Скачать презентацию STANDARDIZATION OF GEOSYNTHETICS 1 GEO-TEXTILES ARE Скачать презентацию STANDARDIZATION OF GEOSYNTHETICS 1 GEO-TEXTILES ARE

7d378f1c796dccce86b3207256b64e4c.ppt

  • Количество слайдов: 60

STANDARDIZATION OF GEOSYNTHETICS 1 STANDARDIZATION OF GEOSYNTHETICS 1

§ GEO-TEXTILES ARE FABRICS (WOVEN, NON-WOVEN, KNITTED OR COMPOSITES) USED IN, WITHIN OR BENEATH § GEO-TEXTILES ARE FABRICS (WOVEN, NON-WOVEN, KNITTED OR COMPOSITES) USED IN, WITHIN OR BENEATH THE SOIL. § THESE CONSIST OF MAINLY THE TEXTILE MATERIALS MADE OF POLYESTER, POLYPROPYLENE, GLASS FIBRES, JUTE AND COIR. § JUTE AND COIR GEO-TEXTILES HAVE ADDITIONAL ADVANTAGE OF BEING ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY AND BIODEGRADABLE WHICH ARE MAINLY USED FOR PREVENTION OF SOIL EROSION THROUGH VEGETATION. 2

§ GEO-TEXTILES HAVE A LARGE POTENTIAL FOR USE IN INDIA. § THE INDIAN RAILWAYS § GEO-TEXTILES HAVE A LARGE POTENTIAL FOR USE IN INDIA. § THE INDIAN RAILWAYS ALONE HAS IDENTIFIED ABOUT 20000 KM OF RAILWAY TRACK FOR STABILIZATION. § THE NATIONAL INTEGRATESD HIGHWAY PROJECT LAUNCHED BY THE PRIME MINISTER ENVISAGES ENORMOUS USE OF GEO -SYNTHETICS. § THESE PROJECTS HAVE LEAD TO HUGE DEMAND CONSUMPTION OF GEO-TEXTILES IN THE COUNTRY. 3

DEVELOPMENT OF STANDARDS ON GEO-SYNTHETICS IN INDIA 4 DEVELOPMENT OF STANDARDS ON GEO-SYNTHETICS IN INDIA 4

COMPANY STANDARDS § IN INDIA VARIOUS STANDARDS ON GEO-SYNTHETICS WERE EARLIER ATTEMPTED AND PREPARED COMPANY STANDARDS § IN INDIA VARIOUS STANDARDS ON GEO-SYNTHETICS WERE EARLIER ATTEMPTED AND PREPARED BY THE USER DEPARTMENTS TO A LIMITED EXTENT WHICH NORMALLY COVERED ONLY SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS PERTAINING TO THEIR USE. – FOR EXAMPLE, THE MINISTRY OF ROAD TRANSPORT AND HIGHWAYS (MRT&H) AND INDIAN ROADS CONGRESS (IRC) HAVE EVOLVED THE STANDARDS RELATED TO USE OF GEOSYNTHETICS FOR ROAD, ROAD PAVEMENT , BRIDGE WORKS ETC. – SIMILARLY RDSO HAS EVOLVED STANDARDS RELATED TO USE OF GEO-SYNTHETICS FOR RAIL BED STABILIZATION. 5

N ATIONAL STANDARDIZATION 6 N ATIONAL STANDARDIZATION 6

A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH FOR STANDARDIZATION OF GEO-SYNTHETICS AT NATIONAL LEVEL WAS FIRST ADOPTED BY A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH FOR STANDARDIZATION OF GEO-SYNTHETICS AT NATIONAL LEVEL WAS FIRST ADOPTED BY BIS IN LATE 1980 S THROUGH A NETWORK OF TWO TECHNICAL COMMITTEES, Ø GEO-TEXTILES AND INDUSTRIAL FABRICS SECTIONAL COMMITTEE, TX 30 AND Ø GEO-SYNTHETICS SECTIONAL COMMITTEE, WRD 25. TX 30 IS LOOKING AFTER STANDARDIZATION WORK RELATED TO TESTING AND SPECIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR GEO-TEXTILES MADE OF POLYESTER, POLYPROPYLENE, JUTE, COIR AND OTHER FIBRES HAVING WOVEN/NON-WOVEN/KNITTED STRUCTURE WHILE WRD 25 MAINLY COVERS GEO-MEMBRANES/GEO-GRIDS/GEO-COMPOSITES AND ALLIED PRODUCTS (NATURAL AND POLYMERIC) FOR RIVER VALLEY AND OTHER CIVIL ENGINEERING RELATED APPLICATIONS. OF LATE WRD 25 HAS BEEN MERGED WITH TX 30 7

§ A PROPERLY DESIGNED GEO-SYNTHETIC MATERIAL IS BELIEVED TO PERFORM THE FOLLOWING FUNCTIONS SEPARATELY § A PROPERLY DESIGNED GEO-SYNTHETIC MATERIAL IS BELIEVED TO PERFORM THE FOLLOWING FUNCTIONS SEPARATELY OR IN CONJUNCTION, IN DIFFERENT APPLICATION AREAS: – – – SEPARATION FILTRATION AND DRAINAGE INITIAL REINFORCEMENT CONTROL OF SURFACE SOIL DETACHMENT VEGETATION OR BIO-TECHNICAL SUPPORT 8

