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Strategic Formulation Strategic Management (BA 491) STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin Creating and Sustaining Competitive Strategic Formulation Strategic Management (BA 491) STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin Creating and Sustaining Competitive Advantages Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Porter’s “What Is Strategy? ” • Operational effectiveness is not strategy: • Operational effectiveness Porter’s “What Is Strategy? ” • Operational effectiveness is not strategy: • Operational effectiveness means performing similar activities better than rivals. It is necessary, but not sufficient, for competitive advantage. • Strategic positioning means performing different activities from rivals’ or performing similar activities in different ways: n n n Variety-based positioning (producing a subset of products/services) Needs-based positioning (serving needs of particular group of customers) Access-based positioning (using different ways to reach customers) • Strategy involves trade-offs, choosing what not to do. Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2

Types of Competitive Advantage and Sustainability • Three generic strategies to overcome the five Types of Competitive Advantage and Sustainability • Three generic strategies to overcome the five forces and achieve competitive advantage • Overall cost leadership n n Low-cost-position relative to a firm’s peers Manage relationships throughout the entire value chain • Differentiation n n Create products and/or services that are unique and valued Non-price attributes for which customers will pay a premium • Focus strategy n n Narrow product lines, buyer segments, or targeted geographic markets Attain advantages either through differentiation or cost leadership Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 3

Three Generic Strategies Competitive Advantage Strategic Target Uniqueness Perceived by the Customer Low Cost Three Generic Strategies Competitive Advantage Strategic Target Uniqueness Perceived by the Customer Low Cost Position Industrywide Particular Segment Only Source: Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors by Michael E. Porter. Copyright © 1980, 1998 by The Free Press. Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4

Creating Value Through Human Capital, Social Capital, and Technology Competitive Advantage Differentiation Cost Stuck Creating Value Through Human Capital, Social Capital, and Technology Competitive Advantage Differentiation Cost Stuck in and Cost Differentiation Cost Focus the Middle Focus Performance Return on investment (%) 35. 5 32. 9 30. 2 17. 0 23. 7 17. 8 Sales Growth (%)15. 1 13. 5 16. 4 17. 5 12. 2 5. 3 5. 5 6. 1 6. 3 4. 4 123 160 100 141 86 105 Gain in Market Share (%) Sample Size Source: Adapted from G. G. Dess and J. C. Picken, Beyond Productivity (New York: AMACON, 1999), pp. 63 -64. Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 5

Overall Cost Leadership • Integrated tactics • Aggressive construction of efficient-scale facilities • Vigorous Overall Cost Leadership • Integrated tactics • Aggressive construction of efficient-scale facilities • Vigorous pursuit of cost reductions from experience • Tight cost and overhead control • Avoidance of marginal customer accounts • Cost minimization in all activities in the firm’s value chain, such as R&D, service, sales force, and advertising Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 6

Firm infrastructure Human resource management Technology development Procurement Few management layers to reduce overhead Firm infrastructure Human resource management Technology development Procurement Few management layers to reduce overhead costs Standardized accounting practices to minimize personnel required Minimize costs associated with employee turnover through effective policies Effective use of automated technology to reduce scrappage rates Effective policy guidelines to ensure low cost raw materials (with acceptable quality levels) Effective orientation and training programs to maximize employee productivity Expertise in process engineering to reduce manufacturing costs Shared purchasing operations with other business units Effective layout of receiving dock operation Effective use of quality control inspectors to minimize rework on the final product Effective utilization of delivery fleets Inbound Operations Outbound logistics Value-Chain Activities Purchase of Thorough service media in repair guidelines to large blocks minimize repeat maintenance calls Sales force utilization is Use of single type maximized of repair vehicle by territory to minimize management costs Marketing and sales Service Source: Adapted from Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance by Michael E. Porter. Copyright © 1985 by Michael E. Porter. Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 7

Overall Cost Leadership (Cont. ) • A firm following an overall cost leadership position Overall Cost Leadership (Cont. ) • A firm following an overall cost leadership position • Must attain parity on the basis of differentiation relative to competitors • Parity on the basis of differentiation Permits a cost leader to translate cost advantages directly into higher profits than competitors n Allows firm to earn above-average profits n Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 8

Comparing Experience Curve Effects Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Comparing Experience Curve Effects Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9

Overall Cost Leadership: Improving Competitive Position vis-à-vis the Five Forces • An overall low-cost Overall Cost Leadership: Improving Competitive Position vis-à-vis the Five Forces • An overall low-cost position • Protects a firm against rivalry from competitors • Protects a firm against powerful buyers • Provides more flexibility to cope with demands from powerful suppliers for input cost increases • Provides substantial entry barriers from economies of scale and cost advantages • Puts the firm in a favorable position with respect to substitute products Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 10

