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® ® Standards for geospatial technology and services in cloud computing Steven Ramage, Executive ® ® Standards for geospatial technology and services in cloud computing Steven Ramage, Executive Director Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) 25 th January, DGI 2011, London, UK © 2011 Open Geospatial Consortium

Statement of Acknowledgement Cloud computing may be difficult in a secure/classified environment where security Statement of Acknowledgement Cloud computing may be difficult in a secure/classified environment where security is paramount, and where computers must be standalone and not networked. Security issues may also exist at the firewall level and some geospatial data or services may not be shared in the cloud due to security restrictions. OGC ® © 2011 Open Geospatial Consortium

OGC Standards and Cloud Computing The OGC develops geospatial standards that tackle interoperability: § OGC Standards and Cloud Computing The OGC develops geospatial standards that tackle interoperability: § “We can't share maps on the Web. ” § ”We can't deliver data to different systems. ” § "We don't have a common language to speak about our geospatial data or our services. ” § "We can't find and pull together data from our automated sensors. ” § “We have security issues relating to geospatial data exchange. ” OGC ® © 2011 Open Geospatial Consortium

Meteorology Profiling Adopted variant of INSPIRE methodology for developing conceptual models Develop narrative based Meteorology Profiling Adopted variant of INSPIRE methodology for developing conceptual models Develop narrative based on realistic & focused user scenarios Use cases current aviation future aviation Example datasets ldfire wi severe weather warning service Validate model Check g for landfalling recastin compatibilitysponse plume fo re hurricane OGC ® cy emergen sustained polar science campaign winter highways maintenance climate asse ssment flood riverine ing forecast

OGC ® OGC ®

OGC standards save NASA 26% OGC ® Booze Allen Hamilton Study, 2005 © 2011 OGC standards save NASA 26% OGC ® Booze Allen Hamilton Study, 2005 © 2011 Open Geospatial Consortium

OGC Applicability Michael Weiss-Malik, Google KML product manager “What OGC brings to the table OGC Applicability Michael Weiss-Malik, Google KML product manager “What OGC brings to the table is…everyone has confidence we won’t take advantage of the format or change it in a way that will harm anyone. . . Governments like to say they can publish to OGC KML instead of Google KML “ OGC ® © 2011 Open Geospatial Consortium

OGC and Open Standards Policy • Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) • OGC and Open Standards Policy • Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) • NATO C 3 • US NGA • US Federal Geographic Data Committee • European INSPIRE Directive • European Space Agency • Local, national, regional government • Science and Research OGC ® Making Location Count. . . © 2011 Open Geospatial Consortium

OGC Standards (30+) - Encodings - GML - SLD - Sensor. ML - City. OGC Standards (30+) - Encodings - GML - SLD - Sensor. ML - City. GML - WMC - O&M - Filter Encoding - KML - Symbology Encoding - GML in JPEG 2000 -. . . OGC - Data Services - Sensor Observation Service Coverage Service - Web Feature Service - Web Map Service. . - Catalogue Services - Catalogue Service - Processing Services - Coordinate Transformation - Service Web Processing Service - Portrayal Services. . . ® © 2011 Open Geospatial Consortium

Implementing and Certified Products (600+) http: //www. opengeospatial. org/resource/products OGC ® © 2011 Open Implementing and Certified Products (600+) http: //www. opengeospatial. org/resource/products OGC ® © 2011 Open Geospatial Consortium

OGC members and DGI 2011 OGC ® OGC members and DGI 2011 OGC ®

OGC and Alliance Partners – Primary alliances for standards coordination • • • COMCARE OGC and Alliance Partners – Primary alliances for standards coordination • • • COMCARE Digital Geospatial Information Working Group (DGIWG) Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) OASIS International Organization for Standards (ISO) Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS) National Emergency Number Association (NENA) IEEE Technical Committee 9 (Sensor Web) – Secondary alliances • • Global Spatial Data Infrastructure Association (GSDI) Web 3 D World Wide Web Consortium (W 3 C) Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization International Alliance for Interoperability (IAI) IEEE GRSS and ICEO Taxonomic Data Working Group (TDWG) – Others OGC ® © 2011 Open Geospatial Consortium

De Facto OGC and Alliance Partners OGC De Jure ISO Domains: object/ abstract models, De Facto OGC and Alliance Partners OGC De Jure ISO Domains: object/ abstract models, content, vocabulary Software Interfaces: instantiate domain and de jure standards into Infrastructure Domain OGC OASIS/IETF/ W 3 C Infrastructure: WSDL, UDDI, SOAP, XML, REST Infrastructure ® © 2011 Open Geospatial Consortium