NEED FOR TESTING § PRODUCTS ARE TESTED FOR THE FOLLOWING REASONS: * QUALITY ASSURANCE NEED FOR TESTING § PRODUCTS ARE TESTED FOR THE FOLLOWING REASONS: * QUALITY ASSURANCE AND CONTROL * SETTING AND MAINTAINING PERFORMANCE STANDARDS * INVESTIGATION OF COMPLAINTS * PRODUCT DEVELOPMENTS AND RESEARCH 9

§ THE FOLLOWING PROPERTIES OF GEOSYNTHETICS ARE IMPORTANT FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF PERFORMANCE OF § THE FOLLOWING PROPERTIES OF GEOSYNTHETICS ARE IMPORTANT FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF PERFORMANCE OF GEO-TEXTILES DURING USE : 10

§ § § § APPARENT OPENING SIZE WATER PERMITTIVITY WATER TRANSMITTIVITY CREEP BEHAVIOUR PUNCTURE § § § § APPARENT OPENING SIZE WATER PERMITTIVITY WATER TRANSMITTIVITY CREEP BEHAVIOUR PUNCTURE RESISTANCE ABRASION RESISTANCE THICKNESS AT SPECIFIED PRESSURES MASS PER UNIT AREA TENSILE PROPERTIES TEAR STRENGTH MICROBIAL RESISTANCE TO WEATHERING (UV LIGHT, WATER AND HEAT ( JOINT/SEAM STRENGTH, THICKNESS ETC. 11

§ GEO-TEXTILES HAVE SPECIFIC CONSTRUCTIONS AND WORK IN SPECIFIC SOIL CONDITIONS AND END USES, § GEO-TEXTILES HAVE SPECIFIC CONSTRUCTIONS AND WORK IN SPECIFIC SOIL CONDITIONS AND END USES, THE TEST METHODS USED FOR ORDINARY TEXTILES ARE NOT APPLICABLE TO THEM. § THE DEGREE OF BENEFITS OFFERED BY GEOTEXTILE MATERIALS TO SOIL FABRIC AGGREGATE SYSTEM DEPENDS TO A LARGE EXTENT ON THE PROPERTIES OF THE SOIL AS WELL AS THE FABRIC USED § KEEPING THIS IN VIEW, BIS HAS PUBLISHED INDIAN STANDARDS ON GEO-SYNTHETICS 12

§ IS 13321(PT 1): 1992 GLOSSARY OF TERMS FOR GEOSYNTHETICS, PART I TERMS USED § IS 13321(PT 1): 1992 GLOSSARY OF TERMS FOR GEOSYNTHETICS, PART I TERMS USED IN MATERIALS AND PROPERTIES THIS STANDARD IS COMPILATION OF THE TERMS RELATING TO MATERIAL AND PROPERTIES, LIKE ABSORPTION, APPARENT OPENING SIZE, BIO-DEGRADABILITY, BONDING, BREAKING LOAD, TOUGHNESS, CHEMICALLY BONDED NON -WOVEN FABRIC, CLOGGING, COATED FABRICS, COMPRESSED THICKNESS, DISCONTINUOUS FIBRE, ELASTIC LIMIT, EXTRUDED MESH, EXTRUDER FABRIC, COMPOSITE, FABRIC KNIT, FABRIC NON-WOVEN, BREAKING LOAD, GEO-CELL, GEO-COMPOSITE, GEO-GRID, GEOMEMBRANE, INDEX TEST, INITIAL TENSILE MODULUS, OFFSET, TENSILE MODULUS, STIFFNESS. 13

§ IS 13326(PT 1): 1992 - METHOD OF TEST FOR THE EVALUATION OF INTERFACE § IS 13326(PT 1): 1992 - METHOD OF TEST FOR THE EVALUATION OF INTERFACE FRICTION BETWEEN GEOSYNTHETICS AND SOIL PART I MODIFIED DIRECT SHEAR TECHNIQUE THIS STANDARD PROVIDES DETAILS ON TEST METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF COEFFICIENT OF INTERFACE FRICTION BETWEEN A GIVEN SOIL (INCLUDING AGGREGATE AND BALLAST) AND A GEO-SYNTHETIC USED FOR REINFORCEMENT PURPOSES. THIS METHOD IS ALSO APPLICABLE FOR ASSESSING THE FRICTION BETWEEN A GEO-MEMBRANE AND THE NATURAL OR COMPACTED SOIL IN ORDER TO ANALYZE THE STABILITY OF THE CANAL/RESERVOIR LINING. 14

