Скачать презентацию Spatial and Ballistic Analysis Conducted Pursuant to Pennsylvania Скачать презентацию Spatial and Ballistic Analysis Conducted Pursuant to Pennsylvania

f9818b3038e86365472de311e28cadce.ppt

  • Количество слайдов: 23

Spatial and Ballistic Analysis Conducted Pursuant to Pennsylvania House Resolution 61 Relative to the Spatial and Ballistic Analysis Conducted Pursuant to Pennsylvania House Resolution 61 Relative to the Question: “Do Shotguns and Muzzleloaders Pose Less Risk than Centerfire Rifles for Hunting Deer in Pennsylvania? ” Prepared by: Mountain. Top Technologies, Inc. March 28, 2007

Purpose, Objective and Approach • Purpose: To answer the question “Do shotguns and muzzleloaders Purpose, Objective and Approach • Purpose: To answer the question “Do shotguns and muzzleloaders pose less risk than centerfire rifles for hunting deer in Pennsylvania? ” • Objective: To provide a scientific basis for policy pertaining to the mandatory use of shotguns and muzzleloaders for deer hunting in designated areas of Pennsylvania. • Approach: Compare the danger areas of firearmammunition combinations and representative cases of error

Important Assumptions • The typical hunter exercises reasonable care • Hunters will tend to Important Assumptions • The typical hunter exercises reasonable care • Hunters will tend to use the best available legal firearm-ammunition combination • The typical hunter will discharge the firearm at a height of 3 feet to impact a standing deer at approximately 3 feet height • The projectile’s trajectory will most frequently be approximately level with the general trend of the earth’s surface – A hunter may discharge the firearm above a 0 degree angle of elevation – The majority of these discharges will be at an angle of 10 degrees or less – Discharges at an angle delivering the maximum range are possible but not frequent • The firearm-ammunition combinations used in this report are representative of those used to hunt deer in Pennsylvania

Reported Incidents Since 1998 Legend Counties Total Incidents (366 Incidents) 0 -2 3 -5 Reported Incidents Since 1998 Legend Counties Total Incidents (366 Incidents) 0 -2 3 -5 6 -9 10 - 16 17 - 23 Incidents Firearm Type (313 Incidents) Muzzleloader Pistol Rifle Shotgun Unknown Special Regulations Areas Since 1998, 464 reported incidents, 98 incidents not associated with hunting deer; of the 366 remaining incidents: • No rifle incidents in Special Regulations Areas • 19% of the incidents occurred in Special Regulations Areas • 75% of the incidents involved rifles (None of which happened in Special Regulations Areas) • 21% of the incidents involved shotguns • 4% of the incidents involved muzzleloaders

Hotspot Analysis Legend Counties Incidents Firearm Type Muzzleloader Pistol Rifle Shotgun Unknown Special Regulations Hotspot Analysis Legend Counties Incidents Firearm Type Muzzleloader Pistol Rifle Shotgun Unknown Special Regulations Areas 2 nd Order Hot Spots 1 st Order Hot Spots Counties with First Order Clusters: Adams Allegheny Bucks Cumberland Lancaster Lehigh Montgomery Northampton Somerset York Counties with Second Order Clusters: Adams Berks Bucks Chester Lehigh Montgomery Northampton York

Maximum Range as Represented in the 1998 Report Maximum Range as Represented in the 1998 Report

Firing Conditions (Errors) Firing Conditions (Errors)

Rifle-Ammunition 30 -06 Springfield soft point Mass = 150 grains, MV = 2910 fps Rifle-Ammunition 30 -06 Springfield soft point Mass = 150 grains, MV = 2910 fps

Shotgun-Ammunition 12 gauge sabot. 50 caliber HP semi-spitzer Mass = 385 grains, MV = Shotgun-Ammunition 12 gauge sabot. 50 caliber HP semi-spitzer Mass = 385 grains, MV = 1900 fps

Muzzleloader-Ammunition . 50 caliber CVA Powerbelt Mass = 348 grains, MV = 1595 fps Muzzleloader-Ammunition . 50 caliber CVA Powerbelt Mass = 348 grains, MV = 1595 fps

