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 • STUDENTS AND FAMILIES FROM HISPANIC BACKGROUNDS • STUDENTS AND FAMILIES FROM HISPANIC BACKGROUNDS

Maricela Cortez Maricela Cortez

Maricela’s story: ** • Maricela is Mexican and speaks fluent Spanish. Her parents are Maricela’s story: ** • Maricela is Mexican and speaks fluent Spanish. Her parents are Mexican immigrants who work in the fields and speak almost no English. Maricela was born in Mexico and came to the U. S. at the age of 4 with her family. As a child growing up in migrant camps, Maricela experienced great poverty, discrimination, and domestic violence. She was retained in 4 th grade. As a 15 -year old working in the fields with her parents in the 100 -plus-degree heat, Maricela realized that she wanted to obtain a college education. She is the first in her family to attend college.

Maricela has worked with me on my literacy project** that supports at-risk children in Maricela has worked with me on my literacy project** that supports at-risk children in poverty, contributing between 2, 000 -3, 000 children’s books. She has personally delivered many of these to migrant camps. She hopes to ultimately obtain her Ph. D. and conduct research. She carried out research with Dr. Raquel Anderson at Indiana University, demonstrating excellent intellectual and academic potential. She graduated from our Bachelor’s program with a 4. 0.

 • **In Spring 2016, Maricela received the award for Outstanding Student in the • **In Spring 2016, Maricela received the award for Outstanding Student in the College of Health and Human Services. On our 28, 000 -student campus, there are 7 colleges—ours is the largest. Maricela was one of 7 students chosen out of 28, 000 who attend Sacramento State. She was first runner up for the President’s award. This speaks very decisively about how outstanding Maricela is and how much leadership and intellectual potential she has. • In fall 2017, Maricela was honored at ASHA in Los Angeles. She applied for a national multicultural scholarship; out of hundreds of applicants from around the U. S. , 3 were chosen and Maricela was one of them!

** Please know charts in detail on pp. 100 -101 ** Please know charts in detail on pp. 100 -101

I. GENERAL BACKGROUND INFORMATION** • Many Hispanics like to be labeled according to their I. GENERAL BACKGROUND INFORMATION** • Many Hispanics like to be labeled according to their country of origin (e. g. , Mexican American) • “Latino” may be a preferred term • Religion—usually Catholicism—plays an important role

In terms of demographics: ** • Hispanics make up 17% of the overall U. In terms of demographics: ** • Hispanics make up 17% of the overall U. S. population • The U. S. Hispanic population growth has slowed down due to 1) slower rate of immigration, and 2) women having fewer children • Since 2009, more Mexicans in the U. S. are returning to Mexico • Hispanic children 5 years old or younger are a very fast-growing group in the U. S.

Recent statistics: Recent statistics:

In California in 2013: ** • For the first time, there were an equal In California in 2013: ** • For the first time, there were an equal number of Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites • Spanish is the new English

When I presented a workshop in Iowa: ** • States like Iowa have many When I presented a workshop in Iowa: ** • States like Iowa have many migrant Hispanic families • They work at meat-packing plants as well as hog and turkey buildings • Attendance of children at school is an issue due to migrancy and frequent trips back to Mexico

We should be aware that: ** • Hispanics are descendants of Native Americans who We should be aware that: ** • Hispanics are descendants of Native Americans who settled in Americas long before Spanish conquest • Each Hispanic country has its own holidays • Some residents of Mexico speak an indigenous Indian dialect or language (story of Sebastian Sanchez p. 94) • Many Mexicans make fun of these indigenous people and put them down

Despite social and economic disadvantages, Hispanics demonstrate…** • Low welfare utilization • High labor Despite social and economic disadvantages, Hispanics demonstrate…** • Low welfare utilization • High labor force participation • Strong family values

Unfortunately, poverty and fear of deportation continue to be a reality: ** • For Unfortunately, poverty and fear of deportation continue to be a reality: ** • For example, the average annual income of crop workers is $10, 000 -$12, 499 a year • In today’s political climate, many Hispanics fear deportation; racial profiling and antipathy toward undocumented immigrants are major stressors, especially for Dreamers

Invisible America: The Migrant Story (youtube—last 3 minutes; start at 2: 30) Invisible America: The Migrant Story (youtube—last 3 minutes; start at 2: 30)

II. HISPANIC EDUCATION** • Education is very important to families; they hold teachers in II. HISPANIC EDUCATION** • Education is very important to families; they hold teachers in high regard • If we ask families to participate (e. g. , in homework) they may be offended—that is your job— you are the teacher!