§ IS 14986: 2001 GUIDELINES FOR APPLICATION OF JUTE GEO-TEXTILE FOR RAIN WATER EROSION § IS 14986: 2001 GUIDELINES FOR APPLICATION OF JUTE GEO-TEXTILE FOR RAIN WATER EROSION CONTROL IN ROAD AND RAILWAY EMBANKMENT AND HILL SLOPES THIS STANDARD HAS BEEN PREPARED BASED ON THE DATA PROVIDED BY THE INDIGENOUS MANUFACTURERS AND TAKING INTO CONSIDERATION THE PRACTICE PREVALENT IN INDIA. THE SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS, SELECTION, INSTALLATION METHOD, MONITORING AND REQUIREMENT OF PACKING HAVE BEEN COVERED IN THIS STANDARD 15

§ IS 13162(PT 2): 1991 GEO-TEXTILES - METHODS OF TEST PART 2: DETERMINATION OF § IS 13162(PT 2): 1991 GEO-TEXTILES - METHODS OF TEST PART 2: DETERMINATION OF RESISTANCE TO EXPOSURE OF ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT AND WATER (XENON ARC TYPE) THIS STANDARD PRESCRIBES A METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF RESISTANCE OF GEOTEXTILES TO THE EXPOSURE OF ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT AND WATER. THE LIGHT AND WATER EXPOSURE APPARATUS EMPLOYS A XENON-ARC LIGHT SOURCE. 16

§ Geo-textiles are manufactured using a variety of processes and formulations of polymers and § Geo-textiles are manufactured using a variety of processes and formulations of polymers and each geo- textile varies in its sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation. Ultraviolet radiation from the sun varies with duration of exposure, angle of inclination of the sun, atmospheric conditions, topography, and geography. The Xenon-arc test cannot simulate all these variables, so it is not likely that Xenon-arc test results will relate directly to sunlight exposure test results for a specific fabric at a given site. § The method prescribed is suitable for comparative evaluation of geotextiles and is not recommended for acceptance testing of commercial shipments since information on inter-laboratory precision is incomplete. 17

§ IS 13162 (PT 3): 1992 GEO-TEXTILES - METHODS OF TEST PART 3: DETERMINATION § IS 13162 (PT 3): 1992 GEO-TEXTILES - METHODS OF TEST PART 3: DETERMINATION OF THICKNESS AT SPECIFIED PRESSURE THIS STANDARD PRESCRIBES TWO METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF THE THICKNESS OF GEO-TEXTILES AT SPECIFIED PRESSURES AND DEFINES AT WHICH PRESSURE THE NOMINAL THICKNESS IS DETERMINED. METHOD A ( LOADING EACH SET OF SPECIMENS ) SHALL BE USED WHEN USING AN APPARATUS THE CONSTRUCTION OF WHICH CAUSES A HIGH DEGREE OF TIME AND/OR LABOUR WHEN CHANGING THE PRESSURE, OTHERWISE METHOD B (INCREMENTAL LOADING OF INDIVIDUAL SPECIMENS ) SHALL BE USED. THE METHOD IS APPLICABLE TO ALL TYPES OF GEO-TEXTILES. 18

§ Since the geotextiles are compressible, the thickness measure will depend upon the pressure § Since the geotextiles are compressible, the thickness measure will depend upon the pressure applied. For this reason it may be desirable to measure thickness at a series of pressures and to study the general relationship between thickness and pressure. 19

§ IS 13162 (PT 4): 1992 GEO-TEXTILES - METHODS OF TEST PART 4: DETERMINATION § IS 13162 (PT 4): 1992 GEO-TEXTILES - METHODS OF TEST PART 4: DETERMINATION OF PUNCTURE RESISTANCE BY FALLING CONE METHOD Geotextiles used as separator and filter in earth constructions are normally subjected to dynamic impact. During the installation process, crushed rock or boulders are dropped onto a fabric supported by weak, water-saturated soil which may penetrate and thus damage the geotextile. It is, therefore, desirable that the geotextiles should resist the sudden impact and penetration of such particles. 20

THIS STANDARD PRESCRIBES A METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF THE SIZE OF THE HOLE MADE THIS STANDARD PRESCRIBES A METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF THE SIZE OF THE HOLE MADE BY DROPPING A STANDARD BRASS CONE ONTO A GEO-TEXTILE, SUPPORTED BY WATER, AND TO PROVIDE AN INDICATION OF THE ABILITY OF THAT FABRIC TO RESIST A SUDDEN IMPACT. 21

§ IS 13162 (PT 5): 1991 GEO-TEXTILES - METHODS OF TEST PART 5: DETERMINATION § IS 13162 (PT 5): 1991 GEO-TEXTILES - METHODS OF TEST PART 5: DETERMINATION OF TENSILE PROPERTIES USING A WIDE WIDTH STRIP THIS STANDARD PRESCRIBES AN INDEX TEST METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF THE TENSILE PROPERTIES OF GEO-TEXTILES AND RELATED PRODUCTS USING A WIDE WIDTH STRIP. THE METHOD IS APPLICABLE TO MOST GEO-TEXTILES INCLUDING WOVEN FABRICS, NON-WOVENS, LAYERED FABRICS, KNITTED FABRICS AND FELTS. THE METHOD IS APPLICABLE TO GEO-GRIDS BUT THE SPECIMEN DIMENSIONS MAY NEED TO BE ALTERED. THIS METHOD COVERS THE MEASUREMENT OF LOAD ELONGATION CHARACTERISTICS AND INCLUDES PROCEDURES FOR CALCULATION OF SECANT STIFFNESS, MAXIMUM-LOAD PER UNIT WIDTH, STRAIN AT MAXIMUM LOAD AND EQUIVALENT STRAIN AT MAXIMUM LOAD. PROCEDURES FOR MEASURING THE TENSILE PROPERTIES OF BOTH CONDITIONED AND WET SPECIMENS ARE INCLUDED. THE MEASURING DEVICE CAN BE EITHER MECHANICAL, OPTICAL OR INFRA-RED. 22