Some IT trends • Rate of geospatial data capture is accelerating. • Complexity of Some IT trends • Rate of geospatial data capture is accelerating. • Complexity of technical and institutional arrangements to enable data production/usefulness is increasing. • Convergence of technologies with each other/Web’s base technologies creates platform for innovation. • Cloud plays an important role in innovation - time to market for ideas is faster when organisations don’t need to invest time and money providing basic computing infrastructure. OGC ® © 2011 Open Geospatial Consortium

OGC Standards and Cloud Computing ESA G-POD Cloud European Space Agency (ESA) G-POD Cloud OGC Standards and Cloud Computing ESA G-POD Cloud European Space Agency (ESA) G-POD Cloud project. Uses cloud computing to process large amounts of earth observation data. Taking advantage of inherent transportability of ESA Grid (G-POD) processing jobs, it couples G-POD with cloud resources to perform complex EO data processing jobs in a sustainable and cost-effective way. G-POD infrastructure uses mainly Grid protocols, models and resources for processing and data access, the basic commitment to application encapsulation and virtualization has made porting to the cloud relatively easy. csse. usc. edu/gsaw 2010/s 11 d/brito. pdf OGC Copyright © 2011, Open Geospatial Consortium

Additional drivers for the cloud • Additional drivers for geospatial cloud computing: Modeling: complexity Additional drivers for the cloud • Additional drivers for geospatial cloud computing: Modeling: complexity requires large computing capacities but on an intermittent basis. • Examples are hydrology flow models, plume modeling, weather forecasting and ocean current modeling. • Data mining often requires extraordinary compute power, memory and storage. OGC ® © 2011 Open Geospatial Consortium

Additional drivers for the cloud • Fusion; massive growth in deployed Internet-connected sensors resulting Additional drivers for the cloud • Fusion; massive growth in deployed Internet-connected sensors resulting in even greater growth in locationreferenced sensor data. • Also huge stores of “traditional” GIS data and other geospatially enabled resources, such as location enabled Internet packets. • Requirement to “fuse” or combine these sources and resources into new forms to improve situational awareness, decision making and user experience. OGC ® © 2011 Open Geospatial Consortium

OGC Standards and Cloud Computing The Cloud concept is not new. For decades, presentations OGC Standards and Cloud Computing The Cloud concept is not new. For decades, presentations have used a “cloud” icon to depict the Internet and/or the Web. Without standards, there would be no Internet or Web: • TCP/IP - (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet • Protocol) basic communication language of the Internet. OGC ® © 2011 Open Geospatial Consortium

OGC Standards and Cloud Computing SAAS PAAS Application platform or middleware for deploying custom OGC Standards and Cloud Computing SAAS PAAS Application platform or middleware for deploying custom applications and services, e. g. Microsoft Windows Azure IAAS OGC End user application as a service, e. g. CRM, such as Salesforce. com Physical infrastructure providing computing, storage and network as a service, e. g. Amazon EC 2 Copyright © 2011, Open Geospatial Consortium

OGC Standards and Cloud Computing Private clouds – managed by an organisation or 3 OGC Standards and Cloud Computing Private clouds – managed by an organisation or 3 rd party. May exist on-premise or off-premise. Community clouds – shared by several organizations. Supports specific community with shared mission or interest. May be managed directly or by 3 d party; reside on- or off-premise. Public clouds – industry suppliers that sell cloud services. Made available to the general public or a large industry group. Hybrid clouds – Two or more clouds (private, community or public) that remain unique entities, but bound by standardized or proprietary technology that enables data and application portability, such as cloud bursting for load balancing between clouds. Source: defensesystems. com Understanding Cloud Formations OGC Copyright © 2011, Open Geospatial Consortium

FGDC Geo. Cloud Sandbox Initiative Similarly, governments want their investments in data to provide FGDC Geo. Cloud Sandbox Initiative Similarly, governments want their investments in data to provide the greatest possible value to the taxpayers. Cloud computing efficiently leverages the investments that government agencies have made in OGC standards development and service oriented spatial data infrastructure (SDI) architecture development over the last decade. http: //www. info. apps. gov/content/when-using-cloud-makessense OGC Copyright © 2011, Open Geospatial Consortium