Pitfalls of Overall Cost Leadership Strategies • Too much focus on one or a Pitfalls of Overall Cost Leadership Strategies • Too much focus on one or a few value-chain activities • All rivals share a common input or raw material • The strategy is initiated too easily • A lack of parity on differentiation • Erosion of cost advantages when the pricing information available to customers increases Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11

Differentiation • Differentiation can take many forms • Prestige or brand image • Technology Differentiation • Differentiation can take many forms • Prestige or brand image • Technology • Innovation • Features • Customer service • Dealer network Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12

Firm infrastructure Superior MIS—To integrate Facilities that Widely respected value-creating activities to promote firm Firm infrastructure Superior MIS—To integrate Facilities that Widely respected value-creating activities to promote firm CEO enhances improve quality image firm reputation Programs to attract talented Human resource engineers and scientists management Technology development Procurement Provide training and incentives to ensure a strong customer service orientation Superior material handling and sorting technology Excellent applications engineering support Purchase of high-quality components to enhance product image Value-Chain Activities: Examples of Differentiation Use of most prestigious outlets Superior material handling operations to minimize damage Quick transfer of inputs to manufacturing process Inbound logistics Flexibility and speed in responding to changes in manufacturing specs Low defect rates to improve quality Operations Accurate and responsive order processing Creative and innovative advertising programs Effective product replenishment to reduce customer’s inventory Fostering of personal relationship with key customers Outbound logistics Marketing and sales Rapid response to customer service requests Complete inventory of replacement parts and supplies Service Source: Adapted from Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance by Michael E. Porter. Copyright © 1985 by Michael E. Porter. Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13

Differentiation • Firms may differentiate along several dimensions at once • Firms achieve and Differentiation • Firms may differentiate along several dimensions at once • Firms achieve and sustain differentiation and above-average profits when price premiums exceed extra costs of being unique • Successful differentiation requires integration with all parts of a firm’s value chain • An important aspect of differentiation is speed or quick response Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 14

Differentiation: Improving Competitive Position vis-à-vis the Five Forces • Differentiation • Creates higher entry Differentiation: Improving Competitive Position vis-à-vis the Five Forces • Differentiation • Creates higher entry barriers due to customer loyalty • Provides higher margins that enable the firm to deal with supplier power • Reduces buyer power because buyers lack suitable alternative • Reduces supplier power due to prestige associated with supplying to highly differentiated products • Establishes customer loyalty and hence less threat from substitutes Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15

Potential Pitfalls of Differentiation Strategies • Uniqueness that is not valuable • Too much Potential Pitfalls of Differentiation Strategies • Uniqueness that is not valuable • Too much differentiation • Too high a price premium • Differentiation that is easily imitated • Dilution of brand identification through product-line extensions • Perceptions of differentiation may vary between buyers and sellers Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 16

Focus • Focus is based on the choice of a narrow competitive scope within Focus • Focus is based on the choice of a narrow competitive scope within an industry • Firm selects a segment or group of segments (niche) and tailors its strategy to serve them • Firm achieves competitive advantages by dedicating itself to these segments exclusively • Two variants • Cost focus • Differentiation focus Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 17

Focus: Improving Competitive Position vis-à-vis the Five Forces • Focus • Creates barriers of Focus: Improving Competitive Position vis-à-vis the Five Forces • Focus • Creates barriers of either cost leadership or differentiation, or both • Also focus is used to select niches that are least vulnerable to substitutes or where competitors are weakest Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 18

Pitfalls of Focus Strategies • Erosion of cost advantages within the narrow segment • Pitfalls of Focus Strategies • Erosion of cost advantages within the narrow segment • Focused products and services still subject to competition from new entrants and from imitation • Focusers can become too focused to satisfy buyer needs Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 19

Combination Strategies: Integrating Overall Low Cost and Differentiation • Primary benefit of successful integration Combination Strategies: Integrating Overall Low Cost and Differentiation • Primary benefit of successful integration of low-cost and differentiation strategies is difficulty it poses for competitors to duplicate or imitate strategy • Goal of combination strategy is to provide unique value in an efficient manner Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 20

Combination Approaches • Automated and flexible manufacturing systems (e. g. , “mass customization”) • Combination Approaches • Automated and flexible manufacturing systems (e. g. , “mass customization”) • Exploiting the profit pool concept for competitive advantage • Coordinating the “extended” value chain by way of information technology • Best-cost provider strategies – incorporating attractive attributes at a lower cost than rivals Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 21

