A 04 with a Single Book One MCM per Model with: u 5 Processing Units (PUs) u 4 PUs available for characterization as Central Processors (CPs), Integrated Facility for Linux (IFLs), Internal Coupling Facility (ICFs), and z. AAPs u 1 standard SAP u No standard spares n Memory - System Level: u Up to 32 GB u Single card (8, 16 or 32 GB) u System minimum of 8 GB u 8 GB increments (8, 16, 24, 32 GB) u One concurrent memory upgrade path (24 to 32 GB) n I/O: u 8 Self-Timed Interfaces (STIs) @ 2. 0 GB/s each u Up to 512 CHPIDs and up to 420 Channels in I/O Cage (dependent on Channel types) u Max 2 Logical Channel Sub. Systems (LCSSs) z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 49

Minimum Operating System Support Levels for z 890 z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Minimum Operating System Support Levels for z 890 z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 50

z 89 x upgrade to z 990 / System z 9 z. CPO z. z 89 x upgrade to z 990 / System z 9 z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 51

Typical mainframe workloads z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 52 Typical mainframe workloads z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 52

Typical batch use z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 53 Typical batch use z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 53

Typical online use z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 54 Typical online use z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 54

Roles in the mainframe world z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN Roles in the mainframe world z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 55

Jobs are US n n n n n System Programmer Security Administrator Performance analyst Jobs are US n n n n n System Programmer Security Administrator Performance analyst Network Administrator DBA (Data. Base Administrators) u CICS, DB 2, IMS, … Application Developers u Java, COBOL, C++, Assembler Language, REXX, FORTRAN… I/O Specialist Workload Scheduler Change Control Liaisons for Clients z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 56

Operating Systems on the Mainframe n z/OS u The flagship z. Series/z 9 operating Operating Systems on the Mainframe n z/OS u The flagship z. Series/z 9 operating system u Ultra-high reliability – over 50% of the OS is dedicated to error recovery! z/VM u Run any z. Series/z 9 operating system as a “guest” – similar to VMWare, but on a large scale! u Sometimes used for application development n Linux for z. Series & z 10 u A native Unix operating system for z. Series & z 10 u z. Linux is already trademarked, so we can’t call it that… n z/VSE u Small- to mid-size 390 customers u Most often used on very small 390 hardware n z/TPF u Primarily for very high transaction rate, specialized applications (airline z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 57 scheduling) n

Mainframe Operating System Heritage n OS/360 -> OS/VS -> MVS/SP -> MVS/XA -> MVS/ESA Mainframe Operating System Heritage n OS/360 -> OS/VS -> MVS/SP -> MVS/XA -> MVS/ESA -> OS/390 -> z/OS n DOS/360 -> DOS/VS -> VSE/SP -> VSE/ESA -> z/VSE n ACP -> TPF-> z/TPF n TPF is the platform driving the business-critical systems for many of IBM's largest and most sophisticated users of online transaction processing - airlines, railroads, hotels, financial services, government, credit card and banking industries. n CP/67 -> VM/370 -> VM/SP -> VM/XA -> VM/ESA -> z/VM z/OS is IBM’s premier z. Series operating system, is a highly secure, scalable, high-performance enterprise operating system on which to build and deploy traditional and Java-enabled applications, providing a comprehensive and diverse application execution environment. VSE enables proven, robust, and cost-effective solutions. VSE provides sturdy batch and industrial strength on-line transaction processing (CICS) capabilities. VSE can fit comfortably into a legacy of thrifty, dependable VSE solutions. z/VM provides a highly flexible test and production environment for enterprises deploying the latest e-business solutions. z/VM helps enterprises meet their growing demands for multi-user server solutions with support for a broad range of operating systems. z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 58

n n The New Mainframe Thank you for being a z. Scholar z. CPO n n The New Mainframe Thank you for being a z. Scholar z. CPO z. Class Introducing the Mainframe Environment VN 59