Do. D tackles information security in the cloud “In order to secure not only Do. D tackles information security in the cloud “In order to secure not only our classified data but also our official-business sensitive but not classified data, we are implementing a private cloud to support these requirements, ” Mihelcic said. “This private cloud is under positive DOD control, hosted in our secure Defense Enterprise Computing Centers, managed by appropriately cleared and certified personnel, directly connected to the DOD’s enterprise networks and securely configured to meet DOD's Security Technical Implementation Guides. ” Dave Mihelcic, Chief Technology Officer, Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA), USA. Jan 20 th, 2011 Source: http: //www. defensesystems. com/Articles/2011/01/24/Defense-IT-1 -DOD-cloud-computingsecurity-issues. aspx OGC ® © 2011 Open Geospatial Consortium

A cautionary approach Pricing and service level agreements; Security. Pricing and service level agreements A cautionary approach Pricing and service level agreements; Security. Pricing and service level agreements are one issue. Is there a good match between your actual usage patterns and the cloud services that are offered? If a cloud provider, for example, is billing by the full hour for pay-as-you-use, and you’re using the service for only a few minutes out of the hour, your use may not justify the cost. OGC Copyright © 2011, Open Geospatial Consortium

Other considerations The cloud is based on a standards framework for service oriented architectures Other considerations The cloud is based on a standards framework for service oriented architectures that provides for “publish, find, bind”: Publish: Resources can be hosted and their description, network location and interfaces can be published in standards-based registries or catalogues. Find: Client applications can search the registries or catalogues to find a resource. Bind: The client application can invoke the server through standard interfaces. What’s missing in this scheme is “Agree. ” OGC Copyright © 2011, Open Geospatial Consortium

OGC and ‘Agreement Management’ Geo Rights Management (Geo. RM) Domain Working Group The Security OGC and ‘Agreement Management’ Geo Rights Management (Geo. RM) Domain Working Group The Security DWG The OGC Geo. XACML Standards Working Group Spatial Law and Policy Committee The Workflow DWG http: //www. wfmc. org/ which is workflow management coalition which works to foster standardized workflow methods that are open. OGC Copyright © 2011, Open Geospatial Consortium

OGC Standards and Cloud Computing Geo Rights Management Domain Working Group http: //www. opengeospatial. OGC Standards and Cloud Computing Geo Rights Management Domain Working Group http: //www. opengeospatial. org/projects/groups/geormwg has produced the Geo. RM Reference Model (Abstract Specification Topic 18). The mission of the Geo. RM Working Group is to coordinate and mature the development and validation of work being done on digital rights management for the geospatial community. Geo. RM will be used to develop OGC standards for open interfaces and encodings that will enable diverse systems to participate in transactions involving geospatial data, services and intellectual property protection. OGC Copyright © 2011, Open Geospatial Consortium

OGC Standards and Cloud Computing The Security Domain Working Group http: //www. opengeospatial. org/projects/groups/securitywg OGC Standards and Cloud Computing The Security Domain Working Group http: //www. opengeospatial. org/projects/groups/securitywg • Authentication (proof of identification) as it is a requirement for establishing Access Control and Licensing. • Access Control as it regulates the availability of geospatial data, mainly available online. • Use of encryption to protect: • the communication establishing reliable mechanisms for business/coalition partners to exchange information, • the geodata in the licensing scenario from being used without appropriate rights, as stated in a license and • the license. OGC Copyright © 2011, Open Geospatial Consortium

Shibboleth IE The OGC Web Services Shibboleth Interoperability Experiment (IE) is advancing best practices Shibboleth IE The OGC Web Services Shibboleth Interoperability Experiment (IE) is advancing best practices for implementing standards on federated security in transactions involving geospatial data and services. http: //www. opengeospatial. org/projects/initiatives/shibbolethie
 The IE, initiated by Cadcorp, EDINA, and Snowflake Software, will demonstrate use of Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) with OGC Web Services including use of Shibboleth (based on ESDIN project). OGC Copyright © 2011, Open Geospatial Consortium

OGC Standards and Cloud Computing The OGC Geo. XACML Standards Working Group http: //www. OGC Standards and Cloud Computing The OGC Geo. XACML Standards Working Group http: //www. opengeospatial. org/projects/groups/geoxacmlsw g developed Geo. XACML, which is based on the OASIS XACML standard. XACML (e. Xtensible Access Control Markup Language) was developed by OASIS (the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards). OGC Copyright © 2011, Open Geospatial Consortium

