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Supporting the Transition of Students with Emotional/ Behavioral Disorders to Adulthood Using Service-Learning Programs A Presentation for the Sacramento County Office of Education February 4, 2010 Howard S. Muscott, Ed. D. , Director, www. nhcebis. seresc. net 603 -206 -6891; [email protected] net
Creating a Curriculum for Caring Agenda 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. The dream and the nightmare Effective transition strategies What is service-learning? What are the best practice principles? Why use it with students with ED? What types of projects are possible? What are the challenges to involving students with challenging behavior? How do I get started? Next Steps
The Dream for Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders What is the dream for students with EBD and how different is it for them than typical peers or those with other types of disabilities?
The Dream for Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders Students with EBD and their families have dreams for a smooth transition to adulthood that results in a high quality of life including independent living, the opportunity for higher education, paid and satisfying work, varied and interesting recreational activities and positive and fulfilling relationships with peers and significant others
Is this any different for you? Check all that apply n Independent Living? n The opportunity for higher education? n Well paid work? n Satisfying work? n Interesting recreational activities? n Fulfilling relationships with peers? n Fulfilling relationships with a significant other?
The Dream In IDEA 2004 Ensuring equality of opportunity, full participation, independent living, and economic selfsufficiency for individuals with disabilities.
The Nightmare: Educational Outcomes n Youth with EBD are the most likely youth with disabilities to be out of secondary school, with 44% of those leaving school without finishing, the highest dropout rate of any disability category. n School completers with EBD are among the least likely to have graduated with a regular diploma. n Only about one in five have been enrolled in any kind of postsecondary education, indicating that few youth in this category are getting the education that might help them find and hold better and more stable jobs.
The Nightmare: Housing Outcomes n Thirty-five percent of youth with EBD no longer live with parents, the largest of any category of youth with disabilities. n They are the only disability group to show a significant increase in the likelihood of living in “other” arrangements, including in criminal justice or mental health facilities, under legal guardianship, in foster care, or on the street. n Youth with EBD have experienced the largest increase in their rate of parenting; 11% report having had or fathered a child, a 10% increase from previous report.
The Nightmare: Community Engagement Outcomes n. One-third of youth with EBD have not found a way to become engaged in their community. n. For those who have, employment is the usual mode of engagement. n. Although more than 6 in 10 have been employed at some time, only about half as many are working currently, attesting to the difficulty many have in keeping a job.
The Nightmare: Community Engagement Outcomes n Youth with EBD are by far the most likely to be rated by parents as having low social skills. n They are among the least likely to take part in prosocial organized community groups or volunteer activities or to be registered to vote. n More than three-fourths have been stopped by police other than for a traffic violation. n 58% have been arrested at least once and 43% have been on probation or parole.
The Nightmare: Problems at School and in the Community n. Almost 9 in 10 youth with ED had either been in disciplinary trouble at school, fired from a job, or arrested. by the time they had been out of secondary school up to 2 years. n This is the highest rate of any disability category.
Understanding the Gap Between the Dream and the Nightmare What causes the nightmares? Why do students with EBD have so much trouble obtaining the dream?
What Causes the Nightmare? Lane and Carter (2006) 1. Students with EBD have deficits in social skill which lead to maladaptive relationships with adults and peers 1. 2. 3. Limited prosocial interactions Misinterpretations of neutral social cues as hostile Behavior patterns that impede teachers’ abilities to conduct instruction effectively
What Causes the Nightmare? Lane and Carter (2006) 2. Students with EBD have academic deficits and performance levels that are substantially lower than typical peers and those of peers without disabilities
Academic Characteristics of Students with EBD n In comparison to typical students, exhibit moderate to severe, broad academic deficits (reading, math, science, social studies) n In comparison to students with LD an MR, exhibit greater academic deficits n These deficits appear to be stable or even worsen over time which is not true of students with LD
What Causes the Nightmare? Lane and Carter (2006) 3. Students with EBD have deficits in critical vocational, and self-determination skills that are essential to obtaining and maintaining employment
Bridging the Gap and Accessing the Dream Requires that Students with EBD n Get the educational supports and services they need to succeed n Get evidenced-based instruction and programming n Build relationships with educators they value who can keep them from becoming alienated from the educational experience n Stay engaged in “school”
Bridging the Gap and Accessing the Dream Requires that Students with EBD Get Lane and Carter (2006) 1. Increased access to empirically validated academic interventions for students with EBD at the high school level; 2. Increased access to meaningful vocational, career exploration, and other meaningful curricular opportunities; 3. Sufficient coordinated supports to successfully transition adolescents to adult life; and 4. Increased support for family participation in transition planning.
1. Empirically Validated Academic Interventions at the Secondary Level “Poor academic performance pushes students to drop out of school, hinders access to postsecondary education opportunities, and restricts later employment and career opportunities. Equipping students with basic academic skills should be an essential component of secondary educational services for many youth with EBD, enabling them to obtain a high school diploma, move beyond entry-level jobs, and pursue a college degree. ”
Research on Academic Interventions Lane (2004) n Extremely limited number of studies n Studies have produced promising results, as evidenced by improved early literacy skills, computational skills, and spelling. n Some evidence exists to suggest improved academic competence is associated with improved social and behavioral outcomes n However, research is characterized by key limitations (unclear populations, breadth of students, content scope, and replication, limited design features, reporting features).