The U. S. Auto Industry’s Profit Pool Source: Adapted from “A Fresh Look at The U. S. Auto Industry’s Profit Pool Source: Adapted from “A Fresh Look at Strategy” by O. Gadiesh and J. L. Gilbert, Harvard Business Review 76, no. 3 (1998), pp. 139 -48. Copyright © 1998 by the Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation, all rights reserved. Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 22

Combination Strategies: Improving Competitive Position vis-à-vis the Five Forces • Firms that successfully integrate Combination Strategies: Improving Competitive Position vis-à-vis the Five Forces • Firms that successfully integrate differentiation and cost strategies obtain advantages of competition from both approaches • High entry barriers • Bargaining power over suppliers • Reduces power of buyers (fewer competitors) • Value position reduces threat from substitute products • Reduces the possibility of head-to-head rivalry Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 23

Pitfalls of Combination Strategies • Firms that fail to attain both strategies may end Pitfalls of Combination Strategies • Firms that fail to attain both strategies may end up with neither and become “stuck in the middle” • Underestimating the challenges and expenses associated with coordinating value-creating activities in the extended value chain • Miscalculating sources of revenue and profit pools in the firm’s industry Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 24

Industry Life-Cycle States: Strategic Implications • Life cycle of an industry • Introduction • Industry Life-Cycle States: Strategic Implications • Life cycle of an industry • Introduction • Growth • Maturity • Decline • Emphasis on strategies, functional areas, value -creating activities, and overall objectives varies over the course of an industry life cycle Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 25

Stages of the Industry Life Cycle Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Stages of the Industry Life Cycle Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 26

Stages of the Industry Life Cycle Stage Factor Introduction Growth Maturity Decline Generic strategies Stages of the Industry Life Cycle Stage Factor Introduction Growth Maturity Decline Generic strategies Differentiation Overall cost leadership Focus Market growth rate Low Very large Low to moderate Negative Number of segments Very few Some Many Few Intensity of competition Low Increasing Very intense Changing Emphasis on product design Very high High Low to moderate Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Low 27

Stages of the Industry Life Cycle Stage Factor Introduction Emphasis on process design Low Stages of the Industry Life Cycle Stage Factor Introduction Emphasis on process design Low Major functional area(s) of concern Overall objective Growth Decline High Low Research and Sales and Development marketing Production General management and finance Increase market share awareness Defend market share and extend product life cycles Consolidate, maintain, harvest, or exit Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Low to moderate Maturity Create consumer demand 28

Strategies in the Introduction Stage • Products are unfamiliar to consumers • Market segments Strategies in the Introduction Stage • Products are unfamiliar to consumers • Market segments not well defined • Product features not clearly specified • Competition tends to be limited Strategies • Develop product and get users to try it • Generate exposure so product becomes “standard Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 29

Strategies in the Growth Stage • Characterized by strong increases in sales • Attractive Strategies in the Growth Stage • Characterized by strong increases in sales • Attractive to potential competitors • Primary key to success is to build consumer preferences for specific brands Strategies • Brand recognition • Differentiated products • Financial resources to support value-chain activities Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 30

Strategies in the Maturity Stage • Aggregate industry demand slows • Market becomes saturated, Strategies in the Maturity Stage • Aggregate industry demand slows • Market becomes saturated, few new adopters • Direct competition becomes predominant • Marginal competitors begin to exit Strategies • Efficient manufacturing operations and process engineering • Low costs (customers become price sensitive) Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 31

Strategies in the Decline Stage • Industry sales and profits begin to fall • Strategies in the Decline Stage • Industry sales and profits begin to fall • Strategic options become dependent on the actions of rivals Strategies • Maintaining • Harvesting • Exiting the market • Consolidation Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 32

Turnaround Strategies in the Life Cycle • Asset and cost surgery • Selective product Turnaround Strategies in the Life Cycle • Asset and cost surgery • Selective product and market pruning • Piecemeal productivity improvements Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 33

Grand Strategies • • • Concentrated Growth Market Development Product Development Innovation Cooperative Strategies Grand Strategies • • • Concentrated Growth Market Development Product Development Innovation Cooperative Strategies • Joint Ventures • Strategic Alliances • Merger and Acquisition Strategies • • Horizontal Integration Vertical Integration (forward and backward) Related Diversification Unrelated Diversification Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 34

Grand Strategies (cont. ) • Unbundling and Outsourcing Strategies • Offensive Strategies • Defensive Grand Strategies (cont. ) • Unbundling and Outsourcing Strategies • Offensive Strategies • Defensive Strategies • First-Mover, Rapid-Follower, and Late-Mover Strategies • Strategies for Industry Leaders • Strategies for Runner-Up Firms • Turnaround Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 35