The basic distinction between this method and other methods for measuring tensile properties of The basic distinction between this method and other methods for measuring tensile properties of fabrics, is the width of the specimen. This width by contrast is greater than the length of the specimen. Some geotextiles have a tendency to contract ( neck down ) under load in the gauge length area. The width of the specimen specified in this method reduces the contraction effect of those fabrics and provides a closer relationship to expected fabric behaviour in the field and a standard comparision of geotextiles. 23

§ IS 14293: 1995 GEO-TEXTILES - METHODS OF TEST FOR TRAPEZOID TEARING STRENGTH THIS § IS 14293: 1995 GEO-TEXTILES - METHODS OF TEST FOR TRAPEZOID TEARING STRENGTH THIS TEST METHOD IS USED TO MEASURE THE TEARING STRENGTH OF WOVEN OR NON-WOVEN GEO-TEXTILES BY THE TRAPEZOID METHOD. THIS TEST METHOD MAY BE USED WITH CONSTANT RATE OFTRAVERSE (CRT) OR CONSTANT-RATE-OF-EXTENSION (CRE) TYPE TENSION MACHINES. HOWEVER, THERE MAY BE NO OVERALL CORRELATION BETWEEN THE RESULTS OBTAINED WITH THE CRT MACHINE AND THE CRE MACHINE. CONSEQUENTLY, THESE TWO TENSION TESTERS CANNOT BE USED INTERCHANGEABLY. IN CASE OF CONTROVERSY, THE CRE MACHINE SHALL PREVAIL. 24

§ IS 14294: 1995 GEO-TEXTILES - METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF APPARENT OPENING SIZE BY § IS 14294: 1995 GEO-TEXTILES - METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF APPARENT OPENING SIZE BY DRY SIEVING TECHNIQUES THIS INDIAN STANDARD SPECIFIES METHOD TO DETERMINE APPARENT OPENING SIZE (AOS) BY DRY SIEVING TECHNIQUE. THIS METHOD IS SUITABLE FOR AOS 60 MICRONS AND ABOVE. 25

§ IS 14324: 1995 GEO-TEXTILES - METHODS OF TEST FOR DETERMINATION OF WATER PERMEABILITYPERMITTIVITY § IS 14324: 1995 GEO-TEXTILES - METHODS OF TEST FOR DETERMINATION OF WATER PERMEABILITYPERMITTIVITY THIS INDIAN STANDARD SPECIFIES METHODS FOR DETERMINING THE WATER PERMEABILITY OF GEOTEXTILES IN TERMS OF PERMITTIVITY UNDER STANDARD TESTING CONDITIONS, IN THE UNCOMPRESSED STATE. THE STANDARD COVERS TWO PROCEDURES -THE CONSTANT HEAD METHOD AND THE FALLING HEAD METHOD. 26

§ IS 14706: 1999 GEO-TEXTILES - SAMPLING AND PREPARATION OF TEST SPECIMEN THIS INDIAN § IS 14706: 1999 GEO-TEXTILES - SAMPLING AND PREPARATION OF TEST SPECIMEN THIS INDIAN STANDARD PROVIDES GENERAL PRINCIPLES FOR SAMPLING OF GEOTEXTILES AND PREPARATION OF TEST SPECIMENS FROM THE SAMPLES. THE PRINCIPLES ARE APPLICABLE TO ALL GEOTEXTILES SUPPLIED IN ROLLS. 27

§ IS 14714: 1999 GEO-TEXTILES DETERMINATION OF ABRASION RESISTANCE THIS TEST METHOD COVERS DETERMINATION § IS 14714: 1999 GEO-TEXTILES DETERMINATION OF ABRASION RESISTANCE THIS TEST METHOD COVERS DETERMINATION OF RESISTANCE OF GEOTEXTILES TO ABRASION USING AN ABRASION TESTER. THE TEST METHOD IS APPLICABLE TO ALL GEO-TEXTILES AND IS NOT SUITABLE FOR GEO-SYNTHETICS. 28

