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Sustainable Hotel Design Presentation 3 Supply Analysis Group 5 Sustainable Hotel Design Presentation 3 Supply Analysis Group 5

Previous Presentations • 1 st presentation –Site analysis –Site Selection • 2 nd presentation Previous Presentations • 1 st presentation –Site analysis –Site Selection • 2 nd presentation –Passive design –Demand reduction

Where We Are Now North 1 st level Ground level • Site C • Where We Are Now North 1 st level Ground level • Site C • Initial Building Design

Our Aims for This Presentation • Supply analysis – Water – Electricity – Heat Our Aims for This Presentation • Supply analysis – Water – Electricity – Heat – Gas

Electricity Demand Lighting Catering Ventilation Cooling Equipment Swimming pool GSHP Other Total k. Wh Electricity Demand Lighting Catering Ventilation Cooling Equipment Swimming pool GSHP Other Total k. Wh per year 40, 880 26, 864 5, 840 2, 336 5, 840 17, 520 30, 000 5, 840 135, 120

Heat and Gas Demand Heat Demand k. Wh per year Space Heating Hot water Heat and Gas Demand Heat Demand k. Wh per year Space Heating Hot water Swimming pool 186, 880 70, 080 35, 040 Total 292, 000 Gas Demand Catering k. Wh per year 46, 720

The Result • 62% less electrical energy than an average hotel • 13% less The Result • 62% less electrical energy than an average hotel • 13% less combustion fuel than an average hotel

Water Storage (Full Capacity) l/day Cold water Hot water 11, 000 12, 000 l/year Water Storage (Full Capacity) l/day Cold water Hot water 11, 000 12, 000 l/year Swimming pool 225, 000

Water Supply Possible Supply Sources • • Stream Scottish Water Rainwater collection Greywater collection Water Supply Possible Supply Sources • • Stream Scottish Water Rainwater collection Greywater collection

Reclaimed Water • Greywater Storage – Toilet flushing 3 days – Car washing • Reclaimed Water • Greywater Storage – Toilet flushing 3 days – Car washing • Rainwater 20 days – Toilet flushing – Car washing – Plant watering – Laundry

Reclaimed Water • Rainwater Yield = Collection Area x Average Annual Rainwater Yield x Reclaimed Water • Rainwater Yield = Collection Area x Average Annual Rainwater Yield x Run-off coefficient x fractional collector efficiency = 1530 m^2 x 2277. 8 mm x 0. 8 = 2, 230, 422 litres/year = 6, 111 litres/day • Greywater Yield = bathroom use in morning x no. of people = 80 litres x 70 = 5, 600 litres/day (full capacity)

Reclaimed Water • Total Reclaimed Water = 11, 711 litres • 55 wcs – Reclaimed Water • Total Reclaimed Water = 11, 711 litres • 55 wcs – 180 litres storage per wc/day = 9, 900 litres

Supply Systems • Power – Wind – Small scale hydro – Photovoltaics • Heat Supply Systems • Power – Wind – Small scale hydro – Photovoltaics • Heat – Ground source heat pumps – Solar thermal collectors • Combined Heat and Power – Biomass

Justifying CHP • Sustainable design- reduced emissions • Matches hotel demand profile well • Justifying CHP • Sustainable design- reduced emissions • Matches hotel demand profile well • Efficient + cost effective • Secure and reliable supply

Justifying Biomass • ‘Carbon Neutral’ Process • Can be self sufficient or locally sourced Justifying Biomass • ‘Carbon Neutral’ Process • Can be self sufficient or locally sourced • Lesser transport requirements (compared against fossil fuels) • Encouraged by government and council

Operation/installation Strategies • Integration with other technologies: PV, Hydro, boiler. Hydro GSHP PVT Pool Operation/installation Strategies • Integration with other technologies: PV, Hydro, boiler. Hydro GSHP PVT Pool CHP Boilers

Economics • Heat/Power ratio 4: 1 • 1. 5 kg/k. Whe • Wood Chip Economics • Heat/Power ratio 4: 1 • 1. 5 kg/k. Whe • Wood Chip market value £ 40/tonne • Fuel price = 6. 0 p/k. Whe • O+M = 1. 5 p/k. Whe • Total Price = 7. 5 p/k. Whe

Power Requirements • Electrical Demand- Limiting factor • • • Power Req. = 55 Power Requirements • Electrical Demand- Limiting factor • • • Power Req. = 55 MWh Operational period 8000 h/yr CHP size = 15 k. We Price = £ 1275/k. W Total = £ 19 125

Simple Price analysis • Electricity produced = 55 MWh • Value of electricity = Simple Price analysis • Electricity produced = 55 MWh • Value of electricity = £ 3500 • Heat produced • Value of heat = 220 MWh = £ 4000 • Savings per annum = £ 3750 • Cost of CHP = £ 19125 • Payback period = 5. 1 years

Bruce Henry Renewable supply options for the hotel • Wave and tidal energy • Bruce Henry Renewable supply options for the hotel • Wave and tidal energy • Solar resource • Wind resource • Hydro resource

Wave/Tidal Power • Discount waves and tidal as: – The bay is sheltered, cost Wave/Tidal Power • Discount waves and tidal as: – The bay is sheltered, cost for cabling – Expensive – Unreliable –Industry is in its infancy

Comparison of devices • k. Wh/m 2/year Gives an idea of power size ratio Comparison of devices • k. Wh/m 2/year Gives an idea of power size ratio • £ per k. Wh/year Give an idea of instillation cost and payback period

Solar power • Photovoltaic devices • Insolation 2 k. Wh/m²/day (efficiency of 18%) • Solar power • Photovoltaic devices • Insolation 2 k. Wh/m²/day (efficiency of 18%) • 130 k. Wh/m²/year • Approx £ 900/m 2 • £ 6. 16 per k. Wh/year • 25 years