OASIS and the OGC Copyright © 2011, Open Geospatial Consortium OASIS and the OGC Copyright © 2011, Open Geospatial Consortium

IETF and the OGC More than a decade ago, governments ruled that telephone companies IETF and the OGC More than a decade ago, governments ruled that telephone companies had to implement open location standards to support emergency response. Key motivation behind the Internet Engineering Task Force's (IETF) Presence Information Description Format Location Object extension (PIDF-LO). PIDF-LO specifies how to encode both the existence of a device on a network and the device's location information. A lightweight profile of the GML (3. 0) is the mandatory location information format for all PIDF implementations supporting Geo. PRIV (privacy) element of this standard. OGC Copyright © 2011, Open Geospatial Consortium

IETF and the OGC Geo. PRIV Working Group recently released a draft DHCP [http: IETF and the OGC Geo. PRIV Working Group recently released a draft DHCP [http: //www. webopedia. com/TERM/D/DHCP. html] document that provides for GML encoding (using a lightweight GML profile) of location information provided (optionally) by Internet devices during the DHCP handshake that results in assignment of an IP address to the device. 

This is an open method of converting any device's binary physical location elements to GML. In specifying GML, the Geo. PRIV developers wanted to provide interoperability among emergency response systems (also SDIs, etc. ). OGC Copyright © 2011, Open Geospatial Consortium

OGC Standards and Cloud Computing Spatial Law and Policy Committee In 2009 the OGC OGC Standards and Cloud Computing Spatial Law and Policy Committee In 2009 the OGC Board of Directors created the SLPC http: //www. opengeospatial. org/pressroom/pressreleases/96 4 to provide an open forum for OGC members. Legal and policy advisors convene to discuss the unique and increasingly critical legal and policy issues associated with spatial data and technology (communicated to other groups, such as GSDI Association). OGC Copyright © 2011, Open Geospatial Consortium

OGC Standards and Cloud Computing The Workflow Domain Working Group http: //www. opengeospatial. org/projects/groups/workflowdwg OGC Standards and Cloud Computing The Workflow Domain Working Group http: //www. opengeospatial. org/projects/groups/workflowdwg addresses geospatial workflow issues, including security and licensing issues such as data encryption, authentication, and provenance tracking. OGC Copyright © 2011, Open Geospatial Consortium

Comparison of PAAS clouds (reference to security and geoprocessing services) Byron Ludwig and Serena Comparison of PAAS clouds (reference to security and geoprocessing services) Byron Ludwig and Serena Coetzee, Dept of Computer Science, University of Pretoria, South Africa Users of the cloud have to rely on third parties to provide confidentiality, integrity and availability. The OGC Web Processing Service (WPS) defines a standardised interface that facilitates the publishing of geospatial processes. Parallelisation and distribution of geoprocessing services have received much attention, including running them in the cloud. However, work on security aspects of geoprocessing in the cloud is limited. OGC Copyright © 2011, Open Geospatial Consortium

OGC’s Interoperability Approach • Interoperability Program (IP) - a global, innovative, hands-on prototyping and OGC’s Interoperability Approach • Interoperability Program (IP) - a global, innovative, hands-on prototyping and testing program designed to accelerate interface development and validation, and bring interoperability to the market Rapid Interface Development • Specification Development Program Standards Setting – Consensus processes similar to other Industry consortia (World Wide Web Consortium, OMA, OMG, etc. ). • Outreach and Community Adoption Program – education and training, encourage take up of OGC specifications, business development, communications, etc. OGC ® © 2011 Open Geospatial Consortium Market Adoption

OWS-8 Sponsors • • • Eurocontrol European Space Agency (ESA) Lockheed Martin Corporation (also OWS-8 Sponsors • • • Eurocontrol European Space Agency (ESA) Lockheed Martin Corporation (also providing thread architect) UK Defence Science & Technology Laboratory (DSTL) US National Geospatial Intelligence Agency (NGA) US Geological Survey (USGS) US Army Geospatial Center (AGC) US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) US National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) National Weather Service (NWS) of the US National Oceanographic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) OGC ® © 2011 Open Geospatial Consortium

OWS-8 Threads/sub-threads RFQ response: - 32 organizations - 47 proposals - International activity OGC OWS-8 Threads/sub-threads RFQ response: - 32 organizations - 47 proposals - International activity OGC ® © 2011 Open Geospatial Consortium

