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State of the Art in Medical Applications of Sensor Nets Authors: Stanislava Stanković, BSc. State of the Art in Medical Applications of Sensor Nets Authors: Stanislava Stanković, BSc. Thesis Student of the School of Electrical Engineering, University of Belgrade E-mail: saska [email protected] com Prof. Dr. Veljko Milutinović, School of Electrical Engineering, University of Belgrade E-mail: [email protected] bg. ac. yu

Introduction Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), intensive R+D during few past years History of WSNs Introduction Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), intensive R+D during few past years History of WSNs begins at the UC, Berkley - Smart. Dust - Tiny. OS miniaturization process Relatively Large Nodes Dublin, March 2008 Nodes, Small enough, Power enough, Affordable enough Pro. Sense Belgrade future process Extra small, Powerful, Low cost Nodes 2

Introduction At presence, there are many proposed applications for the use of WSNs, but Introduction At presence, there are many proposed applications for the use of WSNs, but certainly medical applications are the area where WSNs have the most potential New medical applications are being developed in the research centers and in the commercial sectors This technology is under development and by many predictions, WSNs are going to be an essential part of medical treatment and analysis Dublin, March 2008 Pro. Sense Belgrade

Introduction-open Qs Healthcare system is becoming more complex Healthcare system is becoming more expensive Introduction-open Qs Healthcare system is becoming more complex Healthcare system is becoming more expensive The world’s population is aging Number of persons in need of homecare is growing Number of persons suffering from diseases is growing Number of medical mistakes is growing Number of lawsuits is growing Dublin, March 2008 Pro. Sense Belgrade

Introduction-p. solution Medical applications based on WSNs can provide answers to many open medical Introduction-p. solution Medical applications based on WSNs can provide answers to many open medical Qs - cost and complexity of healthcare - patients’ benefits Accessibility and efficiency - caregivers’ benefits Costs and mistakes Stress of this presentation: Some existing medical applications (EXMA), their issues, and challenges Dublin, March 2008 Pro. Sense Belgrade

EXMA-important issues Engineering issues (different devices, different frequencies, real-time services, power consumption, reliability, security) EXMA-important issues Engineering issues (different devices, different frequencies, real-time services, power consumption, reliability, security) Social issues (Does the usage of these applications affects daily lives of people? ) Patients’ well-being issues (Use only to heal, not to harm!) Dublin, March 2008 Pro. Sense Belgrade

EXMA-technologies in use Great advantage of WSNs is their compatibility with existing infrastructures • EXMA-technologies in use Great advantage of WSNs is their compatibility with existing infrastructures • WBAN (Wireless Body Area Network) • RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) • WPAN (Wireless Personal Area Network) • Sensor Networks • GPRS • Wireless LAN (802. 11 standard) Dublin, March 2008 Pro. Sense Belgrade

Classification EXMA follow a people-centric paradigm (popularized by Metro. Sense project) whether they use: Classification EXMA follow a people-centric paradigm (popularized by Metro. Sense project) whether they use: - wearable devices - implantable devices - combinations of devices Dublin, March 2008 Pro. Sense Belgrade

Classification EXMA may be oriented as: - applications in public health area - applications Classification EXMA may be oriented as: - applications in public health area - applications in personal health area - applications in sport health area sport health public health personal health Dublin, March 2008 Pro. Sense Belgrade

Code. Blue Development - Code. Blue is a medical research project based on WSNs Code. Blue Development - Code. Blue is a medical research project based on WSNs technology, developed at Harvard Goals of project (a) pre-hospital care and, (b) in-hospital emergency care, (c) stroke patient rehabilitation (d) disaster response Hardware and software - Code. Blue is a combined hardware and software platform developed for sensor networks - Code. Blue project has developed a range of medical sensors based on Mica 2, Mica. Z and Telos motes designs These include a pulse oximeter, two-lead ECG, and a specialized motion analysis sensor board Dublin, March 2008 Pro. Sense Belgrade

Code. Blue Hardware and software - Code. Blue provides protocol for device discovery, publish/subscribe Code. Blue Hardware and software - Code. Blue provides protocol for device discovery, publish/subscribe multi hop routing, and a simple query interface allowing caregivers to request patients’ data - Code. Blue integrates an RF-based localization system, called Mote. Track, to track localization of patients and caregivers Requirements - wearable sensor platform - reliable communication system - multicast - device mobility - security Dublin, March 2008 Pro. Sense Belgrade

Code. Blue & 10 Blade The 10 Blade has developed a software package called Code. Blue & 10 Blade The 10 Blade has developed a software package called i. Revive that allows complete documentation of pre-hospital emergency medical services (EMS) on a mobile device i. Revive PDAs carried by EMTs perform real-time triage Sensors attached to patients transmit vital signs Dublin, March 2008 Pro. Sense Belgrade

Ubi. Mon Development - Ubi. Mon is a project based on WSNs technology, developed Ubi. Mon Development - Ubi. Mon is a project based on WSNs technology, developed at Lancaster University with cooperation from Imperial College London Goals of project - Investigation of healthcare delivery by combining wearable and implantable sensors The Ubi. Mon project is concerned with monitoring patients under natural physiological state for detection and prevention of transient but possibly life threatening abnormalities Hardware and software -The Ubi. Mon Body Sensor Network architecture has been designed by using six main components: the sensors, the remote sensing unit, the local processing unit, the central server, the patient database and, the workstations Dublin, March 2008 Pro. Sense Belgrade

