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Sopot 24 February 2006 Gliwice Absolute DAting Methods Centre GADAM Anna Pazdur
Silesian University of Technology Faculty of Mathematics and Physics Institute of Physics Department of Radioisotopes (GADAM Centre of Excellence) Krzywoustego 2 44 -100 Gliwice, Poland www. carbon 14. pl
HUMAN RESOURCES ·Scientific staff (11 persons): 2 full professors (Anna Pazdur and Andrzej Zastawny), 1 associate professor (Andrzej Bluszcz), 8 adjuncts (Grzegorz Adamiec, Adam Michczyński, Joanna D. Michczyńska, Sławomira Pawełczyk, Jacek Pawlyta, Natalia Piotrowska, Andrzej Rakowski, Jarosław Sikorski), · 4 Ph. D. students, · 2 lecturers with Ph. D. degree, · 4 technicians.
SCIENTIFIC BACKGROUND Basic research of GADAM Centre into isotope methods: • radiometric and luminescence methods of absolute dating, • stable isotopes and their applications. These disciplines are of the great importance for the development of other sciences: • geology and other earth sciences, • environmental sciences, • archaeology.
The Centre focuses its work on methods that provide: • • • different climate proxies and climate related data, carbon and oxygen stable isotope ratios are used as palaeothermometers, information about the global carbon cycle, data regarding changes in solar activity and Earth’s magnetic field, information about contemporary and past soil erosion and sedimentation processes in different environments, chronological framework for geological and environmental processes and for archaeological cultures at different time scales.
Equipment: 1. Alpha and beta scintillation spectrometer QUANTULUS 1220, manufactured by Wallac. 2. Four assemblies of gas proportional counters for measurements of radiocarbon (14 C) concentrations. 3. Vacuum line for production of graphite targets for the accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon measurements (AMS). 4. Gamma radiation spectrometer system with two HPGe detectors, manufactured by CANBERRA. 5. Alpha spectrometer with the surface barrier Si detector PIPS, manufactured by CANBERRA. 6. Gamma scintillation spectrometer. 7. Automated TL (57 aliquots) and OSL (20 aliquots) reader with a built-in beta irradiator, Daybreak type 1150. 8. Automated beta irradiator, Daybreak type 850. 9. Automated alpha irradiator, manufactured by Elsevec. 10. Automated OSL/TL reader (60 aliquots) with a built-in beta irradiator, Daybreak type 2200. 11. Mass spectrometer Iso. Prime for light stable isotopes (2 H, 13 C, 15 N, 18 O, 34 S). 12. Other laboratory equipment and rooms for performing all the mechanical, chemical, and vacuum preparation of samples.
MAIN TOPICS OF SCIENTIFIC BACKGROUND
ISOTOPES IN PALAEOENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH Radiocarbon dating 14 C unstable isotope - time scale construction T 1/2=5730 lat
Liquid scintillation spectrometry of beta radiation
Vacuum line for graphite target preparation (14 C research)
Spring and summer temperature – time scale (Late Glacial and Holocene) 18 O stable isotope in carbonates - paleothermometer
HUMAN HISTORY ON THE ENVIRONMENTAL BACKGROUND The cumulative probability distributions based on calibrated 14 C dates: • 14 C dates sets for Mesolithic and Neolithic sites in Poland during the last 15, 000 BP • 14 C dates sets from sediment with well-defined sedimentation conditions (speleothems, peat) • The grey areas show time intervals in which the climatic conditions were conducive to increased human settling.