2. Increased Access to Meaningful Vocational Training and Career Exploration n Broaden the curricular and non-curricular options available and provide a more functional curriculum n Emphasize vocational education and job-training experiences including paid work experiences and internships n Provide instruction in transition and selfdetermination skills n Provide service learning opportunities and mentoring programs.
3. Sufficient Support Across Postsecondary Transitions n When moving from a public education system based on entitlement to an adult service system based on eligibility n Youth with EBD access few, if any, formal services and supports n They typically have limited awareness of available community services, and n Are reluctance to self-identify as having a disability due to the stigma
4. Enhanced Partnerships with and Supports for Families n Ensuring that families are connected with the information, resources, and training they need to be equipped as advocates for their children; n Understanding and harnessing the formal and informal supports available to and valued by families, especially those from culturally and economically diverse backgrounds; and n Providing direct support to families using approaches that are responsive to their
Student and Family Transition. Related Social Skills Mentoring Service Coordination through Wraparound Personal Futures/ Person-Centered Planning Effective Transition Strategies for Students with EBD Innovative Vocational Placements Transition and Behavior Plan in IEP Innovative Curriculum Community Agencies and Businesses School Muscott (2007)
Student and Family Effective Transition Strategies for Students with EBD Innovative Vocational Placements Innovative Curriculum Community Agencies and Businesses School Muscott (2007)
Innovative Vocational Placements Bullis and Cheney (1999) n There is a delicate balance between providing an individual with EBD a desired job placement and, at the same time, monitoring and supporting that placement n Goals include n Ensuring the safety of others n Affording the individual the learning experience and dignity of working in as unstructured and natural arrangement as possible n Providing appropriate and unobtrusive support and assistance to the employer or work supervisor.
Innovative Vocational Placements Bullis and Cheney (1999) n. Internships n. Apprenticeships n. Paid experiences n. Connected to classroom instruction and associated with high school credit
Reasons for Accepting Young Adults with EBD in Job Placements Bullis and Cheney (1999) n They want to offer assistance to someone in need, providing a service to the community (Empathy) n They are impressed with the staff person who made the job development contact, or (Respect, Trust and Relationship) n They had positive experience with other such programs in the past (Success)
Innovative Curricular Options n. Flexible policies and approaches for earning course credit for degree completion (regular diploma, GED, adult education degrees) n. In high school, technical college n. In the community (Service Learning) n. On the job
“I was taught that the world had a lot of problems; that I could struggle and change them; that intellectual and material gifts brought the privilege and responsibility of sharing with others less fortunate; and that service is the rent each of us pays for living -- the very purpose of life and not something you do in your spare time or after you have reached your personal goals. ” Marian Wright Edelman
Service Learning Muscott(2006) n. Service-learning can be defined as a method of instruction by which students participate in service programs that meet both community needs and the learning needs of the students themselves.
Characteristics of Service Learning Zlotkowski (1993) Direct experiences working with communities in need and/or organizations that promote the public good, 2. Reflection on the experience, and 3. Planned reciprocity of learning and benefits. 1.
Service-Learning National Service Act (1993) Is a method under which students learn and develop through active participation in thoughtfully designed service experiences that meet actual community needs and that are coordinated in collaboration with the school and community; That is integrated into the students' academic curriculum and provides structured time for a student to think, talk, or write about what the student did and saw during the actual service activity;
Service-Learning National Service Act (1993) That provides students with opportunities to use newly acquired skills and knowledge in real-life situations in their own communities. That enhances what is taught in school by extending student learning beyond the classroom and into the community and helps to foster the development of a sense of caring for others.
Service Learning and Vocational Education “Service-Learning is a way of combining the methods of experiential education with the needs of society. It is serving and learning, and it is a way of creating the world. Young people need real employment and real service opportunities -- and communities need genuine work and service accomplished. ” (J. C. Kielsmeier, 1986)
Characteristics of Best Practice S-L Projects Alliance for Service Learning in Education Reform (1995) 1. Meet actual community needs; 2. Are coordinated in collaboration with school and community; 3. Are integrated into each student’s academic curriculum; 4. Provide structured time for the student to reflect on the service-learning experience through thinking, talking, or writing about it.
Principles of Good Practice for Combining Service and Learning Porter Honnet & Poulsen (1990) An effective service-learning program: (1) engages people in responsible and challenging actions for the common good; (2) provides structured opportunities for people to reflect critically on their service experience; (3) articulates clear service and learning goals for everyone involved; (4) allows for those with needs to define those needs; (5) clarifies the responsibilities of each person and organization involved;
Principles of Good Practice for Combining Service and Learning (6) matches service providers and service needs through a process that recognizes changing circumstances; (7) expects genuine, active, and sustained organizational commitment; (8) includes training, supervision, monitoring, support, recognition, and evaluation to meet service and learning goals; (9) insures that the time commitment for service and learning is flexible, appropriate, and in the best interest of all involved; and (10) is committed to program participation by and with diverse populations.
“Our answer is the world’s hope: it is to rely on youth. . This world demands the qualities of youth; not a time of life but a state of mind, a temper of the will, a quality of the imagination, a predominance of courage over timidity, or the appetite for adventure over the love of ease. ” Robert F. Kennedy
Why Use Service Learning with Students with EBD?
