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Spraying Your Rose Garden A little bit about a lot of things. . . Spraying Your Rose Garden A little bit about a lot of things. . .

Topics for Tonight Rose garden spray equipment n Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) n Garden Topics for Tonight Rose garden spray equipment n Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) n Garden chemicals/pesticides n – Labels and MSDSs – Types of pesticides – Modes of Action n Pests versus Pesticides

More Topics n What pesticides to buy and where – Specialty/patented products – Generics More Topics n What pesticides to buy and where – Specialty/patented products – Generics – Ready-to-Use (RTU) and Over-the. Counter (OTC) Adjuvants and chemical helpers n Shelf life, storage, and disposal n

The Application of Pesticides n n n Drench – application of the diluted, systemic The Application of Pesticides n n n Drench – application of the diluted, systemic concentrate to the soil around the bush for absorption through the bush’s root system Fumigant – application as a gas/vapor within a confined space such as a greenhouse Spray – application via atomized droplets to the bush’s foliage and canes

Rose garden spray equipment n For the small garden (10 or fewer bushes) – Rose garden spray equipment n For the small garden (10 or fewer bushes) – RTU products in 16 oz or 24 oz spray bottles – Hose-end sprayers with metered mixing rates – Small (1 quart to 1 gallon) pump-up sprayers, e. g. , Solo model 418 -1 L

Solo® 418 -1 L Hand-Held Sprayer Solo® 418 -1 L Hand-Held Sprayer

Rose garden spray equipment n For the medium-sized garden (10 to 100 bushes) – Rose garden spray equipment n For the medium-sized garden (10 to 100 bushes) – Up to 20+ gallons of spray per application (think spider mites) – Back-Pack or roll-around sprayers with 3, 4, or 5 gallon capacities – Hand pumped or battery-powered

Solo® 425 DLX 4 -gallon Back-Pack Sprayer Solo® 425 DLX 4 -gallon Back-Pack Sprayer

Hudson® Never. Pump 4 gallon Bak-Pak Sprayer Hudson® Never. Pump 4 gallon Bak-Pak Sprayer

Rose garden spray equipment n For the large (100+ bushes) rose garden – Now Rose garden spray equipment n For the large (100+ bushes) rose garden – Now we may be talking 50 gallons or more of spray per application – Roll-around, battery-powered, heavy-duty stuff – Maybe even gasoline-powered. . .

Hot. Shot Rollaround Battery-Powered Sprayer Hot. Shot Rollaround Battery-Powered Sprayer

Dramm® Gas-Powered 20 -gallon Sprayer Dramm® Gas-Powered 20 -gallon Sprayer

Internet sources for spray equipment information n n n www. rosemania. com – look Internet sources for spray equipment information n n n www. rosemania. com – look under Our Products/Spray Equipment www. northerntools. com – look under Categories/Sprayers www. allamericangeneralstore. com – search for Hudson www. bugpage. com – look under Backpack Sprayers www. rittenhouse. ca – look under Rittenhouse Sprayers www. gemplers. com – look under Pest Management/Sprayers www. systemacc. com – look under Rechargeable or Compression Sprayers www. solousa. com – look under Chemical Applicators www. hdhudson. com – browse the website for lots of good sprayer info www. spsystemsllc. com – follow the links from Our Products www. bayeradvanced. com – look under Products/Rose and Garden Care www. gardentech. com – select Sevin or Daconil www. saferbrand. com -- look under Online Store/Garden Care-Flowers

Personal Protective Equipment n To protect the skin, eyes and lungs from undiluted chemicals Personal Protective Equipment n To protect the skin, eyes and lungs from undiluted chemicals and the diluted spray material – Long-sleeved shirt and long pants – Chemical resistant gloves – Shoes plus socks – Protective eyewear, and a – Dust/mist filtering respirator

Chemical splash goggles with ventilation Chemical splash goggles with ventilation

Moldex® 2300 N 95 (TC 84 A approval) Respirator Moldex® 2300 N 95 (TC 84 A approval) Respirator

Tyvek® Hood and Respirator Tyvek® Hood and Respirator

Garden Chemicals/Pesticides n Labels and MSDSs – Always read the label! – First items: Garden Chemicals/Pesticides n Labels and MSDSs – Always read the label! – First items: product trade name, brief description, identification and amount of active ingredient (AI) – Next: the “signal word” – Danger, Warning, and Caution in decreasing order of toxicity – Followed by: Precautionary Statements – safety, first aid, PPE, etc. – And then: Use Recommendations – pests controlled, application rates, mixing procedures, etc.