In some Hispanic countries…** • Education is not mandatory past a certain point (e. In some Hispanic countries…** • Education is not mandatory past a certain point (e. g. , 8 th grade) • Education may not be encouraged, especially for females • $$$ is saved, not spent on education and material things • You have to buy your uniforms and books out of pocket— people can’t afford it

In the U. S. , statistically, Hispanic students In the U. S. , statistically, Hispanic students

Eddie, 16 -year old juvenile offender; reads 2 nd grade level Eddie, 16 -year old juvenile offender; reads 2 nd grade level

Statistics show that: Statistics show that:

Jackson, Schatschneider, & Leacox, 2014 (January issue of Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Jackson, Schatschneider, & Leacox, 2014 (January issue of Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools): ** • Studied growth of vocabulary skills in young Spanish-English children in migrant families • Concern: 50% of Latino 4 th graders score at or below basic level in reading achievement

Jackson et al. 2014 continued: Jackson et al. 2014 continued:

Jackson et al. 2014: Jackson et al. 2014:

Migrant children in California receive books Migrant children in California receive books

Children of Folsom prisoners Children of Folsom prisoners

** • Mancilla-Martinez, J. , Gamez, P. , Vagh, S. B. , & Lesaux, ** • Mancilla-Martinez, J. , Gamez, P. , Vagh, S. B. , & Lesaux, N. K. (2016). Parent reports of young Spanish-English bilingual children’s productive vocabulary: A development and validation study. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 47, 1 -15.

Mancilla-Martinez et al. 2016: Mancilla-Martinez et al. 2016:

Mancilla-Martinez et al. 2016: Mancilla-Martinez et al. 2016:

III. CONTRASTING BELIEFS, VALUES, AND PRACTICES** • Hispanic Culture • • • Mainstream Collective III. CONTRASTING BELIEFS, VALUES, AND PRACTICES** • Hispanic Culture • • • Mainstream Collective orientation Individual orientation Interdependence Independence Cooperation Competition Saving face Being direct Relaxed with time Punctuality Emphasis on task interpersonal relations orientation (simpati’a—positive personal relationships)

 • Hispanic Culture Mainstream • Hispanic Culture Mainstream

Elizabeth Delgado-Carillo, former student: ** • At 4, still on bottle—normal • In her Elizabeth Delgado-Carillo, former student: ** • At 4, still on bottle—normal • In her house, 10 -12 people (uncles, their wives, cousins) • Dad has last say; makes the big choices • Mom PG at 15, had E. at 16 • E. is first in family to attend college

Maria Ramirez, former student: ** • Dad didn’t want mom to learn English-↑ power. Maria Ramirez, former student: ** • Dad didn’t want mom to learn English-↑ power. But now he likes the $$ • Some men want women to cook, clean, and take care of the kids • She has been called a “beaner” • Girls--virgins when they get married; out-ofwedlock PG taboo

Janet Rangel, former student: ** • Raised by undocumented parents • Worked in the Janet Rangel, former student: ** • Raised by undocumented parents • Worked in the fields herself as a child— 100+ degrees • Dad has a 6 th grade education • Had to interpret for her parents a lot

IV. HEALTH CARE AND BELIEFS REGARDING DISABILITIES** • Poverty a major issue—lack of health IV. HEALTH CARE AND BELIEFS REGARDING DISABILITIES** • Poverty a major issue—lack of health insurance— ”Working Poor” • May be resistance to institutionalization; family should care for those with disabilities • Visible disability attributed to external causes such as witchcraft, evil (esp. among older, more rural Hispanics; prevalent to this day in Mexico) • May be difficult to accept “invisible” conditions

Other health considerations… Other health considerations…

Elidsa Perez and cousin working in the fields (p. 102) Elidsa Perez and cousin working in the fields (p. 102)

The workers must work unless it’s pouring** rain • They often get injuries from The workers must work unless it’s pouring** rain • They often get injuries from slipping in the mud

Former students Lorena Velasco and Elizabeth Delgado-Carillo: ** • Weight management, lack of physical Former students Lorena Velasco and Elizabeth Delgado-Carillo: ** • Weight management, lack of physical activity are problems • Due to poor nutrition, lack of exercise • Physical activities for women not encouraged; may be viewed as abnormal by community

