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Sustainability in Action ENGR 10 Introduction to Engineering http: //www. plu. edu/sustainability/Resources/home. php Sustainability in Action ENGR 10 Introduction to Engineering http: //www. plu. edu/sustainability/Resources/home. php

Quick Review Sustainability – A Definition o Quick Review Sustainability – A Definition o "sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. " (Our Common Future, Brundtland Commission of the United Nations, 1987)

Three Dimensions of Sustainability Three Dimensions of Sustainability

Sustainability in our own actions Water Footprint Carbon Footprint Sustainability in our own actions Water Footprint Carbon Footprint

A Measure of Water Sustainability o Water footprint Water required to sustain a population A Measure of Water Sustainability o Water footprint Water required to sustain a population o Virtual Water Volume of water required to produce a commodity or service

Our Water Footprint Sufficient > 1700 m 3 per year Water stress 1000 - Our Water Footprint Sufficient > 1700 m 3 per year Water stress 1000 - 1700 m 3 Scarcity 500 - 1000 m 3 Extreme scarcity < 500 m 3

Annual per capita water needs for food to cover 2500 kcal a day 20% Annual per capita water needs for food to cover 2500 kcal a day 20% meat: theoretical 680 m 3 actual 1200 - 1500 m 3 Vegetarian: theoretical 250 m 3 actual 500 - 1000 m 3 From Zehnder et al. 2003

Contribution of different crops global water footprint (Hoekstra and Chapagain, 2007) VWC = 1334 Contribution of different crops global water footprint (Hoekstra and Chapagain, 2007) VWC = 1334 m 3/ton VWC = 2291 m 3/ton Question: Why are we growing rice in California?

Carbon Footprint o o Measurement of all greenhouse gases caused by person, organization, event, Carbon Footprint o o Measurement of all greenhouse gases caused by person, organization, event, or product Units - tons (or kg) of CO 2 equivalent

Typical Carbon Footprint http: //www. carbonfootprint. com/carbonfootprint. html Typical Carbon Footprint http: //www. carbonfootprint. com/carbonfootprint. html

Carbon Footprint A family of four all eating one cheeseburger a week for a Carbon Footprint A family of four all eating one cheeseburger a week for a year: The emissions (2, 225 lb [1, 007 kg]) > energy required to operate the refrigerator for a year From http: //www. coolcuisine. org/carbon-emissions

Think about what you eat o o o o How far do I travel Think about what you eat o o o o How far do I travel to buy food & how do I get there? How much food am I buying—will I eat it all? Am I buying plant based or animal based food? Geographically, where is my food coming from? How processed is my food? What kind of packaging is used for my food? How am I disposing of the food and packaging waste? http: //www. coolcuisine. org/book

Vampire Appliances o Still consume energy even when “off” http: //standby. lbl. gov/ Vampire Appliances o Still consume energy even when “off” http: //standby. lbl. gov/

Other easy personal actions o Waste n n n o Buy products with less Other easy personal actions o Waste n n n o Buy products with less packaging Don’t buy bottled water – bring your own Use less toxic cleaning materials (library uses vinegar) Energy n n Turn your computer off when not in use Unplug the charger or appliance (Only 5% of the power drawn by a cell phone charger is used to charge the phone. The other 95% is wasted when it is left plugged into the wall. ) n n Take public transit Purchase sustainable energy

Sustainability at SJSU LEED Building Design Collaborating with Public Transit Sustainability at SJSU LEED Building Design Collaborating with Public Transit

King Library Lighting project $180 K savings per year o o o o Occupancy King Library Lighting project $180 K savings per year o o o o Occupancy sensors in the book stacks Spectrally enhanced (5000 K) light (Watts reduced from 39 to 21) Combined 5000 K light with existing, warmer color temperature light Retrofitted common, inefficient ceiling fixtures Reduced building electricity consumption by 22% Reduced building cooling load Maintenance savings

(http: //www. sjsu. edu/fdo/docs/sustainability_at_fdo_presentation_102109. pdf) (http: //www. sjsu. edu/fdo/docs/sustainability_at_fdo_presentation_102109. pdf)

