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South Asia Unit 3 South Asia Unit 3

Early Indian Civilizations: • Geography of India- It’s a subcontinent, surrounded in the north Early Indian Civilizations: • Geography of India- It’s a subcontinent, surrounded in the north by Himalayan and Hindu Kush -____ mountains. • Consists of a northern plain watered by Indus and Ganges Rivers • Deccan Plateau divides North from South, and is sparsely _____ populated (different cultures exist in north and South as a result)

They tend to develop along Rivers ______ or river valleys, tend to leave behind They tend to develop along Rivers ______ or river valleys, tend to leave behind evidence _____ of their existence, and are often complex _____ in nature (they had advanced engineering and were organized)

Indus River Valley (2500 BC) _____ River Civilization (2500 BC) in the Indus River Indus River Valley (2500 BC) _____ River Civilization (2500 BC) in the Indus River Valley Harappa Two main cities: _____ & Mohenjo Daro Evidence of advanced science and engineering grid skills: Roads were in a _______-like pattern (shows city planning!)

 • Granaries built, evidence of They must have had belief temples (____), systems/religion • Granaries built, evidence of They must have had belief temples (____), systems/religion plumbing and sewer systems Aryans/Vedic • Conquered by the ____ people in 1750 BC

Aryan Civilization aka the Vedic Age (1500 -500 BC) _______-European warriors from Europe/Asia Indo Aryan Civilization aka the Vedic Age (1500 -500 BC) _______-European warriors from Europe/Asia Indo Left few artifacts; left an oral history later written in the _____ (collection of scared Hindu writings) Vedas

Mauryan Empire (321 BC-185 BC) Located in _____ Valley, and eventually Ganges dominated the Mauryan Empire (321 BC-185 BC) Located in _____ Valley, and eventually Ganges dominated the Deccan Plateau area Notable leader: Chandragupta _______ (established the dynasty)

Characteristics of Mauryan Empire under Chandragupta: Well-_____ government organized (bureaucracy), harsh rule Chandragupta’s grandson Characteristics of Mauryan Empire under Chandragupta: Well-_____ government organized (bureaucracy), harsh rule Chandragupta’s grandson made reforms: Asoka _____ (converted to Buddhism, and promoted peace) Golden Age under the Mauryans: Advanced Buddhism learning/education, and spread of ______

Other Empires in India The Gupta Empire in India (AD 320 -550) [around the Other Empires in India The Gupta Empire in India (AD 320 -550) [around the same time as the Roman Empire in Europe) • Experienced peace and prosperity under a strong government (centralized, _____ local elections and councils, early Gupta societies allowed women to serve on councils) Hindu • Were influenced greatly by _____ ideas • Produced many achievements in the arts ____ and sciences

Pataliputra • Leaders established spectacular court at ______ on the Ganges River • Caste Pataliputra • Leaders established spectacular court at ______ on the Ganges River • Caste system expands/governs life during Gupta era • People believed that their karma _____, all good and bad things they had done in life, determined their caste • People could not change their caste in their lifetime, but could change castes in their next lifetime by doing good deeds, called ______. dharma

 • During the Gupta Era, village life was most leaders important. Local _______ • During the Gupta Era, village life was most leaders important. Local _______ ran/controlled village life, and paid taxes to the empire Village • ______life provided a stabilizing effect on the Gupta Empire, governed by ____ system, in which untouchables caste were outcasts who were not allowed to live with other members of Gupta society (and impure held jobs that were considered “____, ” like grave-digging and menial tasks

The Caste System Today: Although “untouchability” was officially banned by the Indian Constitution in The Caste System Today: Although “untouchability” was officially banned by the Indian Constitution in 1950, the caste system continues to play a major role in the social life of Indians.

Social _______ Structure in society that still influences India today: Joint families (extended families) Social _______ Structure in society that still influences India today: Joint families (extended families) _______ society Patriarchal Traditional family structure, jobs, arranged ______ marriages within one’s caste “Stupa”

women • _____’s rights restricted over time Scientific & Artistic Contributions: zero • Mathematics women • _____’s rights restricted over time Scientific & Artistic Contributions: zero • Mathematics (concept of ______, decimal system, Arabic numerals) • Medicine: herbal remedies, surgeons/plastic surgery, smallpox vaccination against ______ 1, 000 years before Europeans stupas • Architecture: ____, large dome-shaped ______ buildingscontaining the remains of holy people Sanskrit • Literature: Fables and folktales in the _______ language, like Kalidasa’s Shakuntala

Gupta Era = Golden Age A good time in history; good stuff happening/progress! Gupta Era = Golden Age A good time in history; good stuff happening/progress!

