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Solutions to the Problem Gambling and Crime Connection Henry R. Lesieur, Ph. D. Brown Solutions to the Problem Gambling and Crime Connection Henry R. Lesieur, Ph. D. Brown University and Rhode Island Hospital

Crime Rates Among Pathological Gamblers l GA & treatment Studies -- 50 -67% l Crime Rates Among Pathological Gamblers l GA & treatment Studies -- 50 -67% l Helpline Study of Problem Gamblers -20% admitted crime and 11. 5% arrested l NORC study -- general population -- 32% of PGs arrested for any crime

Prevalence of Offenses -German Study -- Percent Prevalence of Offenses -German Study -- Percent

Crime Types Among Pathological Gamblers l Forgery, Fraud, Theft, Embezzlement l Tax violations (fraud Crime Types Among Pathological Gamblers l Forgery, Fraud, Theft, Embezzlement l Tax violations (fraud & evasion) l Illegal Gambling operation l Less common: Burglary, Armed robbery, Drug Sales, Fencing Stolen Goods, Prostitution, Extortion

Psychologist as Expert Witness l Reviews Materials from Court l Interviews Offender and others Psychologist as Expert Witness l Reviews Materials from Court l Interviews Offender and others l Evaluates Mental Status l Evaluates for Mental Disorders l Conducts Psychological Tests l Writes Report

Psychologist as Expert Witness - 2 l Examines issues not covered by presentence investigation Psychologist as Expert Witness - 2 l Examines issues not covered by presentence investigation l -- Emotional Issues l -- Family Dysfunction l -- Co-occurring Disorders l -- Coping Skills

Psychologist as Expert Witness - 3 l Examines work history (positives as well as Psychologist as Expert Witness - 3 l Examines work history (positives as well as negatives) l Social supports l Gambling Progression l Cognitive Distortions l Personality Disorder (especially ASPD)

Action/Escape Phase l ACTION -- become involved; good at it; exciting; early success; bolster Action/Escape Phase l ACTION -- become involved; good at it; exciting; early success; bolster self-esteem by gambling; wins=internally produced; losses=externally produced l ESCAPE -- gambling to escape from problems, loneliness, depression, anxiety, trauma; gambling = time out, time away from problems

Losing/Chasing Phase l ACTION gambler finds losing intolerable; CHASE after bad beats & serious Losing/Chasing Phase l ACTION gambler finds losing intolerable; CHASE after bad beats & serious losses l ESCAPE gambler finds “time out” is expensive l BOTH use up options for obtaining money as their involvement increases l New Money = Big Win

Cycles in the Spiral of Options and Involvement 1. Get Money 2. “Moving, ” Cycles in the Spiral of Options and Involvement 1. Get Money 2. “Moving, ” “Manipulating, ” or “Juggling” Money 3. Tightening of Resources (Closure) and Need to Make Moral Decision

Desperation Phase l Job & Family Disaster Areas l Illegal Activities (CG Spiral) l Desperation Phase l Job & Family Disaster Areas l Illegal Activities (CG Spiral) l Obsession with Getting Out of Trouble Overtakes Excitement l Escapes into Gambling Yet No Relief l Serious bouts with Depression l Suicide Attempts

Hopeless Phase l Getting Even Not Possible l No Longer Care l Know They Hopeless Phase l Getting Even Not Possible l No Longer Care l Know They Will Lose l Continual State of Depression l Playing for Action is All That Matters

Considerations Before Turning To Crime 1. Opportunity 2. External Agents of Social Control (Police, Considerations Before Turning To Crime 1. Opportunity 2. External Agents of Social Control (Police, Family) 3. Beliefs & Justifications 4. Closing of Available Options 5. Threat (to self-esteem, financial threat, Physical threat)

CRIME AND STRESS Stress of Gambling l Stress of Financial Pressures l Stress of CRIME AND STRESS Stress of Gambling l Stress of Financial Pressures l Stress of Impact on Family l Work-related Stress l l Produce: Anxiety, Depression, and Cognitive Distortions that Impair Judgment and Decision -Making

Moral Justifications and Illegal Activity Moral Justifications and Illegal Activity

Social Attachment (Meyer & Stadler) l Change in Living Condition l Relationship to Parents Social Attachment (Meyer & Stadler) l Change in Living Condition l Relationship to Parents l Parental Education Methods l Emotional & Social Attachment l Involvement in Conventional Activities l Belief in Social Rules