Rationale for Service-Learning and Students with Emotional Disturbance Muscott (2006) 1. SL has already been integrated successfully as an evidence-based practice in general education. n n 32% of all public schools and nearly ½ of all high schools organized SL as part of the academic curriculum, with 53% reporting mandatory participation. (Skinner & Chapman, 1999) There is abundant evidence that SL is an effective practice for improving the cognitive and academic achievement, social and personal responsibility, and social development of K-12 students (Cohen, Kulik, & Kulik, 1982; Conrad, 1991; Conrad & Hedin, 1989; Giles & Eyler, 1994; Root, 1997).
Rationale for Service-Learning and Students with Emotional Disturbance Muscott (2006) 2. Service-Learning is designed to create a partnership among participants in which all parties take ownership for the process and outcomes. 1. Instead of viewing themselves as service providers helping the needy, students involved in SL programs are taught to view themselves as learning partners and active participants, learning themselves as they assist others to learn.
Rationale for Service-Learning and Students with Emotional Disturbance Muscott (2006) n This change in focus to student ownership and empowerment may help to overcome an emphasis on a "curriculum of control" focused on obedience and compliance (Knitzer et al. , 1990) to that of a "reclaiming environment. ”
Rationale for Service-Learning and Students with Emotional Disturbance Muscott (2006) n A Reclaiming Environment promotes attachment, achievement, autonomy, and altruism in children and youth whose life histories have been characterized by destructive relationships, climates of futility, learned irresponsibility, and the loss of purpose (Brendtro et al. , 1990).
Rationale for Service-Learning and Students with Emotional Disturbance Muscott (2006) Restoring value and competence to alienated and discouraged children will require an educational environment that includes Service-Learning activities designed to promote caring as an antidote to narcissism and irresponsibility.
Rationale for Service-Learning and Students with Emotional Disturbance Muscott (2006) 3. SL addresses teachers’ frequently voiced concern that students with ED are not motivated to learn or complete schoolwork, particularly in areas in which their interest level is low or they are performing below grade level.
Rationale for Service-Learning and Students with Emotional Disturbance Muscott (2006) n Service-learning combines analysis, application, and evaluation in an effort to integrate active service with academic reflection. n It is designed to be experiential learning which tests students' higher order thinking skills while deepening their understanding of the subject matter, their community, and selves.
Rationale for Service-Learning and Students with Emotional Disturbance Muscott (2006) These qualities are particularly attractive to students with ED who frequently resist traditional learning approaches, thrive on active, experiential and analytical “brain-friendly” learning experiences and require active reflection to make sense of those experiences (Brendtro et al. , 1990).
Rationale for Service-Learning and Students with Emotional Disturbance Muscott (2006) 4. SL is a strength-based intervention. n n n Students with ED are frequently the recipients of other people’s generosity (Ioele & Dolan, 1993) View themselves as “damaged goods” (O’Flanagan, 1997), and Rarely have structured opportunities to change either their own or other people’s negative perceptions of them.
Rationale for Service-Learning and Students with Emotional Disturbance Muscott (2006) n Despite their limitations, students with ED also have strengths and gifts to share with others. n Service-Learning offers an opportunity for these students to share those gifts while simultaneously helping them practice social, communication, academic, and vocational skills in applied settings.
Rationale for Service-Learning and Students with Emotional Disturbance Muscott (2006) SL programs are strength-based and designed to be experiential, practical, and connected to the real world, and can accomplish three important goals for these students: (1) Promote self-esteem and self-worth through the successful completion of programs that have social importance; (2) Engage disenfranchised students in schoolrelated activities and curriculum; and; (3) Reframe other’s pessimistic views of their worth and ability to contribute to society.
Rationale for Service-Learning and Students with Emotional Disturbance Muscott (2006) 5. There is the emerging research base in the area of Service. Learning and students with ED that supports cautious optimism that SL holds promise as an effective method of instruction for students with challenging behavior
Research Findings on Service Learning Programs Involving Students with EBD Muscott (2000) n 11 programs in literature n 3 broad categories n Broad-based, specific project-based, and complex, multi-level n. Programs at every almost level of continuum n. Broad-based and specific projectbased predominated n. Direct and indirect predominated
Rationale for Service-Learning and Students with Emotional Disturbance Muscott (2006) n There is consistent evidence to support the conclusion that students with EBD benefited to some degree from participation in these programs. n Individual students and their teachers were extremely satisfied with these programs. n Students felt empowered by the experience of providing direct or indirect service to members of the community.
Research Findings on Service Learning Programs Involving Students with EBD Muscott (2000) n Qualitative rather than quantitative research n Mostly descriptive, anecdotal information n Limited information about methodology n Limited use of pre-post and comparison groups in design n It will take stronger evidence and more rigorous research to match the anecdotal reports and qualitative studies that suggested service-learning had positive impacts on academic and cognitive, civic, social, and moral, and/or personality development.
“Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world; indeed, it’s the only thing that ever has. ” Margaret Mead
Types of Service Learning Projects Dunlap, Drew, & Gibson (1994) Direct service 2. Indirect service 3. Advocacy 1.
Direct Service Learning Projects Dunlap, Drew, & Gibson (1994) Students engage in face-to-face interactions with the people being served at either the service site or elsewhere in the community.
