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Sub-Saharan Africa Sub-Saharan Africa

Purpose To provide the class an understanding of the interrelation between the historical, political, Purpose To provide the class an understanding of the interrelation between the historical, political, and economic issues of Sub. Saharan Africa with emphasis on Nigeria, South Africa, and Ghana. Sub-Saharan Africa

Agenda • Sub-Saharan Africa • History • Regions and Regional Powers • The Problem(s) Agenda • Sub-Saharan Africa • History • Regions and Regional Powers • The Problem(s) • • • Definitions • Comparative indices The Plan Over the Horizon Conclusion Questions Sub-Saharan Africa

The Bridge Sub-Saharan Africa The Bridge Sub-Saharan Africa

References • Ayittey, George Africa in Chaos • Van de Walle, Nicholas African Economies References • Ayittey, George Africa in Chaos • Van de Walle, Nicholas African Economies and the Politics of Permanent Crisis • Nafziger, E. Wayne African Capitalism • http: //www. africa-union. org • http: //www. cen-sad. org • http: //www. transparency. org/surveys/index. html • http: //www. freedomhouse. org/ Sub-Saharan Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa • 48 countries • Four times size of USA • 770 million Sub-Saharan Africa • 48 countries • Four times size of USA • 770 million people • 50 % of world’s gold • 40 % of world’s potential hydroelectric power supply Sub-Saharan Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa • 19 countries • Six month military college • Humanitarian projects • Sub-Saharan Africa • 19 countries • Six month military college • Humanitarian projects • Lifelong friends Sub-Saharan Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa • Colonial History • Anchor States • • South Africa Nigeria Kenya Sub-Saharan Africa • Colonial History • Anchor States • • South Africa Nigeria Kenya Ethiopia Sub-Saharan Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa • Nigeria • 123 million • Africa’s largest domestic market • GDP Sub-Saharan Africa • Nigeria • 123 million • Africa’s largest domestic market • GDP $36 billion • Exports: oil (98. 4%), cocoa, rubber • 250 Ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa • • • South Africa 42 million GDP $126 billion Unemployment 23. Sub-Saharan Africa • • • South Africa 42 million GDP $126 billion Unemployment 23. 3% World’s largest producer of gold and platinum Agriculture and mining 9. 7% of GDP Africans 78% of population Whites 10% of population Apartheid abolished in 1991 Sub-Saharan Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa • • • Ghana 17 million GDP $5. 2 billion Inflation 23. Sub-Saharan Africa • • • Ghana 17 million GDP $5. 2 billion Inflation 23. 6% Exports cocoa, aluminum, gold • Renewed political stability • Key player in UN military missions Sub-Saharan Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa • African Union • Sub-Regional Organizations Sub-Saharan Africa Sub-Saharan Africa • African Union • Sub-Regional Organizations Sub-Saharan Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa • African Union (AU) • 53 members • Accelerating the process of Sub-Saharan Africa • African Union (AU) • 53 members • Accelerating the process of integration in the global economy • Address multifaceted social, economic and political problems • Includes Court of Justice, African Bank, Pan-African Parliament Sub-Saharan Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa • Southern African Development Community (SADC) • 14 members Sub-Saharan Africa Sub-Saharan Africa • Southern African Development Community (SADC) • 14 members Sub-Saharan Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa • Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) • 16 members • Sub-Saharan Africa • Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) • 16 members • Seeks to eliminate tariffs and other obstructions to trade among member states • Establish a common external tariff • Seeks to create a single monetary zone • Military monitoring group (ECOMOG) Sub-Saharan Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa • Community of Sahel. Saharan States (CENSAD) • 18 members • Strengthen Sub-Saharan Africa • Community of Sahel. Saharan States (CENSAD) • 18 members • Strengthen peace, security, stability, achieve global economic and social development • Promote free movement of persons, capital and interests to Member states Sub-Saharan Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa • Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) • 21 members Sub-Saharan Africa • Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) • 21 members • main focus is on the formation of a large economic and trading unit • Established a free trade area , that removes all internal trade tariffs and barriers • Introducing a common external tariff structure to deal with all third party trade Sub-Saharan Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa • • • East African Community (EAC) 3 members Emphasizes economic cooperation Sub-Saharan Africa • • • East African Community (EAC) 3 members Emphasizes economic cooperation and development Regional cooperation and integration envisaged is broad based, covering trade to tourism, and from monetary affairs to infrastructure development Other areas of cooperation include free movement of trade, political matters including defense, security, foreign affairs, legal and judicial affairs Sub-Saharan Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa • Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) • 7 members • Mainly drought Sub-Saharan Africa • Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) • 7 members • Mainly drought and conflict stricken • Foster regional security and sustain economic development • Restoration of peace in Sudan and Somalia remains the primary goal Sub-Saharan Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa • Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS) • 11 Members • Sub-Saharan Africa • Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS) • 11 Members • Develop capacities to maintain peace, security and stability • Develop physical, economic and monetary integration • Develop a culture of human integration; and • Establish an autonomous financing mechanism for ECCAS Sub-Saharan Africa

