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Solar Energy Independence as Used in Rural India Given: April 27, 2007
Overview of Presentation n n n India demographics and need for resources India’s energy profile Why solar? Governmental and Private Initiatives Problems Conclusion
India: Land of a Billion Energy Needs n n n 2. 4% of land area with 16% of the world’s population Life Expectancy 64. 71 years Household sector: largest consumer of energy accounting for 40 -50 % of total energy consumption In rural areas, the domestic sector accounts for nearly 80 percent of total energy consumption About two thirds of India’s more than 1 billion people live in rural areas
India’s Energy Crisis - Dependence n n n India is currently importing 100 million tons of crude oil Foreign exchange outflow of Rs. 1. 5 trillion per year (nearly $34 billion) At this rate, in 2030 the country may have to import 300 million tons of crude oil.
The President’s Message: Independence n n n Cut down energy losses Utilize technologies to provide a diverse supply of environmentally friendly energy “We must achieve Energy Independence by 2030”, including a cut down in ALL sectors Increase the power generated through renewable energy sources from 5% to 25% This is the nation’s “first and highest priority” President A. P. J. Abdul Kalam (Rocket Scientist)
President’s Solar Message n n n Kalam pushes solar as a key part of the 2030 energy independence plan Agricultural sector - both for powering farms and for desalination plants to bring in fresh water Nanotechnology research -something that India has already embraced -- to a drive to improve solar efficiencies.
Two ways to Solar n Thermal Energy q q n Research and development for technologies. Example: A large solar dish has been set up under a research project at Latur in Maharashtra to provide process heat for milk pasteurization. Photovoltaic Energy
Brief Overview of Solar PV Technology n n Solar cells are made of silicon (microelectronics/semiconductors) Treated to be positive on one side and negative on the other. When light energy hits the cell, electrons are knocked loose from the atoms in the semiconductor material. If electrical conductors are attached to the positive and negative sides, forming an electrical circuit, the electrons can be captured in the form of an electric current.
India’s Solar Profile n n India ranks 3 rd in annual production capacity of solar PV ahead of Germany, France and Australia India increasing budget for implementing solar power plants
Why is Solar so easy for Rural India?
Rural Needs are Simple n n Fuel for cooking Water for drinking Light for studying Television and telephone for entertainment and connectivity
India Has a Lot of Sunlight n n Sunlight on the surface of earth is the radiation received from sun. India has adequate sunshine available for most parts of the year, including rural areas. The amount of solar energy impacting the surface of earth is 1000 watts per square meter, which is about 32. 8 million MW every second on the Indian land mass. *A large part of the incident heat is reflected to the outer space or radiated back to space.
Solar: Easy Energy In Rural India n n n Solar energy is practically inexhaustible Widely distributed Environment friendly Cost free in raw form No need to transport raw materials to villages No towers, heavy cabling, etc.
Governmental Rural Initiative: Solar Cooking Project n n Current sources available for cooking are firewood, crop residues and animal dung in rural areas Promoted by the Government of India q q Parabolic Dish Solar Cookers Solar Box Cooker Community Solar Cooker Solar Steam Cooking System
Private Initiative: Solar Loans from Selco India n Customers: poor daily-wage laborers to institutions n All buy solar panels at the same rate: about $450 for a 40 -watt system that can light several 7 -watt bulbs for four hours between charges. n Persuaded rural banks to lend hundreds of dollars to rural people
Governmental Rural Initiative: Solar Farms n n n 100 MW sized Very Large Scale Solar Photovoltaic (VLSPV) Stations Program to develop efficiency of solar cells from 15% to 50% Make farmers “farm the sun”
Private Initiative: Tata Power makes life Solar n n n Sunbank, a customized package for rural banks Coming soon : ATMs Suraksha, a solar-powered communication system, helps police stations function effectively
Private Initiative: Tata Power contd. n n Solar powered vaccine refrigerator manufactured indigenously by the company and approved by the World Health Organization (WHO). Low cost solar lantern
Private Initiative: Tata Power contd. n Currently powering houses, schools, police stations, etc. My Uncle’s House – powered by solar
Disadvantages of Solar Energy for Rural India n n n Low intensity or dispersion Its unpredictability, which varies with the whims of weather (Monsoon Season) Cost of Solar Equipment for the poor – Financing schemes q Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA) - a Public Limited Company, providing revolving fund to financing and leasing companies offering affordable credit for the purchase of PV systems
But is it working? n Thermal Program: q q q n 600, 000 solar cookers have been produced. 2000 concentrating dish cookers 12 community village cookers and 1. 5 million sq m of collector area for water heating systems have been achieved. Photovoltaic Program: q q 55000 street lighting systems 340, 000 home lighting systems 1566 k. W of power plants 540, 000 solar lanterns have been produced
Conclusion 700 Million Rural People x 80% of total energy for these needs __________________ Making India’s rural population and India more energy independent