“Decoding” the Labels n Consider Merit 75 WP – The 75 means Merit contains “Decoding” the Labels n Consider Merit 75 WP – The 75 means Merit contains 75% of its active ingredient, Imidacloprid – The WP indicates this form of Merit is a Wettable Powder n On other products – SC = soluble concentrate; WDG = wettable, dispersible granules; EW = emulsified in water; WSP = water soluble packaging

Pesticide Toxicity n Signal Words – – – n Caution = slightly toxic Warning Pesticide Toxicity n Signal Words – – – n Caution = slightly toxic Warning = moderately toxic Danger = highly toxic Lethal Dose – LD 50 is the dose that would kill 50% of any test population – LD 50 is measured in milligrams of pesticide per kilogram of weight of the test subject – LD 50 can be below 50 mg/kg for Danger, over 50 to 2, 000 for Warning, and over 500 to 20, 000 for Caution – LD 50 values are found in the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for the pesticide in question

Getting the Labels n n And the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) Sources of Getting the Labels n n And the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) Sources of labels: – On the chemicals’ containers – Manufacturers’ websites – for example, www. bayeradvanced. com – Vendors’ websites – for example, www. rosemania. com – www. cdms. net – offers labels and MSDS for all registered pesticides – search by product name – www. greenbook. net – another site like cdms. net – however, requires simple registration

Hierarchy of Pesticides Insecticides Fungicides Miticides Botryticide Ovicide/Larvacide Herbicides Hierarchy of Pesticides Insecticides Fungicides Miticides Botryticide Ovicide/Larvacide Herbicides

Systemic Chemicals n n Apply to the foliage as a spray or to the Systemic Chemicals n n Apply to the foliage as a spray or to the roots as a drench Moves (typically, up) through the plant’s vascular system – Phloem cells – like “arteries” through which sugars and other plant products move – Xylem – tubular structure for the transport of water and dissolved minerals --think tree growth rings n n Chemicals stay within the plant – don’t wash off Downside – systemics don’t enter the blooms

Translaminar Chemicals n n n n Trans = across or through, like transatlantic Laminar Translaminar Chemicals n n n n Trans = across or through, like transatlantic Laminar = layered Translaminar = through layers Sometimes referred to as locally systemic Applied to foliage as a spray, these chemicals are absorbed by the plant They move through foliage from one surface to the other Great for spider mites which feed on the underside of leaves and are nearly unaffected by systemics

Contact Sprays Applied to foliage, buds and blooms as a spray n Remain on Contact Sprays Applied to foliage, buds and blooms as a spray n Remain on the surface of foliage and blooms n Not absorbed by the plant n Pretty much the only way to protect blooms n Downside – contact sprays wash off in the rain n

Resistance Management/Modes of Action n n Resistance management in the garden is a problem Resistance Management/Modes of Action n n Resistance management in the garden is a problem akin to certain antibiotics losing their effectiveness in humans due to repeated or improper use Repeated use of the same pesticide allows the target pest to mutate and adapt and become resistant to the pesticide Each insecticide and fungicide has a specific mode of action (MOA) in the way it disables and kills its target pest If these MOAs are alternated from one spraying to the next the target pest is very less likely to adapt

Resistance Management (Cont. ) n n Or, if chemicals with different MOAs are mixed Resistance Management (Cont. ) n n Or, if chemicals with different MOAs are mixed in a single spraying the target pest is unable to adapt The Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC – www. irac-online. org) in its latest publication identifies 28 insecticide MOAs The Fungicide Resistance Action Committee (FRAC – www. frac. info) has identified over 40 fungicide MOAs Dr. Ray Cloyd and I decided that the large number of MOAs should and could be consolidated to be of more use to rosarians – we came up with 6 insecticide MOAs and 6 fungicide MOAs

Resistance Management (Cont. ) n n Your handout contains the two tables that Dr. Resistance Management (Cont. ) n n Your handout contains the two tables that Dr. Cloyd and I derived from the IRAC and FRAC publications MOA 6 in both tables is what Dr. Cloyd calls the “napalm” MOA – the chemicals in this group kill on contact and leave little or no room for adaptation I’ve found two useful insecticide partnerings to be Merit and Tempo and Avid and Tetra. San An effective fungicide partnering is Banner Maxx (alternated with Cleary’s 3336 F) and Compass