Ricochet Distance • Initial and ricochet trajectories were computed • Trajectory Plots are provided Ricochet Distance • Initial and ricochet trajectories were computed • Trajectory Plots are provided with both initial and maximum ricochet distances

Trajectories for 35° Firing Elevation No ricochets after impact Trajectories for 35° Firing Elevation No ricochets after impact

Maximum Ranges Firing Elevation at 35 degrees Ammunition Initial Impact Distance (ft) Ricochet Distance Maximum Ranges Firing Elevation at 35 degrees Ammunition Initial Impact Distance (ft) Ricochet Distance (ft) Difference Distance (ft) Rifle (. 30 -06 150 grains) 13926 0 Initial Ricochet Shotgun (. 50 cal 385 grains) 10378 0 25% Muzzleloader (. 50 cal 348 grains) 9197 0 34% No Ricochet % Less than Rifle

Trajectories for 10° Firing Elevation Trajectories for 10° Firing Elevation

10 o Elevation with Ricochet Firing Elevation at 10 degrees Ammunition Initial Impact Distance 10 o Elevation with Ricochet Firing Elevation at 10 degrees Ammunition Initial Impact Distance (ft) Ricochet Distance (ft) Difference Distance (ft) Rifle (. 30 -06 150 grains) 10004 10706 702 Initial Ricochet Shotgun (. 50 cal 385 grains) 7163 8112 949 28% 24% Muzzleloader (. 50 cal 348 grains) 6247 7160 913 38% 33% Band Thickness is Ricochet % Less than Rifle

Trajectories for 5° Firing Elevation Trajectories for 5° Firing Elevation

5 o Elevation with Ricochet Firing Elevation at 5 degrees Ammunition Initial Impact Distance 5 o Elevation with Ricochet Firing Elevation at 5 degrees Ammunition Initial Impact Distance (ft) Ricochet Distance (ft) Difference Distance (ft) Rifle (. 30 -06 150 grains) 7504 8743 1239 Initial Ricochet Shotgun (. 50 cal 385 grains) 5118 6865 1747 32% 21% Muzzleloader (. 50 cal 348 grains) 4367 6010 1643 42% 31% Band Thickness is Ricochet % Less than Rifle

Trajectories for 0° Firing Elevation Trajectories for 0° Firing Elevation

0 o Elevation with Ricochet Firing Elevation at ~0 degrees Ammunition Initial Impact Distance 0 o Elevation with Ricochet Firing Elevation at ~0 degrees Ammunition Initial Impact Distance (ft) Ricochet Distance (ft) Difference Distance (ft) Rifle (. 30 -06 150 grains) 1408 4835 3427 Initial Ricochet Shotgun (. 50 cal 385 grains) 840 5205 4365 40% -8% Muzzleloader (. 50 cal 348 grains) 686 4498 3812 51% 7% Band Thickness is the Ricochet % Less than Rifle

Affected Area as a Percent of the Rifle Danger Area Percent of Rifle Danger Affected Area as a Percent of the Rifle Danger Area Percent of Rifle Danger Area Firearm-Ammunition Combination 35 deg. Firing Elevation 10 deg. Firing Elevation 5 deg. Firing Elevation ~0 deg. Firing Elevation Rifle (. 30 -06 150 grain) 100. 0% Shotgun (. 50 cal 385 grain) 55. 5% 57. 4% 61. 7% 115. 9% Muzzleloader (. 50 cal 348 grain) 43. 6% 44. 7% 47. 3% 86. 5%

Conclusions • Conventional wisdom is not always true • When considering extreme, high, and Conclusions • Conventional wisdom is not always true • When considering extreme, high, and moderate firing errors: – shotguns and muzzleloaders are less risky than the centerfire rifle • When firing with smaller or no aiming error: – a shotgun proved to be riskier than a centerfire rifle • The muzzleloader was always less risky than both the rifle and shotgun • Eliminating or controlling the ricochet seems essential if the shotgun is to be used as an effective risk management option

Recommendations • Address the public perception that a shotgun is less risky than centerfire Recommendations • Address the public perception that a shotgun is less risky than centerfire rifles in all circumstances • Reduced ricochet projectiles should be investigated