Wind Resource α = 1/7 Vmean=6. 2 ms-1 Pmean=279. 8 W/m 2 Pbetz=165. 1 Wind Resource α = 1/7 Vmean=6. 2 ms-1 Pmean=279. 8 W/m 2 Pbetz=165. 1 W/m 2 Total available to wind turbines = 1446 k. Wh/m 2 per year

Vertical axis wind turbine Rating: 6000 W Frontal area = 5 x 3 m Vertical axis wind turbine Rating: 6000 W Frontal area = 5 x 3 m 11, 000 k. Wh per year (733 k. Wh/m 2) Cost: £ 30, 000 £ 2. 72 per k. Wh for year

Ducted Wind Turbine • Size of device with is 1. 5 m x 1 Ducted Wind Turbine • Size of device with is 1. 5 m x 1 m • Hence for these devices (735. 3 k. Wh/m 2) • Power coefficients of about 0. 3 have been achieved for a 0. 5 meter diameter. • Cost is approx £ 800 • £ 1. 08 per k. Wh/year

Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine 600 Watt wind turbine/generator £ 1, 845 Diameter 2. 55 Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine 600 Watt wind turbine/generator £ 1, 845 Diameter 2. 55 m Output 450 k. Wh/m 2 Total 2300 k. Wh – £ 0. 80 per k. Wh per year 1500 Watt wind turbine/generator £ 3, 655 Diameter 3. 5 m Output 769 k. Wh/m 2 Total 7400 k. Wh£ 0. 49 per k. Wh per year 6000 Watt wind turbine/generator £ 7, 765 Diameter 5. 5 m Output 816 k. Wh/m 2 Total 19400 k. Wh£ 0. 40 per k. Wh per year 15000 Watt wind turbine/generator £ 14, 900 Diameter 9 m Output 762 k. Wh/m 2 Total 48500 k. Wh£ 0. 31 per k. Wh per year

Micro Hydro • Water 800 times denser than air, • Constant power source • Micro Hydro • Water 800 times denser than air, • Constant power source • Single nozzle version for heads from 34 metres and power output of 8 k. W. Flow requirement 40 l/sec • £ 20 K estimated, 70 MWh per year available • £ 0. 28 per k. Wh/year

Summary Summary

Summary Micro hydro will be used to meet as much of the supply demand Summary Micro hydro will be used to meet as much of the supply demand as possible. (70 MWh/year) Proven 1500 w turbines will make up difference. (14. 8 MWh/year) Total cost of installation = £ 27. 5 K Batteries will be incorporated to store power from the turbines

Solar Thermal Heating • NW Scotland - produce around 300 k. W. h per Solar Thermal Heating • NW Scotland - produce around 300 k. W. h per m² annually. • Building orientation - little defect on output within 45 degrees of south. Optimum tilt 33 degrees, little defect 15 degrees either way (pitch of roof). • Solar collectors cost from £ 300 -£ 700 per m². 2 -4 m² typical domestic system costs around £ 3000 and delivers around 1000 k. W. h per year meeting around half hot water demand. • Pumped indirect system would be the most effective to install and would prevent freezing. • Could possibly be used for space heating, water heating and heating the swimming pool.

Solar Thermal Space Heating Solar Thermal Underfloor Heating Seasonal Performance: • Summer around 4 Solar Thermal Space Heating Solar Thermal Underfloor Heating Seasonal Performance: • Summer around 4 k. Wh/m² (daily average) • Winter around 1 k. Wh/m² (daily average) Space heating requires large collector areas to supply heat in winter when it is needed most. (200 -300 m² for hotel)

Solar Thermal Water Heating • Used to preheat hot water for CHP, large collector Solar Thermal Water Heating • Used to preheat hot water for CHP, large collector area required to cope with high hot water demand • Collector area required to be larger than half the swimming pool to heat it (would cost around £ 30 k)

Ground Source Heat Pump • A 20 k. W heat pump would be required Ground Source Heat Pump • A 20 k. W heat pump would be required to provide 100 000 k. Wh per year • Cost around £ 12 000 • Provides 1/3 of hotels heating • Ground temperature relatively constant around 11°C (sea temperature varies 5 - 14 °C annually). Efficiency drops when temperature drops in winter, when it is needed most.

Ground Source Heat Pump • COP of 3 - needing around 7 k. W Ground Source Heat Pump • COP of 3 - needing around 7 k. W electrical input • Underfloor heating gives a higher COP as it works at a lower temperature (30 -35°C) however radiators (50°C )give individual occupant control in bedrooms. • Space available around site to dig a trench to lay horizontal ground arrays (cheaper than a borehole). • GSHP connected to either five 50 m closed loop horizontal ground arrays or a 200 m trench for a spiral horizontal array.

Heating Supply Conclusions • Solar thermal heating - not cost effective, require large collector Heating Supply Conclusions • Solar thermal heating - not cost effective, require large collector areas and expensive capital costs to meet 100 000 k. Wh annual demand. • GSHP – more financially viable for meeting heating demand. Require top up heating from CHP if radiators are to be used, resulting in a lower COP.

Meeting Demand (k. Wh) Electrical Supply (k. Wh) Wind = 14 800 Hydro = Meeting Demand (k. Wh) Electrical Supply (k. Wh) Wind = 14 800 Hydro = 70 000 CHP = 55 000 Total = 135 120 Total = 139 800 Heating GSHP = 100 000 CHP = 220 000 Total = 292 000 Total = 320 000

Thank You for Listening Any Questions ? Thank You for Listening Any Questions ?