(http: //www. sjsu. edu/fdo/docs/sustainability_at_fdo_presentation_102109. pdf) (http: //www. sjsu. edu/fdo/docs/sustainability_at_fdo_presentation_102109. pdf)

Waste Diversion at SJSU Green Waste Recovery (2008) Waste is sorted, and every recyclable Waste Diversion at SJSU Green Waste Recovery (2008) Waste is sorted, and every recyclable or compostable item is pulled out and processed, with very little waste actually sent to landfill: n n n n 2004 = 59. 4% 2005 = 50. 0% 2006 = 59. 2% 2007 = 68. 3% 2008 = 85. 8% 2009 = 88. 6% 2010 = 88. 4%

Actions on Campus - Examples o Spartan Shops n n o o o 100% Actions on Campus - Examples o Spartan Shops n n o o o 100% of used cooking oil recycled to create biodiesel for vehicles like school buses and trucks Compostable/biodegradable cups, lids, and straws Tableware composed of 100% post-industrial recycled fiber products Use locally grown produce when available AS Computer Service Center in Student Union Computer Lab has e-waste drop off site Converting landscaping to low water plants Recycled water for toilets and landscaping

Some Sustainable Design Principles o o o o Low-impact materials: non-toxic, sustainably produced or Some Sustainable Design Principles o o o o Low-impact materials: non-toxic, sustainably produced or recycled materials which require little energy to process Energy efficiency: use manufacturing processes and produce products which require less energy Quality and durability: longer-lasting and better-functioning products Design for reuse and recycling Use Design Impact Measures for total carbon footprint and life-cycle assessment to measure impact Use Sustainable Design Standards and project design guides (example LEED) Service substitution: shift the mode of consumption from personal ownership of products to provision of services which provide similar functions Renewability: materials should come from nearby (local or regional), sustainably managed renewable sources that can be composted when their usefulness has been exhausted.

Actions at the Regional Level Palo Alto – Landfill now closed Truck organic waste Actions at the Regional Level Palo Alto – Landfill now closed Truck organic waste to Sunnyvale o o Proposal for Anaerobic Digester Biological process that produces “biogas” = methane (CH 4) & carbon dioxide (CO 2)

Benefits o o o Produce $1. 4 million/year energy Revenue from compost sales - Benefits o o o Produce $1. 4 million/year energy Revenue from compost sales - $200, 000/year Save $1 million/year incinerating sewage sludge Save $1 million/year for fees to dispose of organic waste Reduced CO 2 emissions (closing incinerator)

Cost and Concerns o o o $40 million Smell Noise Sea level rise Ugly Cost and Concerns o o o $40 million Smell Noise Sea level rise Ugly Using future parkland (10 acres)

Engineering Challenges o o Want to combine yard waste, food waste, sludge – never Engineering Challenges o o Want to combine yard waste, food waste, sludge – never done before Current uses mostly agricultural or sludge 350 k. W biogas plant in Germany

San Jose – Green Vision o o 100% of public fleet use alternative fuel San Jose – Green Vision o o 100% of public fleet use alternative fuel by 2022 Employee bike fleet for attending meetings

San Jose – Green Vision o o Moving to programmable LED street lights 40% San Jose – Green Vision o o Moving to programmable LED street lights 40% less energy

Mineta San Jose Airport o o o 1. 12 MW PV solar array on Mineta San Jose Airport o o o 1. 12 MW PV solar array on top of rental car garage Annual output of 1. 7 million k. Wh Offset ~20% of the garage’s electricity needs http: //www. solarpowerworldonline. com/2010/10/solar-installation-at-mineta-san-jose-airport-places-first /

Recycled Water o By 2022 beneficially reuse 100% of treated wastewater Recycled Water o By 2022 beneficially reuse 100% of treated wastewater

Current use o o o 120 miles of pipe delivering 14 million gallons a Current use o o o 120 miles of pipe delivering 14 million gallons a day 600 customers Agriculture, parks golf courses cemeteries, SJSU

The Opportunities are Endless o o If you are interested in sustainability read everything The Opportunities are Endless o o If you are interested in sustainability read everything you can Projects are going on around you everywhere