Direct Service Learning Projects Dunlap, Drew, & Gibson (1994) n. Tutoring n. Mentoring n. Visiting/Performing n Senior citizen housing n Group homes for people with disabilities, n Children in hospitals
n. Love cannot remain by itself -- it has no meaning. n. Love has to be put into action and that action is service. Mother Teresa
Start with Art Program Murry (2001) n 16 year old Hispanic adolescent with EBD n. Lived with alcoholic father abandoned by mother n. Many behavior problems and had been incarcerated n. Attended alternative high school in CO with a 60% dropout rate
Start with Art Program Murry (2001) n An early childhood development program for low-income children and their families. n Gabriel’s SL experience consisted of helping the lead teacher make three videos that would help parents understand early learning. n He translated them into Spanish n The workshops emphasized art education, such as story telling, drawing, dancing, and how to teach young children through art activities.
Aerosol is Not Gang Art Gabriel’s Story Murry (2001) "I have never thought that I would able to translate and speak in front of many people. From this experience, I learned that anything is possible if there is a chance to try. I don't know if my translation is all up to what a professional would do or not, but at least I have tried my best. Service. Learning gave me a chance to learn outside the classroom. The lessons I have had through servicelearning will benefit my personality and future career. Service-Learning is an effective teaching way because students are able to learn while they are providing services to others. ”
Aerosol is Not Gang Art Gabriel’s Story Murry (2001) “It is like what Benjamin Franklin said, ‘Tell me and forget; Teach me and I remember; Involve me and I learn. ’ I was hired to aerosol that saying on the wall of a school that does mechanics and construction stuff mostly. They paid me more than I asked for. From service-learning, I found out about my weaknesses and abilities through overcoming difficulties and fulfilling my supervisor's requirements. I overcame my problems of lacking confidence, avoiding expressing my feelings and being afraid to try new things. ”
Aerosol is Not Gang Art Gabriel’s Story Murry (2001) “From the "Start With Art" program, I learned the importance of art education for children. From the older Hispanic lady I met, I learned that one's personality can be improved by gaining more experience. I learned more than I gave. I developed more self-confidence when I was able to show responsibilities, and I am doing what I
n. A national demonstration SL program supported by CIC n. A collaborative partnership between Rivier College and schools in the local community –Dr. Crisp, Sunset Heights, Presentation of Mary Academy, Nashua High School, Bishop Guertin High School n. The 15 -week after school program is designed to teach elementary and middle school students, social skills and attitudes that will build character and enhance citizenship
SO Prepared for Citizenship Muscott (2001) n The primary recipients are students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) and other disabilities, and students at-risk for school failure due to behavior problems n Non-disabled students & gifted and talented students participate n Faculty and families from the schools nominate students who would benefit from character education programming and a relationship with a high school or college
SO Prepared for Citizenship Muscott (2001) n Students from Nashua and Bishop Guertin High Schools and Rivier College serve as mentors for the children and run the program n In seven years, more than 200 children and over 240 high school and college students have participated n Program evaluation revealed students gained knowledge in character education & perceived the program to be about fun, friendship, and learning. n HS and College students showed growth in skills and knowledge
The Adventure of Service (2007) The Academy For Learning High School n Alternative public high school serving youth from urban Chicago n Students who are not experiencing success in their home high school n SL for 10 years n Help at food pantries, elementary schools, a day care, a junior high school, and do home repairs for senior citizens n Connected to Personal & Social Responsibility class
The Academy For Learning High School: SL Activities n Direct service every other week at Pace Jr. High School with at-risk students n Academy HS students facilitated experiential education challenge activities to assist the junior high students in learning communication skills and how to work together. n HS students chose activity, planned, facilitated and processed the activity with MS students
The Academy For Learning High School: SL Reflection n Martell – Senior who mentored for 3 years Advice: “I would tell them to stay cool and not lose their head when the teacher tells them something they don't like. I would also tell them to not let the other kids pull them into negative behaviors. I encouraged them to work hard in school and to never give up. ”
The Academy For Learning High School: SL Reflection n Changed You: “I have become more mature and a much better mentor. I saw they were doing the same stuff that I did at their age, so I tried to direct them to a different path. By doing the teambuilding activities with them, I became a leader because it made me think about myself, that I needed to calm down too. ”
Indirect Service-Learning Dunlap, Drew, & Gibson (1994) l. Indirect approaches involve experiences that address a community need but where the service providers and the recipients of service are physically distant from one another.
Indirect Service-Learning Dunlap, Drew, & Gibson (1994) l Writing letters to incarcerated individuals or people in hospitals, nursing homes, etc. l Providing recreational materials for people who are hospitalized l Raising money for a family in need in the local community or abroad (Haiti). l Beautification projects l Recycling projects l Preparing meals l Building activities
The Get Better Card Project Hagood Elementary School Emery and Richardson Turpin (1996) n. Indirect service Design cards, sayings, and content Drafts and rewrites Dear Friend: I feel happy when I make cards. I hope that my cards are making you feel good. You have more friends now and so do I. I hope you stay well. Stay cool. Stay calm. Your friend, Charlie
Give Water a Hand Project University of Wisconsin-Madison Environmental Resources Center Mc. Carty & Hazelkorn (2001) l. Middle school boys with EBD at two different public schools l. Supported mainstream classes l. One period with special education for science or social studies l. Created water maps l. Clear streams l. Marked drains
Service Learning at Disciplinary Alternative Education Program in SW Nelson & Eckstein (2008) n Students in grades six through 12 placed in a DAEP as a result of engaging in infractions at school n These infractions ranged from alcohol use and drug possession to offenses against others such as assault and threats n Students who were placed in DAEPs were coded "at-risk" in the, state's Public Information Education Management System (PEIMS)
Service Learning at Disciplinary Alternative Education Program in SW n The DAEPs in one state were funded through the Title IV Community Service Grant n Money was provided for personnel, capital outlay, materials for service-learning projects, and travel. n Ideas were generated by students n Students competed for the grant money n Students wrote proposals for funding for projects stemming from their own particular community interests and concerns.