§ IS 14715: 2000 GEO-TEXTILES - GEO-JUTE FABRICS (JUTE GEO-TEXTILES) WOVEN - SPECIFICATION THE § IS 14715: 2000 GEO-TEXTILES - GEO-JUTE FABRICS (JUTE GEO-TEXTILES) WOVEN - SPECIFICATION THE STANDARD PRESCRIBES CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS AND OTHER DETAILS OF WOVEN JUTE GEOTEXTILES. WOVEN JUTE GEO-TEXTILES ARE USED FOR STABILIZATION OF SOIL THROUGH VEGETATION AGAINST EROSION OF LANDSCAPE AND SOIL SLOPES AS WELL AS PROTECTION OF RIVER BANK AGAINST EROSION AND SIMILAR APPLICATIONS INVOLVING SEPARATION AND FILTRATION. THE STANDARD IS BASED ON WORK DONE BY INDIAN JUTE INDUSTRY’S RESEARCH ASSOCIATION, CALCUTTA IN THIS FIELD. 29

§ IS 14716: 1999 GEO-TEXTILES DETERMINATION OF MASS PER UNIT AREA THIS STANDARD SPECIFIES § IS 14716: 1999 GEO-TEXTILES DETERMINATION OF MASS PER UNIT AREA THIS STANDARD SPECIFIES A METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF THE MASS PER UNIT AREA OF GEO-TEXTILES FOR IDENTIFICATION PURPOSES AND FOR USE IN TECHNICAL DATA SHEETS. 30

§ IS 14739: 1999 GEO-TEXTILES - METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF CREEP THIS STANDARD DESCRIBES § IS 14739: 1999 GEO-TEXTILES - METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF CREEP THIS STANDARD DESCRIBES A METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE LOAD-STRAINTIME RELATIONSHIP OF GEO-TEXTILES AT A GIVEN TEMPERATURE FROM A SERIES OF CONSTANT LOAD TESTS. 31

§ IS 15060: 2001 GEO-TEXTILES - TENSILE TEST FOR JOINTS/SEAMS BY WIDE WIDTH METHOD § IS 15060: 2001 GEO-TEXTILES - TENSILE TEST FOR JOINTS/SEAMS BY WIDE WIDTH METHOD THIS STANDARD SPECIFIES AN INDEX TEST METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF THE TENSILE PROPERTIES OF JOINTS AND SEAMS IN GEO-TEXTILES AND RELATED PRODUCTS, USING A WIDE-WIDTH STRIP. THE METHOD IS APPLICABLE TO MOST GEO-TEXTILES AND GEO-TEXTILE-RELATED PRODUCTS. IT IS ALSO APPLICABLE TO GEO-GRIDS, BUT THE SPECIMEN DIMENSIONS MAY NEED TO BE ALTERED. PROCEDURES FOR MEASURING THE TENSILE PROPERTIES OF BOTH CONDITIONED AND WET SPECIMENS ARE INCLUDED. SOME MODIFICATION OF TECHNIQUES MAY BE NECESSARY FOR PARTICULAR GEO-TEXTILES, E. G. STRONG GEO-TEXTILES, MESHES OR GEO-TEXTILES MADE FROM GLASS FIBRE, TO PREVENT THEM FROM SLIPPING IN THE JAWS OR BEING DAMAGED AS A RESULT OF BEING GRIPPED IN THE JAWS. THE BASIC TEST FOR JOINTS OR SEAMS IN ALL KINDS OF GEO-TEXTILES OR RELATED PRODUCTS USES TEST SPECIMENS OF 200 MM WIDTH, WITH THE PROVISION FOR THE SEAM OR JOINT TO EXTEND FOR 25 MM ON EACH SIDE IN ORDER TO PROVIDE JOINT OR SEAM STABILITY DURING THE TEST. 32

PRODUCT STANDARDS § GEO-SYNTHETICS FOR HIGHWAYS – SPECIFICATION (UNDER PRINT) § This standard specifies PRODUCT STANDARDS § GEO-SYNTHETICS FOR HIGHWAYS – SPECIFICATION (UNDER PRINT) § This standard specifies requirements for geo -synthetics made from polyolefin or polyester material. 33

§ GRADES § Geo-synthetic material shall be of following three grades depending upon the § GRADES § Geo-synthetic material shall be of following three grades depending upon the survivability conditions: § a) Grade I - For severe or harsh survivability conditions where there is a greater potential for geo-textile damage. § b) Grade II - For typical survivability conditions; this is the default classification to be used in the absence of site specific information. § c) Grade III - For mild survivability conditions. 34

§ PVC GEO-MEMBRANES FOR LINING – SPECIFICATION This standard covers PVC geo-membrane (Flexible poly § PVC GEO-MEMBRANES FOR LINING – SPECIFICATION This standard covers PVC geo-membrane (Flexible poly vinyl chloride) lining, 0. 30 mm, 0. 50 mm, 0. 75 mm, 1. 00 mm and 1. 50 mm in thickness, for use in canal, pond and reservoir lining to control seepage and for proper disposal of industrial effluents, solid waste management, etc. The material is also suitable for lining of roof/terrace. 35

§ § § Length and Thickness, Specific gravity Tensile strength Elongation at break Tear § § § Length and Thickness, Specific gravity Tensile strength Elongation at break Tear Strength 36