Address heterogeneity Characteristic Advantage Consideration Not only does the cloud enable scalability in terms Address heterogeneity Characteristic Advantage Consideration Not only does the cloud enable scalability in terms of compute power, but it will also provide access to a huge array of geospatial software and services. (Sensors, RFID, Lidar) Real-time analytics, asset and resource tracking and other activities underpinned by geospatial data will be greatly enhanced. Information will be coming in from different events and data streams via a number of sensors. This needs to be managed so that value can be derived from all the information coming in from these multiple sources. OGC Web Services (OWS-8) tackling multi-INT Fusion. OGC Sensor Web standards also exist OGC Copyright © 2011, Open Geospatial Consortium

OGC Geo. Synchronisation Service (GSS) GSS Interface candidate standard describes an open standard interface OGC Geo. Synchronisation Service (GSS) GSS Interface candidate standard describes an open standard interface to a software service that allows data collectors to propose changes to be made to a data provider's geospatial features (data about property lines, city population, vehicle location. . . ) Carbon. Cloud Sync is a Cloud service that allows synchronization of geospatial content across a federated deployment of services. It can use any existing deployment of OGC WFS-T. Carbon. Cloud Sync system is vendor neutral and bridges services from ESRI, Intergraph, ERDAS, Cube. Werx, Geo. Server etc. ; providing interoperability to communities. OGC Copyright © 2011, Open Geospatial Consortium

Crowdsourced Updates to OGC-based Cloud… Publisher Live GML/WFS updates from ‘USAID’ to Army, May Crowdsourced Updates to OGC-based Cloud… Publisher Live GML/WFS updates from ‘USAID’ to Army, May 2010…. Reviewer 44 3/16/2018

Publisher creates or changes features on a registered layer Publisher Submits Change Request Follower Publisher creates or changes features on a registered layer Publisher Submits Change Request Follower Publisher Reviewer 1 3 Reviewer Inform Publisher of Approved or Rejected Changes 4 5 Resolution Feed Inform Followers of Changes Replication Feed ATOM Feeds 2 Inform Reviewer of Change Request Approves or Rejects the Change Feed Carbon. Cloud Sync (OGC GSS) on Microsoft Azure Cloud Registered Layers Layer A Schema transposition templates 4 A 0 A 1 An Update Approved Changes on Registered Layers using generated WFS Transactions Synchronized Services (OGC WFS) Feature Layers on Remote Servers are registered for synchronization

Tackle disruption Characteristic Advantage Consideration Rapid configuration and reconfiguration of supply chains (PAAS, IAAS, Tackle disruption Characteristic Advantage Consideration Rapid configuration and reconfiguration of supply chains (PAAS, IAAS, SAAS, DAAS) The freedom to choose and switch on services at short notice is a big attraction. This changes existing Service Level Agreements or introduces new ones, which will mean providing access to or sharing geospatial data and services. Interoperability will be key. OGC enables interoperability through open W*S standards (WMS, WFS, WPS, etc. ) OGC Copyright © 2011, Open Geospatial Consortium

OGC Standards and Cloud Computing OGC Web Services (OWS) standards provide “glue” These Web OGC Standards and Cloud Computing OGC Web Services (OWS) standards provide “glue” These Web services can now be conceived, packaged, marketed – and sometimes most efficiently delivered – as cloud services. OGC Web Services (OWS) standards provide the common “glue” that makes geospatial Web services practical as geospatial cloud services. OGC Copyright © 2011, Open Geospatial Consortium

OGC Standards and Cloud Computing Here are some examples of work being done in OGC Standards and Cloud Computing Here are some examples of work being done in the cloud by OGC member organisations. OGC Copyright © 2011, Open Geospatial Consortium

Cloud Computing § Examples of Saa. S-based delivery using Intergraph software – Res. Publica Cloud Computing § Examples of Saa. S-based delivery using Intergraph software – Res. Publica in Central Europe – Teranet in Ontario, Canada § Many products can be deployed in cloud based scenarios today – Pilot project in Denmark with Geo. Media § Geo. Media Web. Map successfully uploaded on Amazon EC 2 and Microsoft Azure VM Role – Web. Map is being certified on Amazon EC 2 and will be certified on Microsoft Azure § Evaluating cloud Infrastructures and Platforms for inclusion of additional products – Windows Azure – Amazon EC 2

OGC Standards and Cloud Computing OGC Copyright © 2011, Open Geospatial Consortium OGC Standards and Cloud Computing OGC Copyright © 2011, Open Geospatial Consortium

