- Количество слайдов: 19
Stress Responses & Gene Expression • plants must adapt to stresses because of their sedentary lifestyle Fig. 22. 2, Buchanan et al.
Adaptation versus Acclimation • Adaptation - evolutionary changes that enable an organism to exploit a certain niche. These include modification of existing genes, as well as gain/loss of genes. – e. g. , thermo-stable enzymes in organisms that tolerate high temperature • Acclimation – inducible responses that enable an organism to tolerate an unfavorable or lethal change in their environment. – e. g. , heat shock response
Types of Stress Abiotic 1. heat 2. cold 3. drought 4. salt 5. wind 6. oxidative 7. anaerobic 8. heavy metals 9. nutrient deprivation 10. excessive light Biotic 1. pathogens 2. herbivores
Plants respond to stresses as individual cells and as whole organisms – stress induced signals can be transmitted throughout the plant, making other parts more ready to withstand the stress. . Fig. 22. 3, Buchanan et al.
Most organisms are adapted to environmental temperature: 1. 2. 3. 4. Psychrophiles (< 20 °C) Mesophiles (~ 20 -35 °C) Thermophiles ( ~35 -70 °) Hyperthermophiles (70 -110 °C) Groups 1, 3 & 4 are a. k. a. “Extremophiles” But can also acclimate to “extreme” shifts, if they are not permanent, and not too extreme. Two well studied acclimation responses are: 1. the Heat Shock response 2. Cold acclimation
Heat Stress (or Heat Shock) Response • Induced by temperatures ~10 -15 o. C above normal • Ubiquitous (conserved), rapid & transient • Dramatic change in pattern of protein synthesis – induction (increase) of HSPs – most HSPs are chaperones (chaperonins) that promote protein re-folding & stability • HSP induction mediated by a b. ZIP factor, HSF Fig. 22. 43, Buchanan et al.
Thermotolerant growth of soybean seedlings following a heat shock. 28 o. C Soybean seedlings. 40 o. C 45 o. C Fig. 22. 42, Buchanan et al.
Heat stress effects on protein synthesis in soybean seedlings (J. Key). Joe Key
Cold Acclimation (CA) involves: • Increased accumulation of small solutes – retain water & stabilize proteins – e. g. , proline, glycine betaine, trehalose • Altered membrane lipids, to lower gelling temp. • Changes in gene expression [e. g. , antifreeze proteins, proteases, RNA-binding proteins (? )] • Many cold-regulated promoters have DRE/C-elements • Activated by CBF 1 transcription factor
Role of ABA (stress hormone) • ABA – Abscisic acid, phytohormone induced by wilting, closes stomata by acting on guard cells • Positive correlation between CA and [ABA] • Treat plants with ABA, and they will be somewhat cold hardened However, ABA does not induce all genes that cold will. Conclusion: there are ABA-regulated and non-ABA regulated changes that are induced by cold.
Plants vary in ability to tolerate flooding Plants can be classified as: • Wetland plants (e. g. , rice, mangroves) • Flood-tolerant (e. g. , Arabidopsis, maize) • Flood-sensitive (e. g. , soybeans, tomato) Involves developmental/structural, cellular and molecular adaptations. Pneumatophores in mangrove
Flooding causes anoxia and an anaerobiotic response in roots. - Shift carbohydrate metabolism from respiration to anaerobic glycolysis - Protein synthesis affected: results in selective synthesis of ~10 -20 proteins Maize (corn) Fig. 22. 23 -m. RNAs for other proteins there but not translated well! Most of the ANPs are enzymes associated with glycolysis and fermentation.
Aerobic Anoxic Protein synthesis in aerobic versus anoxic maize root tips. 5 -hour labeling with 3 H-leucine and 2 -D gel electrophoresis. Fig. 22. 30
Enzymes that are upregulated by anaerobiosis
Biotic Stress and Plant Defense Responses Pathogen Strategies 1. Necrotrophic – plant tissue killed and then colonized; broad host range e. g. , rotting bacteria (Erwinia) 2. Biotrophic – plant cells remain alive, narrow host range (1 plant species) e. g. , viruses, nematodes, fungal mildews
Major Pathogens Viruses - most are RNA viruses w/small genomes, which always encode: 1. Coat protein 2. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 3. Movement protein(s) SS RNA virus: Tobacco Mosaic Virus Viroids – naked, single strands of RNA; discovered by T. O. Diener Bacteria- e. g. , Xanthomonas Fungi - 4 major groups Nematodes - root parasites, also increase infection by microorganisms ds DNA virus: Cauliflower Mosaic Virus Fig. 21. 10, Buchanan et al.
Plant Defenses 1) Physical barriers: cuticle, thorns, cell walls 2) Constitutively produced chemicals (e. g. , phytoalexins) and proteins (e. g. , Ricin) 3) Induced responses (a. k. a. , the Plant Defense Response)
The Plant Defense Response Compatible interaction disease Incompatible interaction resistance 3 aspects of response: 1. Hypersensitive 2. Local 3. Systemic
Distribution of Oak Wilt in the US Leaves from Infected tree Fungus - Ceratocystis fagacearum Natural root grafts Sap beetle