The Problem(s) The Problem Solving Process • Step 1: Recognize & define problems • The Problem(s) The Problem Solving Process • Step 1: Recognize & define problems • Step 2: Gather facts & assumptions • Step 3 : Develop possible solutions • Step 4: Analyze each solution • Step 5: Compare outcome of each solution • Step 6: Select the best solution • Step 7: Follow-up and evaluate Sub-Saharan Africa

The Problem(s) • Three layers • Regional • External • Colonialism • Racism • The Problem(s) • Three layers • Regional • External • Colonialism • Racism • Lack of Development • Internal • • • Political Instability Corruption Democratization Economic Development Environmental Racism and Tribal differences Sub-Saharan Africa

The Problem(s) • Political Instability • 14 countries (of 48) in conflict 1 • The Problem(s) • Political Instability • 14 countries (of 48) in conflict 1 • No state monopoly on use of force • 64 coups from 19631968 • Widening gap between states and societies • Wars are internal 1 Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies Sub-Saharan Africa

The Problem(s) • Corruption • Transparency International Corruption Perception Index • Surveys of business, The Problem(s) • Corruption • Transparency International Corruption Perception Index • Surveys of business, government, and country specialist Sub-Saharan Africa Country • Bangladesh • Nigeria • Ghana • India • China • Brazil • Mexico • South Africa • Hungary • Japan • US • Finland CPI 1. 3 (133) 1. 4 (132) 3. 3 (70) 2. 8 (83) 3. 4 (66) 3. 9 (54) 3. 6 (64) 4. 4 (48) 4. 8 (40) 7. 0 (21) 7. 5 (18) 9. 7 (1)

The Problem(s) • Democratization • 192 countries surveyed by Freedom House • Free, partly The Problem(s) • Democratization • 192 countries surveyed by Freedom House • Free, partly free, not free • Road to democracy • • • Freedom Rule of law Incentives Infrastructure State apparatus Sub-Saharan Africa Type • • • Free PF 1973 35% 2003 44% GDP 89% SSA (73) 2 SSA (03) 11 18% 21% 5% 9 21 NF 47% 35% 6% 28 16

The Problem(s) • Economic Development Country • 54. 8 % PPP $1 per day The Problem(s) • Economic Development Country • 54. 8 % PPP $1 per day in 2000 1 • Sierra Leone • 19 of Bottom 20 “Low Income • Nigeria Economies” are African 2 • Ghana • Van de Walle notes four options • India • • • Leave formal economy Religion Conflict Democratic response • • 1 Bhalla (2002), Class handout • 07 Apr 2 Class handout, 02 Apr, based • on UNDP and World Bank data • Sub-Saharan Africa China Brazil Mexico South Africa Hungary Japan US PPP $480 $830 $1980 $2450 $4260 $7450 $8770 $9510 $12570 $27430 $34870

The Plan • Christianity, Commerce, and Civilization • Development • Environmental • Structural • The Plan • Christianity, Commerce, and Civilization • Development • Environmental • Structural • Error in Diagnosis • Internal • External Sub-Saharan Africa

The Plan • Development based on political, institutional, intellectual, and economic freedoms • Seek The Plan • Development based on political, institutional, intellectual, and economic freedoms • Seek to end conflicts • Control environment • Correlation between economic development and “good governance” • President Bush African Policy Sub-Saharan Africa

The Plan • African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) • New Partnership for Africa’s The Plan • African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) • New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) Sub-Saharan Africa

Over the Horizon • MBendi potential • Rivers make Africa cheapest power source in Over the Horizon • MBendi potential • Rivers make Africa cheapest power source in the world • Manufacturing center of world • Tourism trade • Increased agricultural output • Post HIV/AIDS population smaller, richer, and more intelligent • Malaria and TB eliminated Sub-Saharan Africa

Conclusion • Key is to develop African solutions to these African problems (Ayittey) • Conclusion • Key is to develop African solutions to these African problems (Ayittey) • Evolve from crisis management to development Sub-Saharan Africa

Questions Sub-Saharan Africa Questions Sub-Saharan Africa