Steps in Service Learning at Disciplinary Alternative Education Program in SW 1. The opportunity to receive funding for service projects was announced to all students at one DAEP in a large school district in the southwest. 2. All teachers at the school received training regarding service learning and the grant writing model, and the grant facilitators encouraged every teacher to participate.
Service Learning at Disciplinary Alternative Education Program in SW 3. Teachers and staff assisted students as they generated ideas about projects they would like to have funded. The teachers and staff encouraged the students, gave them class time to work on the grant proposals, and guided students through the grant writing.
Service Learning at Disciplinary Alternative Education Program in SW 4. Students completed a checklist about various social and environmental issues n The environment, elder care, drug and alcohol prevention, violence prevention, tobacco prevention, school safety, child safety, teen health issues, neighborhood safety, animal care, and the homeless. n From this overall list of concerns, students identified their top three concerns.
Service Learning at Disciplinary Alternative Education Program in SW 5. The teachers grouped students based on similar interests. Students then discussed and formulated ideas for the projects they wanted to have funded. n Researching their topics n Contacting potential community partners n Establishing goals and objectives
Service Learning at Disciplinary Alternative Education Program in SW 6. Students completed grant proposals: n Detailed description of the project n Rationale for completing the project citing the research they had done n Community partners who would be included in the project n Steps for completing the project n Timeline
Service Learning at Disciplinary Alternative Education Program in SW 7. Students gave presentations to class 8. After the proposals were finalized, the students made presentations to the Service-Learning Advisory Board 9. The Service-Learning Advisory Board voted to "fund" two projects n The students whose projects were not awarded funding joined the two funded groups.
Service Learning at Disciplinary Alternative Education Program in SW n 2 projects were funded at $10, 000 n Construction of a playground at the new Salvation Army Boys' and Girls' Club n Renovation of a nearby neighborhood park, which had fallen to disrepair n Students designed the playground and the park renovation, brokered businesses for services, and did most of the labor on Saturdays during 2004 -05
Service Learning at Disciplinary Alternative Education Program in SW n Study conducted by RMC Research Corp (2005) n Researchers identified positive outcomes in students in DAEP programs across the state involved in the Title IV Service-Learning Grant n Outcomes for service-learning included students who were "more likely to value school, he engaged in school, be disposed to being civically engaged, have civic skills, and have favorable attitudes toward people with different cultural backgrounds than students who did not participate in servicelearning at the alternative schools. "
Advocacy Service-Learning Dunlap, Drew, & Gibson (1994) l Advocacy approaches are aimed at increasing public awareness of a problem or issue effecting individuals, the community, or the nation as a whole. l They are sometimes considered a subcategory of indirect approaches in that they frequently don't involve direct contact between the participants.
Advocacy Service-Learning Dunlap, Drew, & Gibson (1994) l Speaking, performing, or lobbying for equal rights for minorities, the disabled, or women l Getting adequate school funding for the arts l Getting out the vote among 18 -21 year old young adults l Lobbying city council for a skateboard park
Student Leadership Teams PBIS-NH & Main Street Academix
PBIS-NH & Main Street Academix Safe Measures Program (www. msanh. com) n Raymond HS Student Leadership Program "We are determined to create a level of respect in our school that goes beyond today's formal boundaries and reaches every student, teacher and staff member of RHS. "
Safe Measures™: A Student-Led, Collaborative Action Research Process (1) Initial design meeting with principal and PBIS universal leadership team (2) Orientation for students and mentors, (3) Collection of school climate data based on action research, (4) Student and faculty data analysis and action planning workshop, (5) On-going implementation of projects, and (6) Student leader presentations to teachers, peers, superintendent, and school board
Main Street Academix: Safe Measures Program (www. msanh. com) n. Woodsville HS Bullying and Harassment Prevention
PBIS-NH and Somersworth HS S-Cubed: Somersworth Social Skills Peers as Social Coaches 12: 15
Combination Projects l. Many school programs provide a variety of direct and indirect projects to meet the needs of the community while focusing on student strengths and minimizing barriers
Service-Learning Projects Rockwell (1997) 1. Books for young children 2. Instructional games 3. Cards for the elderly 4. Gardening or Landscaping 5. Piggybacking with local community-service projects 6. Special services 7. Gift-making 8. Models and large displays 9. Special food items 10. Business services
Therapeutic Learning Center Wentzville IV School District Missouri Frey (2001) n Senior citizen grounds l Community center l Resident Gardens l Errand running n Curriculum Connection l Landscaping l Soil types, plants and flowers l Measuring l Price comparisons l The elderly l Citizenship l Self-improvement
Starr Commonwealth Service-Learning Projects l Preparing a house or yard for a new refugee family l Bringing toys to welcome the children l Using money saved as the result of less vandalism in the school to buy canned goods for needy families l Putting on rhythm band concerts at a camp for students who are mentally retarded l Painting bridges in a city park
