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Stolen by Mr. Lawler Stolen by Mr. Lawler

The Geography of Greece The Geography of Greece

Main Idea Power & Authority § The growth of city-states in Greece led to Main Idea Power & Authority § The growth of city-states in Greece led to the development of several political systems, including democracy Why it Matters Now § Many political systems in today’s world mirror the varied forms of government that evolved in Greece

Rules and Order in Greek City-States • Greeks did not develop political unity § Rules and Order in Greek City-States • Greeks did not develop political unity § Created polis (city-states) § Most city-states covered 50 to 500 square miles § Home to fewer than 10, 000 residents § Acropolis – gathering place to discuss city government

The Acropolis Today The Acropolis Today

Greek Polis • Types of Rule in City-States § Rule by a king (Monarchy) Greek Polis • Types of Rule in City-States § Rule by a king (Monarchy) § Rule by a small group of people (Aristocracy) § Rule by a few powerful people (Oligarchy) § Rule by a tyrant- powerful individuals who work for the interests of ordinary people

Athens Builds a Limited Democracy • 621 B. C. – Draco ruled all Athenians Athens Builds a Limited Democracy • 621 B. C. – Draco ruled all Athenians equal under the law • 594 B. C. – Solon establishes a direct democracy § All citizens participate in government § Only males were citizens § Outlawed slavery § Created 4 social classes top 3 could hold office Solon

ATHENS: Yesterday & Today ATHENS: Yesterday & Today

Athens-Democracy (Continued) • 500 B. C. – Cleisthenes organized citizens in 10 groups § Athens-Democracy (Continued) • 500 B. C. – Cleisthenes organized citizens in 10 groups § Created council of 500 § Council members chosen at random § Only free adult male property owners born in Athens were citizens § Women, slaves, foreigners excluded

Athenian Education • Athenian Males § Sons of wealthy got formal education at age Athenian Education • Athenian Males § Sons of wealthy got formal education at age 7 § Two years of military service at age 18 § Active service is called hoplites (infantry) § Right to speak and vote in the Assembly § At age 30, could serve in the Council of 500 § Women, very little to do outside of family life

Sparta Builds a Military State $ 2 nd Most Important City-State $ Located near Sparta Builds a Military State $ 2 nd Most Important City-State $ Located near the Gulf of Corinth $ Very different from Athens $ Built a military state § Conquered Laconia & Messenia § Slaves became known as Helots $ Didn’t care about Democracy & Arts $ “Spartan” means highly self-disciplined

SPARTANS SPARTANS

Spartan Government & Society $ Council of Elders § § $ 30 yr. old Spartan Government & Society $ Council of Elders § § $ 30 yr. old citizens: proposed laws 5 elected officials carried out laws Oligarchy § $ 2 kings ruled Sparta’s military force Social Order § Original inhabitants § Noncitizens: worked in commerce/industry § Helots: field & house servants

Council of Elders Council of Elders

SPARTA Helots Messenians enslaved by the Spartans. SPARTA Helots Messenians enslaved by the Spartans.

Spartan Daily Life • 607 -371 B. C. Most Powerful Army • Individual expression Spartan Daily Life • 607 -371 B. C. Most Powerful Army • Individual expression discouraged • Men served in Army until age 60 • Women physically conditioned to be healthy mothers § § Women told men, “ come back with your shield or on it” § • ran- wrestled- played sports had more independence than Athenian women Greeks admired Spartan discipline but didn’t want to live like them

Spartan Women Spartan Women

Persian Wars: 499 B. C. – 480 B. C. Persian Wars: 499 B. C. – 480 B. C.

The Persian Wars • Persians control all of Middle East • Greek cities in The Persian Wars • Persians control all of Middle East • Greek cities in Asia Minor rebel against Persians § • Athens sent ship to help them Battle of Marathon – 546 B. C. § Darius (King of Persia) decides to conquer Greece and punish Athens § 10, 000 Athenians defeat 25, 000 Persians lined themselves in phalanxes § Messenger sent 26 miles to deliver news of victory to Athens

The Battle of Marathon The Battle of Marathon

The Phalanx The Phalanx

Battle of Thermopylae • Xerxes, son of Darius, attacks Greece in 480 B. C. Battle of Thermopylae • Xerxes, son of Darius, attacks Greece in 480 B. C. • Persians overwhelm Spartans at Thermopylae § 300 Spartans at the Mountain pass fought 3 days • Persians capture Athens § Set fire to Athens

Battle of Thermopylae Battle of Thermopylae

Pass at Thermopylae Pass at Thermopylae

Athenians Fight Back • Defeat Persians at Salamis (naval battle) • Athenians create Delian Athenians Fight Back • Defeat Persians at Salamis (naval battle) • Athenians create Delian League § Loose alliance of city-states: 200 of them § Delos: island in the Aegean Sea • Athens becomes headquarters and the dominant power in Greece • Athens enters the Golden Age

The Acropolis Today The Acropolis Today