LUMINESCENCE DATING OSL/TL Age of quartz grains ED = Equivalent dose rate Dr = Annual dose rate
Loess landscape, China
Luminescence dosimetry and dating of mineral grains
ISOTOPES IN CONTEMPORARY ENVIRONMENT Stable isotopes: • • • hydrogen isotopes 1 H, 2 H, carbon isotopes 12 C, 13 C, oxygen isotopes 16 O, 18 O Unstable isotopes: • hydrogen isotope 3 H • carbon isotope 14 C • caesium and lead isotopes 137 Cs, 210 Pb
TREES AS BIOINDICATORS OF GREENHOUSE CO 2
Carbon isotopes in tree rings
Mass spectrometry for light stable isotopes
13 C (Augustów, North-Eastern Poland) in annual tree- rings and emission of CO 2 estimated by Marland
The fossil component of atmospheric CO 2 estimated on the basis of 14 C (Upper Silesia region)
Agricultural terraces near Gliwice
Nuclear radiation (alfa and gamma) spectrometry
137 Cs in soils Vertical distribution of 137 Cs in a soil profile at a site in southern Poland
8 Drinking water reservoir Upper Silesia region 7 9 Core No. water missing sediment lake sediment 1 6 5 13 11 a 4 12 11 10 a 10 00 0 2 3 bottom 9 Brynica river
210 Pb in water reservoirs 210 Pb age of a water reservoir sediment from a site in Upper Silesia
EDUCATION ACTIVITIES FULL TIME STUDIES Specialisation: ‘Environmental physics’ (started in the first half of nineties of the last century) New specialisations, 2005: • ‘Physics in environmental protection’ • ‘Physics in earth sciences and archaeology’
Blocks of subjects of fundamental education: · fundamentals of experimental physics, · mathematical subjects, · fundamentals of computer sciences and computerized measurement systems, · fundamentals of electrical and electronic measurements.
Blocks of professional subjects of ‘Physics in environmental protection’: · · · · geophysics and physics of the atmosphere, measurements and dosimetry of nuclear radiation, radiation protection, isotopic control of food and fuels, acoustic measurements and noise protection, technologies in environmental protection, biology, ecology, and soil protection.
Blocks of professional subjects of ‘Physics in Earth sciences and archaeology’: · · · measurements of nuclear radiation, mass spectrometry, geosphere and matter circulation, palaeoclimatic changes and methods of their reconstruction, dating of rocks, minerals and archaeological objects by means of isotope methods, history and archaeological dating of cultures.
EXTRAMURAL POST-DIPLOMA STUDIES Within WP 2 – GADAM Centre of Excellence Project ‘Methods of absolute dating and applications” • • • Non-resident, post-MSc studies assisted by Internet. The language of the studies is English. Upon completion of the Course and defending a thesis the student will receive a diploma certifying the completion of post-MSc studies. The aim of the course: the integration of different disciplines at the university level and supplementary interdisciplinary education for natural science graduates, earth science graduates, and archaeology graduates.
The objectives of the Post-MSc course: · encouraging young researchers specialised in archaeology, earth sciences, and environmental sciences to apply absolute dating methods in solving problems relevant to their research work, · acquainting young researchers with isotope and radiometric methods used in investigations of natural and human transformed environment, · dissemination of information about dating methods and isotope methods among natural and earth scientists, and archaeologists, · education of students in physical basis of dating methods and isotope methods with respect to palaeoenvironmental aspects of possible applications of these methods, · preparing young researchers for work in interdisciplinary research teams.
Centre of Excellence “Gliwice Absolute DAting Methods” GADAM Centre Project No EVK-2002 -00502 Call Identifier Qo. L/GROW/EESD-2001 -INTEGR 1 st March 2003 – 28 th February 2006
Scientific objectives and approach: • Increasing the R&D potential of the Centre in fields of luminescence, radiocarbon and other physical dating methods and their applications in environmental sciences and earth sciences. • Improving links with outstanding centres in NAS and NIS states. • Increasing networking with other European centres of absolute dating methods. • Increasing participation in international teams carrying joint research projects under FP 6. • Integration of Polish Laboratories carrying out absolute dating by different physical methods and by dendrochronology. • Establishing twinning mechanisms with absolute dating centres in EU and Poland. • Closer co-operation with natural scientists and earth scientists with respect to application of dating methods and interpretation of their results. • Education of students in physical bases of dating methods with respect to palaeoenvironmental aspects of possible applications of these methods. • Encouraging young researchers specialized in earth sciences and environmental sciences to apply absolute dating methods.