Starr Commonwealth Service-Learning Projects n Gathering flowers the day after Mother’s Day and redistributing them to residents of nursing homes n Chopping firewood for family with lots of children and a father who was disabled n Rebuilding a burned out picnic shelter at a n Campfire Girl’s campground n Working in the “Sitting Tall” program of horsemanship with students with physical disabilities n Clown performances for young children
HOME Program Syd Lash Academy Libertyville, Illinois Painted community room of the Civic Center Adopted a road Helped build a Habitat Home Raked leaves in a trailer park Made handcrafted items to sell and donate to charity l Made items (Velcro boards, bean toss boards) for children at special school l Worked with students with severe disabilities at special school l Instituted Meals on Wheels l l l
A Gift Given and Received Stephenie Woods “The job I have this summer is unlike the jobs most kids have. A lot of people my age might be working at movie theatres or restaurants or at Six Flags. I work at Laremont School. Laremont is a place dedicated to teaching and caring for children of various ages with mental and physical disabilities. ”
A Gift Given and Received Stephenie Woods “The children I work with are moderately to severely mentally handicapped adolescents, and all of them are very sweet. Three of them are in wheelchairs, two of which are severely visually impaired. At first, I didn’t really try to get to know any of them. I felt sympathy for them, and I wanted to help them, but I was a 1 itt 1 e afraid to get too emotional 1 y bonded to them. A few days into the program, however, my attention was s 1 owly drawn to an active, curious boy named Alex. ”
A Gift Given and Received Stephenie Woods “He is a very sweet boy and shows his affection often. Sometimes while I sit next to him, playing with him or talking to him, he puts his hand on my arm and makes eye contact with me for a second, giving me a playful smile. Other times he wraps his arms around my neck and pulls me so close to him my nose touches his, so he can see me clearly. At the end of the day after I put on his harness and give him his backpack, he tugs on my shirt until I kneel down and look at him. He puts his hand on my neck and kisses my cheek before letting go of me and walking away. Affection is obviously something he's learned and comprehends to a certain extent, and even though be may not remember doing it later, at that moment he's telling me he cares about me. ”
A Gift Given and Received Stephenie Woods “This is what really fuels my desire to work at Laremont. Knowing that I am making a difference in that person’s life, even if it's only for a few hours of the day, a few days of the week, I was still there for them when they needed me. That makes me feel really good inside. I only wish Alex cou 1 d know the incredible gift he’s given me this summer. ”
n. Courage is rightly esteemed the first of human qualities because it is the quality which guarantees all others. Winston Churchill
Four Corners Activity What are the Challenges to Implementing Service-Learning Programs at your School? Logistical, Fiscal, Staff, Students?
Challenges to Implementing Service-Learning with Students with Behavioral Disorders n. Learned to view hurting behavior as fashionable while helping or being 'nice' to others is seen as a sign of weakness n. Frequently search for self-worth by concentrating on what they can purchase, manipulate or bargain for instead of finding ways to be of value to others
Challenges to Implementing Service-Learning with Students with Behavioral Disorders n. Initial tendencies to think in terms of self, rather than service to others n. Limited social skills, particularly in the context of cooperative group activities n High needs for structure
A Framework for Organizing School-Based Programs Hedin and Conrad (1990) n. Club or Co-curricular Activity n. Volunteer Clearinghouse n. Community Service Credit n“Lab” for Existing Courses n. Community Service Class n. School-wide Focus or Theme n. Vocational Education
How to Get Started in Service Learning Sylvia Rockwell (1997) 1. Assess your own likes, dislikes, interests, and needs. 2. Generate a list of possible personal, school, and community resources. 3. Assess your students’ likes, dislikes, interests, and needs. 4. Establish initial limits on the time available for the project. 5. Determine the level of integration with academic content desired. 6. Discuss possible policy issues with an administrator. 7. Brainstorm ideas with the class.
How to Get Started in Service Learning Sylvia Rockwell (1997) 8. Conduct an interest survey with the targeted population. 9. Advertise. 10. Walk the class through the planning process. 11. Invite business representatives to the classroom. 12. Involve students in the assessment process. 13. Have students develop portfolios. 14. Share your success with others.
Practical Strategies for Starting Service. Learning Projects with Students with ED Muscott (2006) 1. Starting small and simple including beginning with programs that take place in the school, on school grounds or close by. Less complex programs have a greater chance of success and allow you the opportunity to get the bugs out. 2. Identifying indirect, rather than direct or advocacy programs. Examples include making instructional materials for other students, books for young children, or refurbishing toys for hospitalized children.
Practical Strategies for Starting Service. Learning Projects with Students with ED Muscott (2006) 3. Highlighting short-term programs with lots of preparation in advance of implementation. Examples include gardening or landscaping or murals. 4. Proposing programs that are of high interest to students. Students who are more interested in sports, art, videotaping, carpentry, etc. would benefit from programs that include these elements.
Practical Strategies for Starting Service. Learning Projects with Students with ED Muscott (2006) 5. Allowing students to choose among several programs. Having multiple community partners visit the class and pitch their site to the students is an empowering approach. 6. Matching students’ talents to specific project roles. Programs should allow students who are more verbal, those who prefer drawing, those who like to work with their hands, etc. to use those talents in the program.