Review from Last Unit: Old Imperialism • What is Imperialism? • Official Definition: The Review from Last Unit: Old Imperialism • What is Imperialism? • Official Definition: The domination ________ by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country _______.

 • What does that mean? Bigger/stronger • Basically, it’s when a ____ country • What does that mean? Bigger/stronger • Basically, it’s when a ____ country takes over a Smaller/weaker ______ country to USE its land resources.

WHY? • Powerful industrialized nations want power _____ and economic might by building EMPIRES. WHY? • Powerful industrialized nations want power _____ and economic might by building EMPIRES. Raw materials • Increased need for _____ once resources were depleted after the Industrial Revolution.

Review from Last Unit-OLD IMPERIALISM: • Between 1500 -1800 (Before the Industrial Revolution) • Review from Last Unit-OLD IMPERIALISM: • Between 1500 -1800 (Before the Industrial Revolution) • Colonies established in the Americas, Africa _____, and Southeast _______. Asia But Europeans mainly concerned with the Americas! Limited territories gained in Africa and _____. Asia

Growing & competitive • European powers were _____ during the Age of OLD Imperialism Growing & competitive • European powers were _____ during the Age of OLD Imperialism GOLD • Why? GOD, ____, and GLORY! • Old Imperialists: Spain and Portugal (1500 s), England & France (16001700 s)

 • New Imperialism: Post-Industrial Revolution Products from Europe were sent all over the • New Imperialism: Post-Industrial Revolution Products from Europe were sent all over the globe to markets to sell ($$$$) • Extensive Colonies established in Africa _______ & Asia

New Imperialism in India British East India Company During the 1700 s, a Joint New Imperialism in India British East India Company During the 1700 s, a Joint stock company ________ called the British East India Company _________was chartered by Queen Elizabeth I ________of England. The company’s main objective was to make a profit for shareholders by exploiting Natural resources the abundant ________and gaining access to the markets in India

To do this, the British East India Company successfully used “__________” Divide increase their To do this, the British East India Company successfully used “__________” Divide increase their tactics toand conquer control over entire regions of the Indian _______. This subcontinent strategy entailed fanning the flames of religious division between native _____ Muslim and ______groups, and taking Hindu advantage of the political rivalries that existed between local native rulers.

1830 s By the ____, the British government had taken over control of the 1830 s By the ____, the British government had taken over control of the East India Company. Under British rule, native customs sati such as _______, the ritual suicide of a wife after husband’s death, were banned. The British built schools and railroads, and missionaries spread Sanskrit ______.

Sepoy Mutiny 1857 By ____ the British army in India included a large number Sepoy Mutiny 1857 By ____ the British army in India included a large number of Indian sepoys soldiers, or ____. The rifle cartridges that were distributed to the Sepoys had to be bitten to remove a cover before being inserted into a gun _____. Rumors circulated among the Sepoys that this cover had been greased with beef and _____ fat. pork

This angered Muslim Sepoys who were not supposed to consume pork, and the Hindu This angered Muslim Sepoys who were not supposed to consume pork, and the Hindu Sepoys who were not supposed to eat beef. Thus, revolted the Sepoys _____ against the British army, which eventually ended the conflict through use of force ____. This resulted in the British government officially taking control of India, making it a ____. colony

Some view this as act the first _____ of Indian independence, which would not Some view this as act the first _____ of Indian independence, which would not be achieved until WWII after ____ with the formation of the countries of India Pakistan and _____.

Since the mid_____, 1800 s Great Britain had controlled India as a colony… Since the mid_____, 1800 s Great Britain had controlled India as a colony…

1 üNearly ____ million Indians had fought for the British Army during the war 1 üNearly ____ million Indians had fought for the British Army during the war üThey had been promised more selfrule _____ if they fought. üAfter the war, Britain failed to promises fulfill these _______ üThe British continued their imperialistic _______ and sometimes brutal _______ rule

In 1919, the British passed a series of laws _____ that outraged most Indians. In 1919, the British passed a series of laws _____ that outraged most Indians. One law stated that all ____ public meetings were banned. When a large group gathered in a courtyard in the City of Amritsar, British troops fired _____ upon the crowd without ANY warning. Trapped in the courtyard with no. Where to escape, the British troops 350 Killed over _______ people. Over 1200 people were _____ injured The incident convinced most Indians that British rule must ______ end General Dyer gave the order to fire upon the unarmed crowd. Nearly 400 people, including women and children, were slaughtered.