§ § § § Puncture resistance, Low temperature crack resistance Hydrostatic resistance Seam strength § § § § Puncture resistance, Low temperature crack resistance Hydrostatic resistance Seam strength Volatile loss Peel strength Resistance to soil burial Stability to UV radiations 37

§ TEXTILES — OPEN WEAVE COIR BHOOVASTRA— SPECIFICATION § This standard prescribes constructional details § TEXTILES — OPEN WEAVE COIR BHOOVASTRA— SPECIFICATION § This standard prescribes constructional details and other requirements of open weave coir bhoovastra (CBV) of three different grades used in prevention of erosion of soil and reinforcement of paved and unpaved roads. 38

GRADES § The open weave CBV shall have the following grades based on the GRADES § The open weave CBV shall have the following grades based on the mass: § a) Grade I having mass of 400 g/m 2, § b) Grade II having mass of 700 g/m 2, and § c) Grade III having mass of 900 g/m 2. 39

§ § § § Requirements covered are: Mass per unit area, Width, Length, Thickness § § § § Requirements covered are: Mass per unit area, Width, Length, Thickness at 20 k. Pa, Break load, Trapezoidal tearing strength, Mesh size, 40

§ IN ADDITION TO ABOVE PUBLISHED STANDARDS, CERTAIN SUBJECTS FOR STANDARDIZATION ARE AT DIFFERENT § IN ADDITION TO ABOVE PUBLISHED STANDARDS, CERTAIN SUBJECTS FOR STANDARDIZATION ARE AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF FORMULATION: -GLOSSARY OF TERMS FOR GEO-SYNTHETICS FOR FUNCTIONAL AND APPLICATION SYSTEMS -IDENTIFICATION, STORAGE AND HANDLING OF GEO-SYNTHETICS -COIR GEO-TEXTILES FOR EROSION CONTROL ALONG ROAD, RAILWAY EMBANKMENT AND HILL SLOPES - Woven jute Goetextiles -CODE OF PRACTICE FOR REINFORCED SOIL STRUCTURES USING GEO-SYNTHETICS MATERIALS FOR ALL APPLICATIONS 41

INTERNATIONAL SCENARIO 42 INTERNATIONAL SCENARIO 42

AT THE INTERNATIONAL LEVEL, STANDARDS FOR GEO-SYNTHETICS ARE FORMULATED BY THE TECHNICAL COMMITTEE GEOSYNTHETICS AT THE INTERNATIONAL LEVEL, STANDARDS FOR GEO-SYNTHETICS ARE FORMULATED BY THE TECHNICAL COMMITTEE GEOSYNTHETICS ISO/TC 221 OF THE INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION (ISO). 43

INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS (ISO) 44 INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS (ISO) 44

§ ISO 9863 -1: 2005 GEO-SYNTHETICS -- DETERMINATION OF THICKNESS AT SPECIFIED PRESSURES -- § ISO 9863 -1: 2005 GEO-SYNTHETICS -- DETERMINATION OF THICKNESS AT SPECIFIED PRESSURES -- PART 1: SINGLE LAYERS § ISO 9863 -2: 1996 GEO-TEXTILES AND GEO-TEXTILE-RELATED PRODUCTS -- DETERMINATION OF THICKNESS AT SPECIFIED PRESSURES -- PART 2: PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINATION OF THICKNESS OF SINGLE LAYERS OF MULTILAYER PRODUCTS § ISO 9864: 2005 GEO-SYNTHETICS -- TEST METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF MASS PER UNIT AREA OF GEO-TEXTILES AND GEO-TEXTILE-RELATED PRODUCTS § ISO 10318: 2005 GEO-SYNTHETICS -- TERMS AND DEFINITIONS 45

§ ISO 10319: 1993 GEO-TEXTILES -- WIDE-WIDTH TENSILE TEST § ISO 10320: 1999 GEO-TEXTILES § ISO 10319: 1993 GEO-TEXTILES -- WIDE-WIDTH TENSILE TEST § ISO 10320: 1999 GEO-TEXTILES AND GEO-TEXTILE-RELATED PRODUCTS -- IDENTIFICATION ON SITE § ISO 10321: 1992 GEO-TEXTILES -- TENSILE TEST FOR JOINTS/SEAMS BY WIDE-WIDTH METHOD § ISO/TR 10722 -1: 1998 GEO-TEXTILES AND GEO-TEXTILE-RELATED PRODUCTS -- PROCEDURE FOR SIMULATING DAMAGE DURING INSTALLATION -- PART 1: INSTALLATION IN GRANULAR MATERIALS § ISO 11058: 1999 GEO-TEXTILES AND GEO-TEXTILE-RELATED PRODUCTS -- DETERMINATION OF WATER PERMEABILITY CHARACTERISTICS NORMAL TO THE PLANE, WITHOUT LOAD 46