Former students: ** • Families may go back to Mexico to see their own Former students: ** • Families may go back to Mexico to see their own personal curandero (holistic healer) for health issues • Medical procedures and supplies like antibiotics much cheaper in Mexico • Many Mexicans in the U. S. think doctors in Mexico are better than American doctors (probably language barrier is a part of that)

V. IMPLICATIONS FOR PROFESSIONALS** • In meetings, address the husband first • Remember that V. IMPLICATIONS FOR PROFESSIONALS** • In meetings, address the husband first • Remember that many Hispanic mothers believe that schooling is the “teacher’s job; ” these moms don’t always label things for children or talk directly with them— encourage parents to do language stimulation activities with their children (including reading) • Remember that parents are not “uninvolved; ” they just respect the school system. Encourage involvement!

 • Parents may not relate as well to objective letters, memos, emails** • • Parents may not relate as well to objective letters, memos, emails** • Personal contact better • Esp. true when discussing something emotional like a ch with a disability

 • Encourage parents--maintain ** children’s Spanish • Better to hear fluent Spanish than • Encourage parents--maintain ** children’s Spanish • Better to hear fluent Spanish than broken English!

Wonderful recent research (Caesar & Nelson, 2013; cited in 112 class)** • Migrant Hispanic Wonderful recent research (Caesar & Nelson, 2013; cited in 112 class)** • Migrant Hispanic families—Head Start preschoolers • Group A: bags, books, paper, colored pencils-bring home • Group B: Just bags and books—bring home • Group A asked, on weekend, to journal in Sp and draw about week’s activities, bring back Monday morning

Pre- and post-testing: Pre- and post-testing:

Encourage parents to: Encourage parents to:

During assessment, remember: ** • Hispanic children will often provide functions rather than names During assessment, remember: ** • Hispanic children will often provide functions rather than names of objects

VI. LANGUAGE AND ARTICULATION** • Possessives follow the noun (el perro de Juan instead VI. LANGUAGE AND ARTICULATION** • Possessives follow the noun (el perro de Juan instead of “Juan’s dog”) • Adjectives generally come after the noun (casa grande instead of “big house”)

VII. ASSESSMENT & INTERVENTION** • Parent interview using the Mac. Arthur (in book) is VII. ASSESSMENT & INTERVENTION** • Parent interview using the Mac. Arthur (in book) is valid and reliable for trying to determine the presence of a language impairment (LI)

For assessment: For assessment:

Research—good tests for LI: ** • Language samples • Spanish Ages and Stages Questionnaire Research—good tests for LI: ** • Language samples • Spanish Ages and Stages Questionnaire • Measures of grammaticality (children especially have difficulty with Spanish articles and other structures linked to the verb system)

Ebert, ASHA: Ebert, ASHA:

Ebert, ASHA: Ebert, ASHA:

Journal of Community Medicine and Health Education: Journal of Community Medicine and Health Education:

In therapy: ** • Encourage verbalization • Especially encourage naming and description tasks • In therapy: ** • Encourage verbalization • Especially encourage naming and description tasks • Incorporate literacy!!

Brian is Hispanic; we incorporate reading, writing, articulation tx Brian is Hispanic; we incorporate reading, writing, articulation tx

Mendez, Crais, Castro, & Kainz (2015). A culturally and linguistically responsive vocabulary approach for Mendez, Crais, Castro, & Kainz (2015). A culturally and linguistically responsive vocabulary approach for young Latino dual language learners. ** • Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, Feb. 2015, vol. 58, 93106. • Looked at Latino preschoolers learning English • Group 1: Taught new vocab in English only • Group 2: Taught new vocab in both Spanish and English

Mendez et al. 2015 found: Mendez et al. 2015 found:

Sample Praxis test question: • You have been asked to assess Araceli Fernandez, a Sample Praxis test question: • You have been asked to assess Araceli Fernandez, a 6 -year old Spanish speaker. Which one is a sign of a disorder, not a difference? • A. I like berry much espeech. • B. Dis cake is more big. • C. Lat one is plee (that one is free) • D. I tink Papa is going to estore (store).

Please turn to the Spanish worksheet in your Simply Brilliant book: ** • With Please turn to the Spanish worksheet in your Simply Brilliant book: ** • With your friends, take time to differentiate language and speech patterns that indicate difference vs. disorder