Satire Development - Satire (A Software Architecture for smart at. TIRE) is a project Satire Development - Satire (A Software Architecture for smart at. TIRE) is a project based on WSNs technology, developed at University of Illinois with cooperation from University of Virginia Goals of project - Recording the owner’s activity and location for subsequent automated uploading and archiving - Transparency to the user as a design goal Hardware and software - The prototype records human activity and location by using 2 -axis accelerometer and GPS - All is achieved by using commercial off-the-shelf Mica. Z motes - The user interface layer is divided into three sublayers: web-interface, web-server and My. SQL database server Dublin, March 2008 Pro. Sense Belgrade

Alarm. Net Development - Alarm. Net (WSNs for Assisted-Living and Residential-Monitoring) is a project Alarm. Net Development - Alarm. Net (WSNs for Assisted-Living and Residential-Monitoring) is a project based on WSNs technology, developed at University of Virginia Goals of project - Integration of environmental and physiological sensors into heterogeneous architecture - Allowing real-time collection and processing of sensor data Hardware and software - Network consists of Mica. Z motes, gateways, i. PAQ PDAs and, PCs - Sensors in use: infrared motion sensors, dust sensors, temperature, light sensors, pulse and, blood oxygenation sensors - Software components include: Tiny. OS query processor and security modules for motes; Alarm. Gate, Java application for managing power, security and privacy; Data querying applications for PDAs and PCs; Dublin, March 2008 Pro. Sense Belgrade

Bike. Net Development - Bike. Net is a project based on WSNs technology, developed Bike. Net Development - Bike. Net is a project based on WSNs technology, developed at Dartmouth College and Columbia University Goals of project - Exploring personal, bicycle and, environmental sensing using dynamically role-assigned bike area networking Hardware and software - The Bike. Net system hardware is organized into three tiers, the back end server tier, the sensor access point (SAP) tier and the mobile sensor tier - Tiny. OS software architecture Dublin, March 2008 Pro. Sense Belgrade

The Alabama University R&D Development - Alabama University Goals of project - Wearable health The Alabama University R&D Development - Alabama University Goals of project - Wearable health monitoring systems allow an individual to closely monitor changes in her or his vital signs and provide feedback to help maintain an optimal health status - If integrated into a medical system, these systems can even alert medical personnel when life-threatening changes occur Hardware and software - Prototype sensor network for health monitoring utilizes off-the-shelf 802. 15. 4 network nodes and custom-built motion and heart activity sensors ECG, EMG, EEG, blood pressure, tilt and, breathing sensors (Tier 1) - The personal server (PS) application running on a PDA, a cell phone, or a PC (Tier 2) Dublin, March 2008 Pro. Sense Belgrade

Conclusion - New technology: failure vs. success - Some of the applications mentioned are Conclusion - New technology: failure vs. success - Some of the applications mentioned are long term projects and parts of them have been transferred to commercialization, so new products are being developed - Homecare and personal care the areas where medical applications based on sensor networks have the most potential Elderly and people with need of long term care can benefit the most by applying wireless sensor networks in medicine Dublin, March 2008 Pro. Sense Belgrade

Conclusion q Wireless networks for Medical Applications are becoming a hot topic q Wireless Conclusion q Wireless networks for Medical Applications are becoming a hot topic q Wireless networks have an important contribution in improving lives of patients q How things will evolve, future will certainly show Dublin, March 2008 Pro. Sense Belgrade

References [1] Aleksandar Milenković, Chris Otto, Emil Jovanov, Wireless Sensor Networks for Personal Health References [1] Aleksandar Milenković, Chris Otto, Emil Jovanov, Wireless Sensor Networks for Personal Health Monitoring: Issues and an Implementation [2] S. B. Eisenman, N. D. Lane, E. Miluzzo, R. A. Peterson, G-S. Ahn, A. T. Campbell, The Bike. Net Mobile Sensing System for Cyclist Experience Mapping [3] A. Wood, G. Virone, T. Doan, Q. Cao, L. Selavo, Y. Wu, L. Fang, Z. He, S. Lin, J. Stankovic, ALARM-NET: Wireless Sensor Networks for Assisted-Living and Residential Monitoring [4] Raghu K. Ganti, Praveen Jayachandran, Tarek F. Abdelzaher, John A. Stankovic, SATIRE: A Software Architecture for Smart At. TIRE [5] Victor Shnayder, Borrong Chen, Konrad Lorincz, Thaddeus R. F. Fulford. Jones, and Matt Welsh, Sensor Networks for Medical Care [6] Kristof Van Laerhoven, Benny P. L. Lo, Jason W. P. Ng, Surapa Thiemjarus, Rachel King, Simon Kwan, Hans-Werner Gellersen, Morris Sloman, Oliver Wells, Phil Needham, Nick Peters, Ara Darzi, Chris Toumazou and Guang-Zhong Yang, Medical Healthcare Monitoring with Wearable and Implantable Sensors Dublin, March 2008 Pro. Sense Belgrade

Questions mailto: saska 58@gmail. com Dublin, March 2008 Pro. Sense Belgrade Questions mailto: saska [email protected] com Dublin, March 2008 Pro. Sense Belgrade

Thank you for your attention! Dublin, March 2008 Pro. Sense Belgrade Thank you for your attention! Dublin, March 2008 Pro. Sense Belgrade