§ ISO/TR 12960: 1998 GEO-TEXTILES AND GEO-TEXTILE-RELATED PRODUCTS -SCREENING TEST METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE § ISO/TR 12960: 1998 GEO-TEXTILES AND GEO-TEXTILE-RELATED PRODUCTS -SCREENING TEST METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE RESISTANCE TO LIQUIDS § ISO 13426 -1: 2003 GEO-TEXTILES AND GEO-TEXTILE-RELATED PRODUCTS -STRENGTH OF INTERNAL STRUCTURAL JUNCTIONS -- PART 1: GEO-CELLS § ISO 13426 -2: 2005 GEO-TEXTILES AND GEO-TEXTILE-RELATED PRODUCTS -STRENGTH OF INTERNAL STRUCTURAL JUNCTIONS -- PART 2: GEOCOMPOSITES § ISO 13427: 1998 GEO-TEXTILES AND GEO-TEXTILE-RELATED PRODUCTS -ABRASION DAMAGE SIMULATION (SLIDING BLOCK TEST) § ISO 13428: 2005 GEO-SYNTHETICS -- DETERMINATION OF THE PROTECTION EFFICIENCY OF A GEO-SYNTHETIC AGAINST IMPACT DAMAGE 47

§ ISO 13431: 1999 GEO-TEXTILES AND GEO-TEXTILE-RELATED PRODUCTS -- DETERMINATION OF TENSILE CREEP AND § ISO 13431: 1999 GEO-TEXTILES AND GEO-TEXTILE-RELATED PRODUCTS -- DETERMINATION OF TENSILE CREEP AND CREEP RUPTURE BEHAVIOUR § ISO 13433: 2006 GEO-SYNTHETICS -- DYNAMIC PERFORATION TEST (CONE DROP TEST) § ISO/TR 13434: 1998 GEO-TEXTILES AND GEO-TEXTILE-RELATED PRODUCTS -- GUIDELINES ON DURABILITY § ISO 13437: 1998 GEO-TEXTILES AND GEO-TEXTILE-RELATED PRODUCTS -- METHOD FOR INSTALLING AND EXTRACTING SAMPLES IN SOIL, AND TESTING SPECIMENS IN LABORATORY § ISO 13438: 2004 GEO-TEXTILES AND GEO-TEXTILE-RELATED PRODUCTS -- SCREENING TEST METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE RESISTANCE TO OXIDATION 48

ASTM STANDARDS 49 ASTM STANDARDS 49

Sr. No. TEST PARAMETERS ASTM 1 Apparent Opening Size D 4751 2 Mass per Sr. No. TEST PARAMETERS ASTM 1 Apparent Opening Size D 4751 2 Mass per unit area D 5261 3 CBR Puncture Resistance D 6241 4 Index Puncture Resistance D 4833 5 Grab breaking load & elongation D 4632 6 Trapezoid Tearing Strength D 4533 7 Tensile Properties of Geotextiles by the Wide-Width Strip Method D 4595 8 Nominal Thickness of Geosynthetics D 5199 9 Water Permeability by Permittivity D 4491 10 Hydraulic Transmissivity of a Geosynthetic Using a Constant Head D 4716 50

Sr. No. TEST PARAMETERS 11 Dynamic peroration by Cone Drop 12 Biological Clogging of Sr. No. TEST PARAMETERS 11 Dynamic peroration by Cone Drop 12 Biological Clogging of Geotextiles D 1987 13 Bursting Strength-Hydraulic D 3886 14 , , ASTM , , - Ball D 3887 15 Tensile Properties of Geogrids by the Single or Multi-Rib. Tensile Method D 6637 16 Strength of Sewn or Thermally D 4884 Bonded Seams of Geotextiles 17 Deterioration of Geotextile by Exposure to Light, Moisture & Heat 18 Microbiological degradation D 4355 51

Sr. No. TEST PARAMETERS ASTM 19 Interface Friction between Soil & Geotextile by Direct Sr. No. TEST PARAMETERS ASTM 19 Interface Friction between Soil & Geotextile by Direct Shear Method D 5321 20 Bond Strength (Ply Adhesion) of Geocomposites D 7005 21 Oxidative Induction Time of Polyolefin Geosynthetics by High Pressure Differential Scanning Calorimetry D 5885 22 Effect of Temperature on stability of Geotextile D 4594 23 Permittivity of Geotextiles Under Load D 5493 24 Ply Adhesion Strength of Reinforced Geomembranes D 6636 52

Sr. No TEST PARAMETERS ASTM 25 Filtering Efficiency and Flow Rate of a Geotextile Sr. No TEST PARAMETERS ASTM 25 Filtering Efficiency and Flow Rate of a Geotextile for Silt Fence Application Using Site-Specific Soil D 5141 26 Pyramid Puncture Resistance of Unprotected and Protected Geomembranes D 5494 27 Soil-Geotextile System Clogging Potential by the Gradient Ratio D 5101 28 Determination of tensile creep and creep rupture D 5262 behaviour 29 Determining the resistance to Oxidation 30 Chemical Resistance of Geosynthetics / Geotextile to Liquids D 5322 D 6389 31 Strip Tensile Properties of Reinforced Geomembranes D 7003 53

Sr. No. TEST PARAMETERS 32 Microscopic Evaluation of the Dispersion of Carbon Black in Sr. No. TEST PARAMETERS 32 Microscopic Evaluation of the Dispersion of Carbon Black in Polyolefin Geosynthetics ASTM D 5596 33 Hydraulic Transmissivity of a Geosynthetic by Radial Flow D 6574 34 Pore Size Characteristics of Geotextiles by Capillary Flow Test D 6767 35 Grab Tensile Properties of Reinforced Geomembranes D 7004 36 Determining Geonet Breaking Force D 7179 37 Abrasion Resistance of Geotextiles (Sand Paper/Sliding Block Method) D 4886 54

OTHER ORGANIZATIONS AT INTERNATIONAL LEVEL § . 1 INTERNATIONAL GEO-SYNTHETICS SOCIETY (IGS): IGS BRINGS OTHER ORGANIZATIONS AT INTERNATIONAL LEVEL § . 1 INTERNATIONAL GEO-SYNTHETICS SOCIETY (IGS): IGS BRINGS TOGETHER INDIVIDUAL AND CORPORATE MEMBERS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD, WHO ARE INVOLVED IN THE DESIGN, MANUFACTURE, SALE, USE OR TESTING OF GEO-TEXTILES, GEO-MEMBRANES, RELATED PRODUCTS AND/OR ASSOCIATED TECHNOLOGIES. § . 2 INDUSTRIAL FABRICS ASSOCIATION INTERNATIONAL (IFAI): IFAI IS ACTIVE IN COLLECTING, RESEARCHING AND DISSEMINATING INFORMATION ON GEO-SYNTHETICS AND SPONSORING MAJOR NORTH AMERICAN AND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCES. § 3. GEO-SYNTHETICA: GEO-SYNTHETICA IS A COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATION THAT PROVIDES SERVICES TO THE INDUSTRY. THIS PROVIDES TECHNICAL SUPPORT TO CLIENTS INCLUDING SPECIFICATIONS, STANDARDS, TECHNICAL DOCUMENTS, CALENDAR OF EVENTS AND EXHIBITIONS, DIRECTORY AND RESIN PRICING. 55

§ 4. INTERNATIONAL EROSION CONTROL ASSOCIATION (IECA): IECA IS A NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATION THAT PROVIDES § 4. INTERNATIONAL EROSION CONTROL ASSOCIATION (IECA): IECA IS A NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATION THAT PROVIDES RESOURCE INFORMATION FOR PROFESSIONALS IN THE EROSION AND SEDIMENT CONTROL INDUSTRY. § 5. ASTM INTERNATIONAL: ASTM INTERNATIONAL, FORMERLY KNOWN AS AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TESTING AND MATERIALS IS AN ORGANIZATION THAT PROVIDES A GLOBAL FORUM FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND PUBLICATION OF VOLUNTARY CONSENSUS STANDARDS FOR MATERIALS, PRODUCTS AND SERVICES. § . 6 EUROPEAN CENTER FOR STANDARDIZATION (CEN. ( 56

CONCLUSION § BIS HAS THUS BROUGHT OUT A NUMBER OF STANDARDS ON GEO-SYNTHETICS FOR CONCLUSION § BIS HAS THUS BROUGHT OUT A NUMBER OF STANDARDS ON GEO-SYNTHETICS FOR THE BENEFIT OF THE TESTING & RESEARCH LABORATORIES, SPECIFIC END USERS, MANUFACTURERS AND TECHNOLOGISTS. § APART FROM THESE, BIS HAS PUBLISHED MANY OTHER STANDARDS WHICH ARE DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY RELATED TO THE ASPECTS OF DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN GEO-TECHNICAL ENGINEERING. ALL THESE STANDARDS PUT TOGETHER PROVIDE ENORMOUS HELP TO THE DESIGNERS AND THE FIELD ENGINEERS TO UTILIZE THE STANDARDIZED PROCEDURES AND STATE OF THE ART KNOWLEDGE AND EXPERIENCE IN THEIR RESPECTIVE FIELD. 57

CONCLUSION )Contd(… § THE END USERS AND SPECIFIERS ON GEOSYNTHETICS IN THE COUNTRY MUST CONCLUSION )Contd(… § THE END USERS AND SPECIFIERS ON GEOSYNTHETICS IN THE COUNTRY MUST BE AWARE OF SIGNIFICANCE OF TECHNICAL PARAMETERS AND THEIR APPROPRIATE EVALUATION PROCEDURES. ADOPTION OF APPROPRIATE GEO-SYNTHETIC SPECIFICATIONS AND TEST PROCEDURES ARE OF VITAL IMPORTANCE TO ACHIEVE SUCCESSFUL IMPLEMENTATION AND LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF THE STRUCTURES. 58

THANK YOU 59 THANK YOU 59

§ FOR FURTHER QUERIES PLEASE CONTACT: ANIL KUMAR DIRECTOR (TEXTILES) BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS § FOR FURTHER QUERIES PLEASE CONTACT: ANIL KUMAR DIRECTOR (TEXTILES) BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS 9 BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR MARG NEW DELHI 110002 EMAIL : anil [email protected] com PHONE : 011 - 23231282 60