Expected impacts · Investigation of physical methods applicable to absolute chronology: radiocarbon method, luminescence methods, other methods. · Investigation of physical methods applicable to earth sciences: gamma, beta, radioactive and stable isotope methods. · Applications in geology, earth sciences and environmental sciences.
WORK PACKAGES WP 1 – Thematic conferences and workshops (CFWS) Realisation: 8 th International Conference “Methods of Absolute Chronology” (2004) The workshops’ subtitles: WS 1 – Presentation and understanding of dating results (2003) WS 2 – Towards improved absolute chronology of Late Pleistocene and Holocene (2004) WS 3 – Isotope methods in environmental studies (2005)
WP 2 – Education of young researchers (EDU) Post-MSc course „Methods of absolute dating and applications” Objectives: • Encouraging young researchers specialised in earth sciences and environmental sciences to apply absolute dating methods in solving problems relevant to their research work • Acquaint young researchers with isotope and radiometric methods used in investigations of natural and man transformed environment • Dissemination of information about dating methods and isotope methods among natural and earth scientists • Education of students in physical bases of dating methods and isotope methods with respect to palaeoenvironmental aspects of possible applications of these methods • Preparing young researchers for work in interdisciplinary research teams Realisation: 3 – semestral extramural course by internet, in English (2004 – 2005) Summer school (2005)
WP 3 – Developing links and networking (LINET) Objectives: · Improving links with outstanding centres in newly associated states (NAS) of Lithuania, Estonia, Czech Republic and Slovenia · Re-establishing links with newly independent states (NIS) of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus · Increasing networking with other European centres of absolute dating methods for better exchange of ideas, results of research and people · Establishing twinning mechanisms with absolute dating centres in EU and Poland (Risø, Denmark; Helsinki, Finland; Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Poznan, Poland; Torun, Poland) · Integration of Polish Laboratories carrying out absolute dating by different physical methods and by dendrochronology through bilateral and multilateral agreements · Establishing a national network of centres active in the field of absolute dating and applications of isotope methods in environmental studies. · Increasing the capacity of the Centre’s laboratories by gaining experience and expertise through exchange of staff and study visits from other leading centres in EU Promotion of young researchers through short visits and medium term stays in leading centres in UE Realisation: 2003 – 2006
WP 4 – Gliwice Absolute Dating Results Databases (DATA) Objectives: · Development and maintenance of radiocarbon (14 C) database · Establishing luminescence (TL and OSL) database · Development and maintenance of luminescence (TL and OSL) database · Rendering access to databases through internet · Increasing the research potential of the Centre in a field of applications of luminescence and radiocarbon dating methods in environmental sciences and earth sciences Contribution to integration of Polish environmental sciences and earth sciences with European counterparts Realisation: 2003 - 2006
WP 5 – Co-ordination (CO-OR) Objectives: · Establishing of the leading in Poland in the Central Europe centre in the field of absolute dating methods. · Integration of the Centre with European Research Area through networking, exchange and twinning. Contribution to integration of the Polish community of representatives of environmental sciences and earth science to EU. Realisation with help international Advisory Board of the GADAM Centre: 2003 – 2006
Other EU projects realised in GADAM Centre of Excellence CONTINENT (2001 – 2004) High-resolution continental paleoclimate record in the Lake Baikal: A keysite for Eurasian teleconnections to the North Atlantic Ocean and monsoonal systems. Contract No EVK 2 -CT-2000 -00057. ISONET (2003 – 2006) 400 years of Annual Reconstructions of European Climate Variability using a High Resolution Isotopic Network. Contract No EVK 2 -CT-2002 -00147 ATIS (2006 – 2009) (just after negotiation) Absolute time scales and isotope studies for investigating events in Earth and human history. No MTKD-CT-2005 -029642