- Количество слайдов: 21
Starter Study the events in the history of reform of the House of Lords and put them back into the correct sequence. Can you write the correct dates back on each slip of paper? Which event was the most significant in the whole process?
Bicameralism vs Unicameralism n Unicameralism – single legislative chamber n Strength of legislature vis-à-vis executive depends on nature of party system n Bicameralism – two legislative chambers n Weak vs strong bicameralism n n n Strong: 2 chambers have equal power (symmetrical) Weak: lower chamber dominant (asymmetrical) 2 chambers can be (s)elected on different basis n Strong bicameralism in federal states n Weak bicameralism or unicameralism in unitary states n The stronger the bicameralism, the stronger the legislature visà-vis executive in parl’mentary systems
Is the House of Lords in need of further reform? Aims To create a timeline of reform for The Ho. L To debate need for further reform of Ho. L
Your task Read Watts, p. 185 -6 and note the occasions on which the powers of the Ho. L were limited or reformed. Look for these dates in particular: n 1911 & 1949 n 1958 n 1998 n
The history of reform 1911 Parliament Act: Lords lose power to veto bills or delay bills more than two years n 1945 Salisbury Doctrine estd. ensures Labour govt’s manifesto commitments to nationalisation & welfare state are not overturned in Lords n 1949 Parliament Act Lords block Labour steel nationalisation plans. Delaying power cut to one year. n
1958 First life peers created by Harold Macmillan. Women peers arrive. n 1999 House of Lords act, first stage of reform, only 92 hereditary peers left n 2000 Wakeham Report published with recommendations for second stage of reform, including largely appointed chamber n
Nov 2001 Robin Cook, leader of the Commons, unveils the final stage House of Lords reform. Stiff opposition from MPs from all parties to call for only 20% of peers to be elected by the public n March 2004 Reform of House of Lords ‘kicked into the long grass’, possibly until after next election n
Baroness Hayman n n 2006, Speaker of House of Lords 2009 - Supreme Court Jack Straw
Composition of House of Lords 2009 Life Peers Hereditaries TOTAL 4 Lords Spiritual - Labour 210 Conservative 148 48 - 196 Liberal Dems 66 5 - 71 Crossbenchers 169 32 - 201 - - 26 26 Others 15 2 - 17 TOTAL 608 91 26 725 Bishops 214
House of Lords & Executive (1) n Lords once more powerful than Commons n Representation of different social classes n Composition: mainly hereditary peers (& Law Lords, bishops) n Once had unlimited power to veto legislation n Parliament Act 1911 – weakened Lords n n Bill could become law without Lords’ consent after 2 years, money bills after 1 month; aspired to remove hereditaries Parliament Act 1949 – 2 yrs delay cut to 1 year n n n Attlee Govt worried Lords would block radical policies Salisbury Convention emerged UK: weak bicameralism
Your task n Read through the article on the Wakeham Report and the Government’s response. Complete a table similar to the one below: Key features Size of second chamber Elections or appointments? Role of Church leaders Wakeham Govt recommendations
Your task Hold a boxing debate on the following motion: n “This house believes the current House of Lords is undemocratic, out of touch and in dire need of reform” n
Your task You have been asked to form a focus group examining issues relating to the possible reform of the House of Lords. Work in groups of approximately 5 people. Nominate one person to be your chair / scribe. Debate each issue, and try to reach a consensus as a group. The scribe should then record the view of your group on that issue before proceeding to the next one.
Future of the Lords (2) n What is the purpose of a second chamber in a non-federal state? n Function > election? Democracy less important because Lords doesn’t choose, maintain or remove Govt & not involved in finance? n Dual democratic legitimacies? n n Deadlock vs rubberstamp? n Does present Lords show election unnecessary for upper chamber to check Govt and have legitimacy?
Parliamentary Scrutiny n Broader question: how effective are parliamentary checks on the executive? n Debates on Lords reform: praise for Lords’ scrutinising role Strengthen Commons select committees? n But major barrier to parliamentary scrutiny = whipping system and party loyalty n n Some evidence of greater willingness of backbench MPs to rebel against Govt
Electoral Reform for Commons n Parliament weak because 2 -party system n n … which derives from FPTP electoral system PR Coalition Govts n Scotland/Wales n n Executive more answerable to legislature Problem for reformers: Labour & Tories not (usually) interested in PR – prefer single-party majority Govts
Seat-Vote Differentials in UK General Elections, 1964 -2005 Note: Vertical axis measures (% seats won) minus (% votes won). Figures above zero indicate ‘unearned’ seats in parliament; figures below zero indicate ‘deprivation’ of seats; zero indicates perfect proportionality.
Plenary n Imagine you have been set the question ‘Is the House of Lords in need of further reform? ’ Write the introduction to this essay question. What makes a successful introduction?
Getting from satisfactory to superstar! Definition n Context n Problem to discuss / question to resolve n
Satisfactory Good Defines the word Clear definition of loosely. Provides its current limited context. membership and function. Accurate context, e. g. succintly provides setting for debate over reform Star pupil! Precise definition, with accurate context, closing with a question or statement which suggests there is room for debate. Introduction engages the reader and makes them want to read on.
Extension task Try writing a success grid for a good topic paragraph and a good conclusion n Try writing the first topic paragraph of your essay. n