Practical Strategies for Starting Service. Learning Projects with Students with ED Muscott (2006) 7. Having students help other students who are either younger or more disabled. Students with ED often have to prove themselves in new situations and create a social pecking order. If direct service programs are chosen, those involving people who aren’t a threat to your students’ selfesteem will minimize this concern.
Stages in Planning Service-Learning Projects Muscott (2001) 1. Planning and Preparation n Identify community and learner needs n Develop goals and objectives n Design project n Recruit participants and recipients n Conduct orientation or training
Step 1 Preplanning Muscott (2001) n Who will be involved in providing the service (students, staff, and families)? n How long will the project last? n How much class time can be used? n How much time in the field can be devoted to the service? n Who on the administration needs to be contacted for permission? n How will parents/guardians be notified
Step 2 Selecting and Pinpointing a Project Muscott (2001) n. What are the community needs? n. Which sites, agencies, or people should be contacted to determine interest? n. Which curriculum areas or units of study are involved? n. What learning outcomes/goals are important for students?
Step 2 Selecting and Pinpointing a Project Muscott (2001) n What are the most appropriate annual goals on the students’ IEPs? n Will it include direct, indirect, or advocacy activities? n What are the students’ interests and strengths? n How can students’ interests and strengths be matched to potential projects?
Step 3 Designing and Writing the Proposal Muscott (2001) • Who are the key contact people at the site who will be directly involved in designing & coordinating the project? • What specific service activities will be performed and with whom? • What prerequisite skills will students need in order to participate? • How will you assess learning?
Step 3 Designing and Writing the Proposal § § § Muscott (2001) What logistical (e. g. , transportation, insurance, safety) and resource (e. g. , staff, funding, materials) support is needed? Who is likely to provide financial support? What are the potential barriers to implementation(resources, logistics, people)? What is the timeline for all phases of the project? Who needs to sign-off on the written proposal once it's completed? How will the project be celebrated?
Step 4 Training for Service Muscott (2001) n. What types of orientation or training activities are needed prior to implementation? n. What specific information is needed in preparation for implementation? n. What on-going training or reflection is needed throughout the project?
Elements of Quality Reflection Carin and Kielsmeier (1991) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Reflection activities must emanate from clear goals and objectives for student learning Reflection should be planned and structured Reflection should be engaging and ongoing throughout the program Reflection should be integrated into students’ coursework A variety of methods should be used to foster reflection
Creating a Climate for Reflection 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Community Service-Learning by Rahima Wade Respect for students’ ideas Student-to-student talk Room arrangements that facilitate student interaction Mutual respect and caring among students Planned reflection and openness to the unexpected Reflection sessions throughout the SL experience Adequate time for reflection A balance of different reflection methods Challenging, relevant, fun reflection activities A leader skilled in facilitating student reflection
Methods to Encourage Reflective Thinking Discussion by Rahima Wade n Think-Pair-Share n Student Facilitated Discussion n Numbered Heads n Talking Stick n Quote Responses n Circle in a Circle n Fishbowl n Opposing Views Lines n Positive/Negative n Metaphor Making n Individual Conference n Yes/No/Sometimes n Discussion with Community Members /Not Sure
Discussion Activities Wade (1997) 1. Think – Pair – Share • Present the topic or question for reflection and have students deliberate silently for a minute or two. • Have them write down a few notes. • Each student pairs up with someone sitting nearby and they discuss their ideas. • Provide an opportunity for the whole class to share.
Discussion Activities: Numbered Heads Wade (1997) § Divide students into groups of five. § Students number off in their groups from one to § § § five. Present a reflection question. Each group discusses the question for a few minutes. Choose a number card randomly from a stack of cards labeled one through five. Students with that number are invited to respond to the question in a whole class discussion. Proceed with new discussion questions until each number has been called and every student has had the opportunity to speak at least once.
Discussion Activities: Quote Responses Wade (1997) n Puts some of the quotes below on the blackboard or give them to students. n Students are encouraged to discuss their service experiences in light of one or more of the quotes that has meaning for them. "Unless someone like you cares a whole awful lot, nothing is going to get better. It's not. "-Theodore Geisel (Dr. Seuss) "Of all the teachings we receive, this one is the most important: Nothing belongs to you of what there is. Of what you take, you must share. "- Chief Dan George
Discussion Activities: Fishbowl Wade (1997) • A small circle of four or five chairs is • • assembled in the middle of the room. Students form a large outer circle around this inner circle. Present a question or topic for reflection and those interested in discussing it move to the inner circle. As students finish their comments they move back to the outer circle and new students may then enter the inner circle. When sitting in the outer circle, students remain silent observers.
Discussion Activities: Positive-Negative Wade (1997) • In a whole class or small group discussion, students are asked to talk about the negative aspects of their service experience. • They then list the positive outcomes of their service activity. • Brainstorming may follow to both build on strengths and come up with potential solutions to problems.
Discussion Activities: Metaphor Making Wade (1997) • Pose a question in the following form, "In what way is serving in the community like? " • For example, in response to the question "In what way is serving the community like climbing a mountain? " students might respond that it takes a lot of effort, that you have to keep going sometimes when you're tired, or that you get a great feeling of accomplishment. • Here are some other phrases that could be used metaphorically to stimulate students' creative reflection on their experiences. Baking a cake, hugging a friend reading a good book, running a race, planting flowers.