A few words about Herbicides n n n This is really about controlling weeds A few words about Herbicides n n n This is really about controlling weeds Before they sprout use pre-emergent herbicides like Preen® (AI=trifluralin) After they sprout use herbicides like Roundup® (AI=glyphosate) – – Never broadcast spray Use RTU products with nozzles provided Don’t use within 18” of the base of the bushes Roundup is harmless to animals and after it comes in contact with soil

Roundup® RTU from Scott Roundup® RTU from Scott

Specific Chemicals for Specific Pests n Insecticides – Orthene – MOA 1 – a Specific Chemicals for Specific Pests n Insecticides – Orthene – MOA 1 – a translaminar chemical – spray for the control of aphids, Japanese Beetles, and thrips – Sevin – MOA 1 – a contact spray – very effective against Japanese Beetles – has resistance management problems with thrips if used alone – combine with Tempo, Talstar or Conserve – Talstar – MOA 2 – a contact spray – also registered as a miticide – good control of aphids and Japanese Beetles – look also for Bifen I/T – exactly the same as Talstar but less expensive ($59. 90 vs $99. 99 per quart)

More Pest Killers n Insecticides (Cont. ) – Tempo – MOA 2 - a More Pest Killers n Insecticides (Cont. ) – Tempo – MOA 2 - a highly-effective contact spray – kills just about any insect – Avid – MOA 3 – a translaminar spray – kills adult spider mites – Floramite – MOA 3 – a contact spray – kills all spider mite life stages – Akari 5 SC – MOA 3 – a contact spray – kills all spider mite life stages – 60% the cost of Floramite – Merit - MOA 4 – a very effective systemic chemical – kills any insects that are eating the foliage – use as a drench or spray – Conserve – MOA 4 – a translaminar spray – probably the most effective attack on thrips

. . . And More n Insecticides (Cont. ) – Hexygon – MOA 5 . . . And More n Insecticides (Cont. ) – Hexygon – MOA 5 – a contact spray for the control of spider mite larva and eggs – combine with Avid – Tetra. San – MOA 5 – a translaminar spray for the control of spider mite larva and eggs – combine with Avid for a translaminar spray addressing all mite life stages – Forbid 4 F – MOA 6 – a translaminar spray for the control of all spider mite life stages – minimum resistance management problems – very expensive – Kontos – MOA 6 – a new “two-way” systemic chemical – an effective replacement/substitute for Merit

Now. . . Disease (Fungus) Control n Fungicides – Banner Maxx – MOA 1 Now. . . Disease (Fungus) Control n Fungicides – Banner Maxx – MOA 1 – a systemic chemical that attacks blackspot, powdery mildew and rust – Eagle 20 EW – MOA 1 – very similar to Banner Maxx but less toxic (CAUTION instead of WARNING) – same active ingredient as Systhane – Decree 50 WDG – MOA 1 – specifically registered as a botryticide – Cleary’s 3336 F – MOA 2 – a systemic chemical that can be alternated with Banner Maxx – Chipco 26019 Flo – MOA 3 – specifically registered to control botrytis blight – alternate with Decree

More Disease Control n Fungicides (Cont. ) – Subdue Maxx – MOA 4 – More Disease Control n Fungicides (Cont. ) – Subdue Maxx – MOA 4 – targets root and stem rot – primarily used as a drench in greenhouses – Compass – MOA 5 – a translaminar chemical that controls just about every rose disease, including botrytis, downy mildew, and powdery mildew – Heritage – MOA 5 – a suitable substitute for Compass – Alliette – MOA 6 – an aluminum-based systemic chemical that specifically targets downy mildew – Manzate – MOA 6 – a zinc- and manganese-based contact spray for the very effective eradication of blackspot – now sold as Pentathlon – Zyban – MOAs 2 and 6 – a combination of the active ingredients in Cleary’s 3336 F and Manzate – comes as a fine powder

Pesticide Acquisition – Where to Buy n Where to learn about them - other Pesticide Acquisition – Where to Buy n Where to learn about them - other rosarians, ads in rose magazines and newsletters, rose forums on the Internet, and rose care websites like: – – – – www. rosemania. com www. rosecare. com www. saveonchemicals. com www. growersupply. com www. southernag. com www. pestproducts. com And links from www. chattanoogarose. org

What about generics? . . . Pesticides like Compass, Forbid and Kontos are “on-patent” What about generics? . . . Pesticides like Compass, Forbid and Kontos are “on-patent” and command high prices n Generics are pesticides that have come “off-patent” like Merit, Avid and Banner Maxx n Generics often cost less than 50% of the cost of the “on-patent” products n