Who WAS this guy? o. A leader from the 1920 s-1940 s who led Who WAS this guy? o. A leader from the 1920 s-1940 s who led ______ the Indian nationalist movement. (He helped India gain its independence ______ from Great Britain. Passive resistance o. Believed in ________ and something called CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE (the refusal to obey _______ unjust laws/laws that you think are unfair o. Believed that non-violence was the freedom only way to get more _____ from the people who hate you

Examples of Non-Violence/Civil Disobedience v. Boycotting, or refusing _______ to buy British goods v. Examples of Non-Violence/Civil Disobedience v. Boycotting, or refusing _______ to buy British goods v. Peaceful demonstrations v. Fasting The Homespun Movement cloth Refused to buy British _______. Encouraged people to make their own instead and wear it (called “homespun”) The Salt March When the British imposed a tax on salt _____, Gandhi told people not to buy British salt and marched ____ miles to the sea to 240 make his own salt and encouraged others to do the same. Hunger Strike Ethnic/religious Protested _____ and conflict British rule by fasting for months at a time.

HOW? Gandhi • ________ played an important role in helping India gain its independence HOW? Gandhi • ________ played an important role in helping India gain its independence from the British. passive • Used _____ resistance

civil ______ Disobedience Non-violent protest ___________ civil ______ Disobedience Non-violent protest ___________

India’s Flag RESULTS? independence 1947 1) India gained its ______ from Britain in ______. India’s Flag RESULTS? independence 1947 1) India gained its ______ from Britain in ______. 1948 Gandhi murdered by a Hindu extremist in _______. Nehru Jawaharlal _____ became the first Prime Minister of India in 1947. 2) Muslim and Hindu Conflicts Hindu Most people in India were this RELIGION: ______ Muslims ______ were a minority in India These two religions started to constantly fight with one own another. Each religion wanted its _______ country and government. How to solve this problem? India was divided into a Hindu country and a Muslim This division became known as country ________ the PARTITION of India

Pakistan’s 1 st Prime Minister India’ s 1 st PM: JINNAH (associated with the Pakistan’s 1 st Prime Minister India’ s 1 st PM: JINNAH (associated with the Muslim League) Mohammad Ali ________ NEHRU (associated with the INC) Jawaharlal ______

q. The “Partition” of India did not happen peacefully. As moved people ______ from q. The “Partition” of India did not happen peacefully. As moved people ______ from one place to another many people were killed (because of fighting). Pakistan q. India and _____ are still at odds with one another conflicts even today. There are still border ______ (confusion over who controls certain parts of land in between the two countries). democracy q. Today India is the largest _____ in the world with a 1 billion population of over _____ people. q 40 Years after independence, India was still ruled by people from Nehru’s family. 1966 q. Nehru’s daughter became PM in ______. She was assassinated by her Sikh bodyguards in 1984. (no relation to Gandhi) Resulted from Sikh Separatist Movement in 1980 s q. Her son, Rajiv Gandhi (no relation to Gandhi, but took this name like Mom), became PM after her death. He was also assassinated in 1991. Conflict between Sikhs/Hindus still exist today

Today, both India and Pakistan have nuclear weapons and have threatened to attack one Today, both India and Pakistan have nuclear weapons and have threatened to attack one another as recently as 2002.

Positive Effects of British on India roads New _____ & railroads Telegraph and postal Positive Effects of British on India roads New _____ & railroads Telegraph and postal service ______ Irrigation systems, farming improved ____ British government ____/education Human rights violations caste lessen: end of ______ system and harmful practices Negative Effects of British on India’s resources depleted by Britain ______ Indians forced to buy foreign _______-made goods Cash crops instead of food ______ crops; hunger British citizens hold top jobs _______ Indians treated as 2 nd _______-class citizens in their own nation

 • India was a NON-Aligned nation during the Cold War. • Non-Aligned = • India was a NON-Aligned nation during the Cold War. • Non-Aligned = You don’t take sides ___________ • (non-alignment is a foreign policy)