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Starter Which of these represents Hitler's view of the ideal German women in the 1930’s “Women have the job of being beautiful and bringing children into the world. Like a female bird she should preen herself for her mate…” Goebbels, 1934.
Lo To understand the role of women in Nazi Germany MOTHER AND WIFE THE CULT OF THE FAMILY
WOMEN IN NAZI GERMANY • Women in Nazi Germany played an important role in the idea of the Volksgemeinschaft. They were to provide the foundations of the racially pure community that Hitler hoped to create. • Hitler said “every child that a woman brings into the world is a battle, a battle waged for the existence of her people”.
Separate but equal? • Women and men were supposed to exist in separate spheres according to Nazi ideology. • Hitler said “the world of women is a smaller world. For her world is her husband, her family, her children , and her house”. • The role of women was celebrated and held up as important, however it is difficult not to see women in Nazi Germany as inferior to men.
Children, Church and Kitchen • The three Ks (Kinder, Kirche, Kuche) – motto for women. ‘Children’ for motherhood, ‘Church’ for morality and ‘Kitchen’ for wife and domestic provider. • The entire focus of a females existence in Nazi Germany was supposed to be on domesticity and motherhood. • Girls were educated in domestic and child-rearing skills at school and in the Jungmadel and German Girls league.
Weimar woman versus Nazi maiden • During the years of the Weimar Republic women had become more modern. They were given the vote and enjoyed more employment opportunities (especially in the professions). • The Nazis felt that ‘modern woman’ was a degenerate threat to racial purity and the idea of Volksgemeinschaft. • Wanted women to return to their traditional role.
Task • Using the book pages • Success Criteria? 136 and 137 write • Try to have a least around the figure 10 points written explaining what the around your figure ideal German woman was like. Extension Task - Exam Style Question Briefly describe Nazi policy regarding the role of women (5)
Guidelines for women • Women in Nazi Germany were discouraged from wearing modern clothing (i. e. trousers), told instead to imitate the peasant-style clothing of the past. • Make-up, permed or dyed hair and smoking were all frowned upon. • Women were banned from senior positions within the Nazi party and there were no Nazi female deputies in the Reichstag.
Money for motherhood • Women were • The Nazis wanted to encouraged to have as increase the birth-rate so: many children as -anti-abortion laws were possible. passed. • Financial incentives were offered for prolific -access to contraception and advice about childbearing – grants, contraception was limited. tax-free loans and tax - women were given relief. medals to reward them • Family allowance for having large families payments were – these medals had to be increased. saluted
Other changes • Women’s interests were represented by the Nazi Women’s League. They used propaganda extensively to encourage women to embrace three Ks. • Many professional women lost their jobs and the number of female university students was restricted.
How did women feel about the Nazi view of a woman's role?
Nazi policy on women – a success? • Nazi policy on women • Some German was incoherent and women (noninconsistent – many professional, nonwomen kept their jobs academic) were (especially teachers) positive about the and many women were changes made as employed (and became they enjoyed the powerful) by the Nazis increased status of (Nazi Women’s League motherhood and the etc) domestic role.
• The birth-rate did not increase as the Nazis had hoped – in fact after 1935 the number of births actually declined steadily. • Many women had to be re-employed to help with the preparations for war and with the war itself. • Divorce rate increased. • The cult of the family was unsuccessful as Nazi policy actually caused an increased tension in many families. Many women were unhappy about their new roles (mother versus woman) etc.
Divorce rates The Nazis claimed to be supporters of the traditional family. Does the graph below support this claim? What effect did the following laws have on divorce? 1934 – judges granted the right to legal separation on racial grounds. 1938 – men were given greater grounds on which they might divorce including immorality, racial incompatibility and refusal to have children.
Source analysis - exam preparation Study the painting by Wolf Willrich and identify five ways in which this family illustrates the perfect Nazi ideal. 1. The family has four children, and the mother has just had a baby. 2. The mother is caring for the baby. 3. She wears a plain dress. 4. She has her hair in a bun; she is not wearing make-up. 5. The mother is not skinny. 6. The family lives in a rural/farming environment. 7. The boy wears his Hitler Youth uniform and is making something out of the clay. 8. The younger sister plays with a doll preparation for motherhood. 9. The elder sister has plaited hair (acceptable fashions), and gazes longingly at the baby (longing for motherhood). 10. The family have fair hair, athletic bodies and ruddy complexions - they are the ideal Aryans.
• How useful is this source in showing us what life was like in 1930’s Germany