Some examples of generics Lucid = Avid -- $145 vs. $285 (quart) n Zenith Some examples of generics Lucid = Avid -- $145 vs. $285 (quart) n Zenith = Merit -- $10 vs. $60 (2 oz) n Honor Guard = Banner Maxx -- $31 vs. $70 (pint) n OHP 6672 = Cleary’s 3336 F -- $29 vs. $73 (quart) n Bifen I/T = Talstar -- $42 vs. $80 (quart) n

RTU and OTC Products n n Products available at Lowe’s, Home Depot, etc. Bayer RTU and OTC Products n n Products available at Lowe’s, Home Depot, etc. Bayer Advanced Garden Products – www. bayeradvanced. com – Rose & Flower Insect Killer n n A combination of Merit and Tempo Available in spray bottle, hose-end sprayer and concentrate – 2 in 1 Systemic Rose & Flower Care n n n Granules sprinkled around bush and watered-in 12 -18 -6 fertilizer Orthene-like systemic insecticide - disulfoton

RTU and OTC Products (Cont. ) n More Bayer Advanced Garden Products – All-in-One RTU and OTC Products (Cont. ) n More Bayer Advanced Garden Products – All-in-One Rose & Flower Care n Merit insecticide plus Banner Maxx fungicide n 9 -14 -9 fertilizer n Mixed 4 tbsp/quart and used as a drench – Bayer Advanced Disease Control n Concentrate diluted 1. 5 tbsp/gallon to spray n Active ingredient same as Banner Maxx

Some Other RTU/OTC Products n n Safer Brand 3 in 1 Garden Spray – Some Other RTU/OTC Products n n Safer Brand 3 in 1 Garden Spray – uses fatty acids, sulfur and neem oil (MOA 6) to create an environmentally safe insecticide, fungicide and miticide Green Light Bioganic Organic Rose & Flower Readyto-Use – uses plant oils (MOA 6) to create an environmentally safe insecticide, fungicide and miticide Ortho Orthenex Insect & Disease Control – active ingredients are acephate (Orthene) and triforine (same chemical group as Banner Maxx) Garden. Tech Sevin – OTC version of this very effective insecticide (MOA 1)

Pesticide Storage n Rules for safe storage: – Be sure that the caps on Pesticide Storage n Rules for safe storage: – Be sure that the caps on all pesticide containers are securely sealed, and use the original container whenever possible. – Keep pesticides at “room temperature” in a locked room and out of reach of children or animals. – Do not carry over pesticide products whose labels are lost or illegible. – Store glass bottles in a metal or plastic container -- in case the glass breaks its contents are contained. – As a precaution store water soluble bags (e. g. , Zyban) in a waterproof container. – Try to purchase pesticides in a container size small enough that the product will be used up during one growing season – in view of the shelf life limitations this could prove to be the most economical way to stock your chemical arsenal.

Pesticide Shelf Life n Indicators of pesticide breakdown: – Emulsifiable Concentrates – addition of Pesticide Shelf Life n Indicators of pesticide breakdown: – Emulsifiable Concentrates – addition of water does not produce a milky solution. – Emulsified in Water -- the concentrate has separated and shaking or the addition of water does not produce a milky solution. – Wettable Powders – powder has formed lumps and will not mix or disperse in water. – Water Dispersible Granules – not as likely to lump, but should continue to mix easily with or disperse in water. n Don’t rely on powders stored more than two years and liquids more than three

Pesticide Disposal When the pesticide is no longer effective DON’T throw it in the Pesticide Disposal When the pesticide is no longer effective DON’T throw it in the trash n Many of the chemicals we use are real threats to our groundwater (e. g. , Merit) n Empty containers at local Household Hazardous Waste Disposal Center n – Wood Recycling Facility, 3925 North Hawthorne Street in Chattanooga n Triple-rinse recyclable containers – apply rinse water to garden

And, Finally. . . Adjuvants n n Adjuvant – serving to help or assist And, Finally. . . Adjuvants n n Adjuvant – serving to help or assist – something to make a spray more effective Stirrup M – a pheromone (sexual attractant) that draws spider mites to any spray in which it’s mixed Indicate 5 – adjusts p. H of spray water and serves as a spreader-sticker – most sprays more effective in a slightly acidic liquid Hi-Yield Spreader-Sticker (or any other OTC brand) – makes spray adhere to foliage instead of dribbling off