Addiction Pressures for Crime (Meyer & Stadler) l Severity of Pathological Gambling l Cravings Addiction Pressures for Crime (Meyer & Stadler) l Severity of Pathological Gambling l Cravings to Gamble l Duration of Gambling l Debt & Income/Loss Ratio l Emotional & Family Problems l Type and Frequency of Gambling

Personality and Crime (Meyer & Stadler) l Aggressiveness l Extroversion l Impulsivity; Risk-Motivation l Personality and Crime (Meyer & Stadler) l Aggressiveness l Extroversion l Impulsivity; Risk-Motivation l Antisocial Personality l Frankness; Emotionality l Global Mental Status

Crime: Meyer & Stadler Social Attachment . 04 . 25. 63 . 48 Addiction. Crime: Meyer & Stadler Social Attachment . 04 . 25. 63 . 48 Addiction. 52 Personality . 33 Criminal Behavior

The Five “R”s l l l Remorse – evidence of feelings Repentance – evidence The Five “R”s l l l Remorse – evidence of feelings Repentance – evidence of lifestyle changes. What is different? Job situation, marriage, etc. Restitution plan. Is it realistic? Recovery – treatment plan for recovery. Give details and dates. Evidence of compliance Rehabilitation – evidence of change in attitude. Volunteer work, community service, spiritual life style change

US Courts & Pathological Gambling l Insanity Defense Argued in 1980 s (PG does US Courts & Pathological Gambling l Insanity Defense Argued in 1980 s (PG does not apply) l Federal Sentencing Guidelines l Diminished Capacity and Downward Departure l “Significantly Reduced Mental Capacity”

Minnesota Rule 82 Pathological Gambling l Offenders Convicted of Felony Theft, Embezzlement & Forgery Minnesota Rule 82 Pathological Gambling l Offenders Convicted of Felony Theft, Embezzlement & Forgery l PO Screens using SOGS l 17% SOGS 5+ l Sent for Gambling Assessment

Conditions of Probation for Pathological Gamblers l l l Abstinence from Gambling Attendance at Conditions of Probation for Pathological Gamblers l l l Abstinence from Gambling Attendance at GA Community Service Gambling Counseling Restitution Orders How about Exclusion?

Gambling Court l Modeled after Drug Courts l Buffalo, New York l 26 th Gambling Court l Modeled after Drug Courts l Buffalo, New York l 26 th Judicial Court in Louisiana l Proposed in Florida

Gambling Court - 2 l l l Eligibility Criteria Pathological Gamblers First Offenders Non-violent Gambling Court - 2 l l l Eligibility Criteria Pathological Gamblers First Offenders Non-violent No drug dealers No sex offenders

Gambling Court - 5 l l l Recommendations possible depend on what treatment is Gambling Court - 5 l l l Recommendations possible depend on what treatment is available Inpatient treatment (Louisiana only) Intensive Outpatient day treatment Halfway House Outpatient treatment Gamblers Anonymous

Gambling Court - 8 l No Evaluations of gambling courts conducted to date l Gambling Court - 8 l No Evaluations of gambling courts conducted to date l Drug Courts show 45 -50% graduation rates l Drug Courts show reduced recidivism in two-thirds of the courts evaluated

Pathological Gambling among Prisoners l Conducted a Meta-analysis of 10 Studies l 19. 6% Pathological Gambling among Prisoners l Conducted a Meta-analysis of 10 Studies l 19. 6% of prisoners level 3 gamblers (probable PGs) l Gamblers higher criminality l Higher rate of psychopathy l Higher rate of Depression l Higher Rate of SUD

Gambling in Prisons l Play Cards for Cigarettes l Bet on Horses with prison Gambling in Prisons l Play Cards for Cigarettes l Bet on Horses with prison bookies l Sports Betting l -- Sell drugs to pay for gambling l -- Bet with $$ on outside l -- Get into Fights l -- Provide services to pay gambling

Recommendations for CJS and Pathological Gambling 1. Educate & train CJS personnel 2. Explore Recommendations for CJS and Pathological Gambling 1. Educate & train CJS personnel 2. Explore Gambling Courts 3. Evaluate and Assess Offenders on Pre-trial basis 4. GA meetings in Prisons 5. PG Treatment with trained counselors 6. Community Service by ex-prisoners at prison GA meetings