Discussion Activities: Yes, No Sometimes, Not Sure • • Wade (1997) Signs with each of the terms in the title are placed in the four comers of the room. Read a statement such as "Service in the community is an important activity for all citizens" or "Service takes too much time out of the school day to be included in the curriculum. " As a statement is read, students move to the comer of the room with the sign that best indicates their views. The leader can ask students who are willing to state briefly why they chose the responses
Discussion Activities: Student Facilitated Discussion • • • Wade (1997) Students sit in a large circle. Present an issue or question and call on a student who wants to respond. After stating his or her views, that student then calls on the next student who wants to speak. The discussion proceeds with each student who speaks being the one to call on the next student. The activity can also be conducted in small groups.
Discussion Activities: Talking Stick Wade (1997) • Students sit in a large circle. • One person holds the talking stick. • In order to speak, an individual must be holding the talking stick. • The stick can be passed around the circle or randomly. If the stick is passed around the circle, students should be informed they can pass.
Discussion Activities: Circle in a Circle Wade (1997) • Students form two concentric circles of equal number facing each other. • The leader asks a question or poses a topic for discussion and each pair of students facing each other talks for a minute. • Before the leader asks the next question, the inner circle moves to the left so that everyone is facing a new partner.
Discussion Activities: Opposing Views Lines Wade (1997) • Students form two straight lines of equal number facing each other. • The leader presents a question or issue that is likely to encourage diverse views. • The students in the left line must address the issue in a positive light while the students in the right line must discuss the issue from a negative point of view. • The leader can have one line move so that students face a new partner for each question and/or have students switch sides so that they are discussing issues from different perspectives.
Discussion Activities: Individual Conference Wade (1997) • Leaders can hold conferences with each student involved in the service-learning activities. • Conferences can include a standardized set of questions asked of all students or can be conducted on a more informal basis.
Discussion Activities: Discussion with Community Member • • Wade (1997) This activity can be used before the service experience begins, during the project, or as a culminating lesson. Community agency members working in the area of the students' service activity are invited to class to discuss their views on key issues of concern. Students should prepare for their visit by developing a list of suitable questions to ask. Students can also share their own opinions and hear the responses of those working in the field.
Methods to Encourage Reflective Thinking Community Service-Learning by Rahima Wade n Writing n Journals n Dialogue Journal n Learning Log n Creative Writing n Persuasive Letters n Concept Map n Publicity n Evaluations n Guide for Future Participants n Directed Writing n Writing in the Curriculum
Topics for Reflection Community Service-Learning by Rahima Wade n Events n What happened at your project this week? n What was your biggest challenge? n Self n What skills did you learn/use for helping others? n How did you make a difference? n Others n What are the values, beliefs, hopes, and dreams of the people you worked with? n How do they perceive their needs and problems?
Comments of a Fifth Grader with Learning Disabilities and ADHD in the SO Prepared for Citizenship Program “It’s like a colored cube. You try to put it together, you get so frustrated you want to throw it at the wall and smash it. But you have to take time, you have to cooperate with it. You have to make it go the way it needs to go. When you finally do it, you’re like, ‘man’, I’m kind of glad I didn’t throw it at the wall and smash it. “
Comments of a Fifth Grader with Learning Disabilities and ADHD in the SO Prepared for Citizenship Program “So I know how to do what I need to do now. I know what I need to do to make this cube work. And sometimes life is like that. And you need to be patient. You need to get all your anger out and cooperate with this cube -- with the cube of life. . Yea. You need to stay in control. You need to cooperate. You need to have fun and see if they (others) will have fun with you. Just like this cube, and you can try. You could throw the cube at the wall; you can break the cube, but it won’t get you anywhere. You won’t learn anything. You won’t make new friends. You won’t have fun. ”
Topics for Reflection Community Service-Learning by Rahima Wade n Service n What do you gain from helping others? n Is making a difference easy or difficult? How? n Societal issues n What issue is your project addressing? n What historical events have been connected with issue? n Citizenship n What is a good citizen? n What are the ways that citizens help their communities?
Voices of “At-Risk” College Students “The best thing about SO Prepared is making a new friend and feeling that you can make a difference in a child’s life. I enjoyed going to meet my buddy every week and many times I felt I learned as much as she did. I left thinking about the idea (respect, tolerance, etc. ) and trying to see how that idea was part of my own life, too. The one suggestion I would have is to make the training sessions shorter. ”
Methods to Encourage Reflective Thinking Community Service-Learning by Rahima Wade n Artistic Expression n n Visual Arts Music Theater Dance Technology n Presentations n n n Student Display/Presentation General Public Presentation Community Agency Presentation Policy Presentation Conference Presentation Training Presentation
Stages in Planning Service-Learning Projects Muscott (2001) 2. Action: n Implement activities n Engage in ongoing practice, preparation in school 3. Evaluation: n Conduct formative and summative assessments n Engage in ongoing reflection activities
Stages in Planning Service-Learning Projects Muscott (2001) 4. Recognition: n. Celebrate achievements 5. Reconfiguration: n. Adjust needs, goals and objectives n. Redesign future projects
Action Planning Activity: Next Steps n. What: n. Who: n. By When: