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Standard Addressed: 11. 8 Students analyze the economic boom and social transformation of post–World War II America. Lesson Objectives: Section 3 - Popular Culture n n n 1. Explain how television programs in the 1950 s reflected middle class values. 2. Explain how the beat movement and rock’n’roll music clashed with middle class values. 3. Describe ways that African-American entertainers integrated the media in the 1950 s.
THE POSTWAR BOOM THE AMERICAN DREAM IN THE 1950 S John Naisbitt
n Video Killed the radio star!
SECTION 3 Popular Culture New Era of the Mass Media The Rise of Television • Mass media—means of communication that reach large audiences • TV first widely available 1948; in almost 90% of homes in 1960 • Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulates communications • By 1956, FCC allows 500 stations to broadcast • Programs: comedies, news, dramas, variety shows, children’s shows • Lifestyle changes: TV Guide is popular magazine; TV dinners Continued. . . NEXT
SECTION 3: POPULAR CULTURE n n A new era of mass media led by television emerged in the 1950 s In 1948, only 9% of homes had T. V In 1950, 55% of homes had T. V. By 1960, 90% of American homes had T. V.
THE GOLDEN AGE OF TELEVISION n n The 1950 s was known as the “Golden Age of Television” Comedies were the main attraction as Milton Berle, Lucille Ball and Desi Arnaz were very popular Desi Arnaz and Lucille Ball starred in I Love Lucy
TELEVISION EXPERIMENTS WITH VARIOUS FORMATS n n Television innovations like on-the-scenenews reporting, interviews, westerns and sporting events offered the viewer a variety of shows Kids’ shows like The Howdy Doody Show and The Mickey Mouse Club were extremely popular
Guided Reading: Popular Culture 1. Television a. What are some b. What kinds of of the most popular subjects did shows produced? television tend to present? • I love Lucy; • Comedy; • See It Now; • Idealized white • Playhouse 90 America; • Western frontier c. What kinds of subject did it tend to avoid? • Poverty; • Diversity; • Contemporary conflicts, such as racial discrimination
SECTION 3 continued New Era of the Mass Media Stereotypes and Gunslingers • Women, minorities on TV are stereotypes; few blacks, Latinos • Westerns glorify historical frontier conflicts • Raise concerns about effect of violence on children Radio and Movies • Television cuts into radio, movie markets • Radio turns to local news, weather, music, community affairs • Movies capitalize on size, color, sound advantages; try gimmicks NEXT
TV ADS, TV GUIDES AND TV DINNERS EXPAND n n n TV advertising soared from $170 million in 1950 to nearly $2 billion in 1960 TV Guide magazine quickly became the best selling magazine Frozen TV dinners were introduced in 1954 – these complete ready-to-heat meals on disposable aluminum trays made it easy for people to eat without missing their favorite shows
MAIN IDEA QUESTIONS n A – How did the emergence of television affect Americans culture in the 1950’s n n More households used television for entertainment and People spent an increasing number of hours watching TV. More varied shows were broadcast, and TV dinners were invented to accommodate viewers.
Radio focused on local areas
Guided Reading: Popular Culture 2. Radio a. How did radio b. What role did it play in popularizing change to compete African-American culture? with television? Turned to local programming; Began targeting specialized audiences Hundreds of stations focused on African -American performers, helping to sell their records
n B – Do you think the rise of television had a positive or negative effect on Americans? Explain. n Positive – n n n informing and entertaining; Reinforcing cultural values. Negative – n n Promoting stereotypes of minorities and women; Exposing children to images of violence.
n C – How did radio and movies maintain their appeal in the 1950’s n n They concentrated on what they did best – local news, weather, and music programming on radio; Size, color, and stereophonic sound in movies.
Guided Reading: Popular Culture 3. Film How did movies change to compete with television? • Introduced innovations such as stereoscopic sound and Cinema-Scope to capitalize on its advantages over TV; • Introduced such fads as piped-in smells and 3 -D
SECTION 3 A Subculture Emerges The Beat Movement • Beat movement—writers, artists express social, literary nonconformity • Poets, writers use free, open form; read works aloud in coffeehouses • Beatnik attitudes, way of life attract media attention, students NEXT
A SUBCULTURE EMERGES n n Although mass media and television were wildly popular in the 1950 s, dissenting voices emerged The “Beat Movement” in literature and rock n’ roll clashed with tidy suburban views of life
BEATNIKS FOLLOW OWN PATH n n Beatniks often performed poetry or music in coffeehouses or bars Centered in San Francisco, L. A. and New York’s Greenwich Village, the Beat Movement expressed social nonconformity Followers, called “beatniks”, tended to shun work and sought understanding through Zen Buddhism, music, and sometimes drugs
n D – Why do you think many young Americans were attracted to the beat movement? n Teenagers looking for alternatives to the conformity and consumerism of the parents found a celebration of poverty, unconformity, and art that reflected immediate sensory experience.
Guided Reading: Popular Culture 4. The beat movement a. Who were the b. What were the movement’s chief most famous beat characteristics? writers? Ginsberg, Kerouac • Nonconformity; • Anti-materialism; • Interest in a higher consciousness; the shunning of structure in life and art
SECTION 3 African Americans and Rock ‘n’ Roll • Black musicians add electric instruments to blues—rhythm and blues • Rock ‘n’ roll—mix of rhythm and blues, country, pop • Has heavy rhythm, simple melodies, lyrics about teenage concerns • Music appeals to newly affluent teens who can buy records • Many adults concerned music will lead to delinquency, immorality Continued. . . NEXT
MUSIC IN THE 1950 s n n Musicians in the 1950 s added electronic instruments to traditional blues music, creating rhythm and blues Cleveland DJ Alan Freed was the first to play this music in 1951– he called it “rock and roll” FREED
ROCK N’ ROLL n n In the early and mid-fifties, Richard Penniman, Chuck Berry, Bill Haley and the Comets, and especially Elvis Presley brought rock and roll to the forefront The driving rhythm and lyrics featuring love, cars, and problems of being young --captivated teenagers across the country
THE KING OF ROCK AND ROLL n n Presley’s rebellious style captured young audiences Girls screamed and fainted, and boys tried to imitate him
n E – Based on Elvis Presley’s song titles, what do you think were teenagers’ concerns in the 1950’s? n Songs were about love and heartache, and the problems of being young.
n F – Identify your favorite singer, based his/her song titles what message or idea do you think they are trying to relate to you. n ANSWER THIS ON YOUR OWN
SECTION 3 continued African Americans and Rock ‘n’ Roll The Racial Gap • African-American singers like Nat “King” Cole, Lena Horne popular • Many black artists play jazz, music characterized by improvisation • African-American shows mostly broadcast on black radio stations - content, advertising target black audiences • Important to black audiences with fewer TV sets, no presence on TV NEXT
DANCE in the 1950 s n American Bandstand was the first program on television to integrate black and white teens. FREED
Guided Reading: Popular Culture 5. Rock’n’roll a. Who helped to popularize rock’n’roll? b. What were rock’s chief characteristics? Freed, Elvis Presley, Chuck Berry, Little Richard; Heavy rhythm; Simple melodies and lyrics; Focus on youth radio, TV