OGC Standards and Cloud Computing ESRI was able to provision Arc. GIS server on OGC Standards and Cloud Computing ESRI was able to provision Arc. GIS server on Amazon EC 2 in less than 2 hours in Haiti. OGC Copyright © 2011, Open Geospatial Consortium

OGC Copyright © 2011, Open Geospatial Consortium OGC Copyright © 2011, Open Geospatial Consortium

OGC Standards and Cloud Computing “Customers can immediately access and integrate most current geospatial OGC Standards and Cloud Computing “Customers can immediately access and integrate most current geospatial data into business analyses, location-based marketing programs and risk management calculations” Geosk Platform and Geosk Library will be powered by Weo. Geo, which is powered by Amazon Web Services OGC Copyright © 2011, Open Geospatial Consortium

OGC Standards and Cloud Computing OGC Copyright © 2011, Open Geospatial Consortium OGC Standards and Cloud Computing OGC Copyright © 2011, Open Geospatial Consortium

OGC Copyright © 2011, Open Geospatial Consortium OGC Copyright © 2011, Open Geospatial Consortium

What is ERDAS APOLLO on the Cloud? • • Comprehensive geospatial data management and What is ERDAS APOLLO on the Cloud? • • Comprehensive geospatial data management and delivery solution on the cloud APOLLO on the Cloud is a fully-loaded package, including: • • • For an affordable subscription-based, monthly fee • • Software license (APOLLO Professional level) Computing infrastructure Storage Bandwidth Pay as you go, cancel anytime Offered by ERDAS and Skygone Cloud • • Facilitated by Skygone Cloud is: – Robust, secure and flexible cloud infrastructure – Strictly focused on cloud-based GIS solutions and implementations – Experienced GIS professionals

Service Level Agreements OGC Copyright © 2011, Open Geospatial Consortium Service Level Agreements OGC Copyright © 2011, Open Geospatial Consortium

Load Balancing OGC Copyright © 2011, Open Geospatial Consortium Photo: ‘Well Balanced’ by amorphity, Load Balancing OGC Copyright © 2011, Open Geospatial Consortium Photo: ‘Well Balanced’ by amorphity, Flickr. com

Elasticity OGC Copyright © 2011, Open Geospatial Consortium Elasticity OGC Copyright © 2011, Open Geospatial Consortium

Scalability OGC Copyright © 2011, Open Geospatial Consortium Photo courtesy of http: //www. artisthenewreligion. Scalability OGC Copyright © 2011, Open Geospatial Consortium Photo courtesy of http: //www. artisthenewreligion. c

Security OGC Copyright © 2011, Open Geospatial Consortium Photo: ‘Security’ by pwpic Flickr. com Security OGC Copyright © 2011, Open Geospatial Consortium Photo: ‘Security’ by pwpic Flickr. com

Federation and Interoperability Customers are selecting cloud services from a number of providers, the Federation and Interoperability Customers are selecting cloud services from a number of providers, the importance of "federation” - or the ability to move from one cloud to another - will be increasingly important. Clearly, support for federation is in its early days, with interoperability standards and interfaces still being defined. But, just as clearly, interoperability is the way forward if cloud computing for the enterprise is to become widely adopted. “Lessons learned" about vendor lock-in during the earlier stages of computing and IT simply won't go away with this latest technology wave. Users want the ability to change providers over time, as they review service contracts - and continue to shop for others. Cloud Computing for the Enterprise Steps Forward: Lessons Learned and Key Takeaways, June 25, 2010 – Jean Bozman, IDC OGC ® © 2011 Open Geospatial Consortium 65

Summary OGC standards and the associated architecture were designed for the cloud (it just Summary OGC standards and the associated architecture were designed for the cloud (it just wasn’t around then). OGC standards aim to provide interoperability across all platforms, the cloud is just another platform. The OGC community is actively working on the cloud, solutions exist now and security issues being tackled. OGC Copyright © 2011, Open Geospatial Consortium

Additional Information • Pending white papers – Geospatial standards and the cloud – Open Additional Information • Pending white papers – Geospatial standards and the cloud – Open standards and open source – Geospatial standards and linked data • Next OGC TC meeting in Bonn, Feb/March 2011 • Meet OGC staff and members at industry events in Africa, Asia, Americas, Europe, India – See OGC website for more information – www. opengeospatial. org/contacts OGC ®

® ® Thank you for your attention sramage@opengeospatial. org © 2011 Open Geospatial ® ® Thank you for your attention [email protected] org © 2011 Open Geospatial